Arcury TA, O'Hara H, Grzywacz JG, Isom S, Chen H, Quandt SA. 2012. Work safety climate, musculoskeletal discomfort, working while injured, and depression among migrantfarmworkers in North Carolina. Am J Public Health. 102 Suppl 2: S272-8.
Arcury, TA, Quandt SA, Austin, CK, Preisser, J, Cabrera, L. 1999. Implementation of EPA's Worker Protection Standard Training for Agricultural Laborers: An Evaluation Using North Carolina Data. Public Health Reports. 114: 459-468.
High temperature at time of fertilization reduces pollen viability resulting in poor seed set and reduced grain yield (Rowhani et al., 2011). Grain yield and biomass production was affects by heatstress but mechanism was varying with crop stage. Stress in pre-anthesis stress leading to barrenness in plants, while absorption of fertilized structure and reduced ear growth rate lead to reduction in kernel number and ultimate affect crop yield (Cicchino et al., 2010). Each 1°C increase in temperature above optimum (25°C) result in reduction of 3 to 4% in grain yield (Shaw, 1983). Maize crop cannot be sown earlier than January due to lower temperature which is unfavourable for germination and growth and late sowing is affected by high temperature at reproductive stage.
Heatstress may have significant effects on workers’ productivity and health, cause loss of tolerance and raise risks. On the whole, it should be said that assessing heatstress on psychological and physiological strains are complex. A great number of studies have recently been conducted to obtain indices that could desirably measure heatstress. Currently, there are more than 60 heatstress indices, any of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. Using a complete and reliable index to assess heatstress in workplaces is an important aim of every researcher .
yield (80% of WI and 28% more than WR), and the crop actually fl owered early, had longer FD and DM, higher PN, and high SW (data not given). The response of chickpea to additional N was observed by Bahr (2007) under Egyptian climate. He reported that foliar application of urea (1%) at pod fi lling resulted in taller plants with increased branching, pod and seed number per plant, seed weight, grain yield, and harvest index in the normal winter crop. Our study also indicates diff erential response of genotypes to addi- tional N. ICC 14205, ICC 18892, ICC 17451, ICC 17458, and ICC 17450 have shown >400% response to N com- pared with SI (2) means. During spring, with additional N and protective irrigation, ICC 19641, ICC 13044, and ICC 17451 produced seed yield similar to their WI yield. Thus it appears that additional N can improve the heat tolerance of the spring chickpea and help produce near normal yield irrespective of the genotype as shown by our data. The inability of both the crop as well as the symbiotic Rhizobia to support each other under high-temperature conditions may be the probable reason for the high response to added N. The eff ect of other nutrients also deserves attention to completely mitigate the eff ect of heatstress. The response of the winter crop to irrigation was similar but of lesser degree. The genotypes ICC 17458, ICC 6121, ICC 12670, ICC 19645, and ICC 17456 showed >80% response to irri- gation. The genotype ICC 17458 gave the highest response to both irrigation and N application.
Severe drought and temperature increase are predicted to be the major consequences of climate change. Groundnut is a major crop cultivated in the Sahel zone where water and high temperature stress are serious constraints for its production. Investigating drought and heat effects on physiological traits, yield and its attributes could significantly contribute for improving groundnut productivity and consequently the incomes of farmers. A groundnut germplasm (268 genotypes) was evaluated in four trials during two years under intermittent drought and fully irrigated conditions. Drought stress reduced pod yield up to 72 % compared to 55 % at moderate temperature. The haulm yield decrease due to drought was 34 % at high temperature and 42 % under moderate temperature. Haulm yield tended to increase under high temperature. Genotype by environment interaction (GxE) was significant under well-watered (WW) and water stress (WS) treatments. The genotype and genotype by environment (GGE) biplots analyses revealed several mega environments under WW and WS treatments. The GGE biplots analyses revealed also several genotypes with high performance and stability across year and temperature environments under both WW and WS conditions. The regression analyses indicated that among several traits, only the partition rate was significantly correlated to pod yield.
Skin diseases adversely affect multiple domains of the quality of life (QoL), including emotional, social, and economic aspects. 1–3 Because most research on skin-related QoL has been conducted on clinical samples, 4,5 there is little evidence available on how skin ailments affect QoL in the general, nonclinical population. In addition, it is difficult to ascertain whether skin-related QoL, a subjective evaluation, is more closely linked to a person’s reported skin ailments and symptoms or to a dermatologist’s diagnosis of that person’s skin diseases. Because the characteristics of skin disease that are more readily perceived (e.g. itching, burning) may be more bothersome than those that may be noticed only by a dermatologist (e.g. changes in color or texture), it is probable that self-perceived skin problems will have a greater effect on skin-related QoL than will diagnosable skin diseases.
With the aim of improving conditions for farmworkers, several food movement initiatives have focused on labeling schemes to certify that food is produced under ethically sound labour con- ditions. These include the Coalition of Immokalee Workers’ Fair Food Program (Asbed & Sellers, 2013), which involves partnerships with major food retailers and fast food chains; various U.S. domestic fair trade labels overseen by third-party certifiers; and the Local Food Plus label in Canada (Friedmann, 2007). Further, Canada’s student-led Meal Exchange draws on the success of the U.S. Real Food Calculator for ethical food procurement in postsecondary institutions, which includes an evaluation of fair labour practices. Critical food studies scholars, however, have critiqued such “shopping for social change” strategies for rein- forcing the idea that social and environmental problems can and should be addressed through the buying power of consumer-citizens (Baumann, Engman, & Johnston, 2015; Johnston, 2008). Examining U.S. domestic fair trade schemes, Brown and Getz (2008a, 2008b) point out that these certified labels let both government and industry off the hook by privatizing regulatory functions that should apply to all employers, and not merely to those who voluntarily choose to certify (Guthman, 2007). Brown and Getz (2015) argue that certification and labeling should prompt, rather than replace, collective action and labour regulation. While endorsing such analyses, Alkon (2014) contends that within the current climate of neoliberalism, market-based strategies may also create spaces⎯however imperfect⎯for farm-
Balcazar et al . (2011) insists that lay health promoters represent a workforce increa- singly recognized as a force for reducing health disparities by providing culturally ap- propriate health education and other services. Quandt et al . (2013) showed through a carefully designed evaluation of interviews with 610 farmworkers families, that lay health promoter-led educational programs can achieve significant changes in know- ledge in hard-to-reach, minority, immigrant populations. Balcazar brings to light the consequences of a narrowly defined CHW intervention that “could not capture the in- tangible impact of building individual and community capacity, which encompasses opportunities for strengthening social support, building relationships to support self-help, increasing access to resources, developing social capital, and producing changes in power relationships”. Qualitative inquiry and theoretical frameworks such as that of a socioecological model, can increase understanding of underlined causes of behaviors and human relationships; this is particularly important when working with migrant populations living in poverty and with a particular view of health risks and treatments, shaped by cultural and language differences.
Participants were tested for LTBI by TST and QFT-GIT (for quantification of interferon gamma release). Trained nursing personnel from the Yuma Health Services Dis- trict, who were blinded to the patient’s clinical details and TST result, performed the QFT-GIT test. Initially, the blood was placed into 3 different tubes containing 1 ml each; the first did not contain antigens (negative control), the second tube contained TB antigens (test) and the third contained phytohaemaglutinin (mitogen or positive control). Peripheral blood samples were then processed 6 to 8 h after sampling from the patient. The incubation time was 18–24 h at 37 °C. Interferon gamma production (IU/mL) was determined by ELISA. The re- sults were considered positive, negative or indeterminate according to the criteria established in the manufac- turer’s software (QFT Analysis Software v2.7, Qiagen). Once the blood was removed to perform the QFT-GIT test, the TST was performed using the Mantoux method, using 0.1 mL (2 tuberculin units) of purified protein de- rivative RT23 (Statens Serum Institute; Copenhagen, Denmark) in the middle of the anterior face of the fore- arm, with participants instructed to return to the same location 48–72 h for evaluation by experienced clinical staff. To read the TST, the transverse diameter of the in- duration was measured in mm. The TST reaction was scored as positive if the induration diameter was > 10 mm. Individuals were considered to have a diagnosis of LTBI if they were asymptomatic without clinical evidence of active tuberculosis, but had a positive QFT-GIT and/or TST positive reaction. All participants with a positive test were referred for further follow-up to staff at the Yuma Health
dusk throughout peak harvesting and planting seasons with few breaks for meals or bathrooms (Connor et al., 2010). Furthermore, farm owners rarely provide food, water and bathrooms in the fields (Connor et al., 2010). MSFW must work regardless of extreme conditions including heat, cold, rain, and constant, unprotected sun exposure (Arcury & Quandt, 2006). Musculoskeletal disorders are also common due to stooping, lifting heavy loads, machinery and climbing (Hansen & Donohoe, 2003). Continuous pesticide exposure predisposes MSFW to respiratory illness, compromised reproductive health, and infectious diseases (Hansen & Donohoe, 2003; Arcury & Quandt, 2006; Nichols et al., 2013). Perhaps the most overlooked yet equally dangerous hazard faced by MSFW is the stress inherent in the occupation and lifestyle. Two thorough reviews reported that MSFW live in extreme poverty with poor housing conditions coupled with social, familial and geographic isolation, job uncertainty, time pressures, and lack of recreation (Hansen & Donohoe, 2003; Arcury & Quandt, 2006).
University, the study was deemed exempt. The IRB determined that de-identified data in use for secondary analysis did not require further review.
Several analytic approaches were incorporated into the proposed mixed-methods study to explore patterns of dental health care utilization in adult Hispanic migrantfarmworkers with special emphasis on those who did not comply with the ADA and the ADHA recommendation, while also examining the social and cultural construction of oral health. Fist, descriptive statistics were performed for all variables to summarize data. Second, time since last dental visit and each of the predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in a binary logistic regression analysis. Third, time since last dental visit was examined within a hierarchical logistic regression analysis. Four, ethnographic interviews were analyzed. Finally, by relying on both quantitative and qualitative methods, a synergistic approach was employed.
These comparisons of average FTE earnings and av- erage actual earnings for individual workers have three major implications. First, except in animal agriculture, average FTE pay can be a misleading indicator of what most farmworkers earn, since most primary farmwork- ers earn less than the $32,300 or $15.54 per hour that is implied by dividing total wages by average employment across all agricultural commodities (NAICS 11).
The primary objective of this study is to better understand the factors that influence the percep- tion of pesticide risk held by migrantfarmworkers. The study draws on previous pesticide studies that engage cultural risk assessments and provides two new dimensions to such research. First, this study puts technical risk assessment methods in direct dialogue with cultural risk assessment. Embracing both aspects of risk is important to align the inter- ests of different stakeholders (e.g., farm owners, the government, and farmworkers) in order to identify and enforce pesticide exposure risk miti- gation strategies. Second, this study focuses on Adams County, Pennsylvania, an important agricul- tural region in which many farmers are dependent on migrant labor; nevertheless, it is a region that has not been well studied. Indeed, despite the approximately 45,000 to 50,000 migrant and sea- sonal farmworkers in Pennsylvania, there is only one study examining occupation health and migrant farmworker perceptions (Cason, Snyder, & Jensen, 2004). Our findings can illuminate and shape migrant farmworker safety concerns, risk communication, and pesticide exposure standards; thus, we also make recommendations for pesticide risk mitigation strategies.
alternatively faint should they ignore the body’s warning. Often drinking water and rest in a cool place will be sufficient to revive the individual however, in some cases intravenous infusion of fluid may be needed.
Prickly heat is a term used to describe skin inflammation in the heat, especially following profuse sweating. The sweat gland ducts become blocked and so the sweat is forced out across the wall of the sweat duct into the tissue under the skin. Infection of the skin can result. Thermoregulation is compromised in this state, removal from the hot environment and good hygiene is often sufficient to eliminate or prevent it.
This study has numerous research, policy, and public health implications. Preliminary research has linked certain exposures to substantial long-term health impacts, but the mediating factors associated with poor housing quality have not been prospectively studied. Larger, prospective studies are needed to help further understand the myriad of risks migrantfarmworkers and their families face when they live in poor housing conditions. Regulations for housing provided by employees are not uniformly enforced, leading to wide variations in farmworker housing quality. To mitigate sub- standard housing conditions that are violations of the MSPA,
farmers. The results will also be shared freely in written form.
Some recommendations for community mem- bers working on the ground include the following possibilities. First, most farmworkers indicated that only one training session was conducted when they first arrived at the Pennsylvania farm. Given that our results correlate greater awareness with more trainings, we recommend having at least one additional training over the course of the harvest season. Second, it is important to ensure that farmworkers are guaranteed a sense of control of their environment—whether this is in in the form of providing bilingual and visual-restricted entry signs for both literate and illiterate farmworkers, or in the form of other preventive actions, such as encouraging washing. For example, bilingual and visual signs for the use of soap in bathrooms coupled with verbal information about the value of washing as a safety precaution might be worth- while, and the inclusion of laundry facilities by employers is also recommended. Third, our results suggest that bringing in a verbal communicator following the video trainings or switching to in- person trainers altogether may help build the credibility and trustworthiness of the pesticide safety instructions, which in turn can translate to safer behavior. Similarly, we recommend building trust between employer and farmworker by encour- aging more dialogue and interaction; as our results indicate, farmworkers who believe their employers will listen to them have a higher sense of control. Overall, we understand that the political realities of agricultural exceptionalism can (and do) hamper the implementation of such recommendations by marginalizing migrantfarmworkers in multiple
I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my supervisor Nurud Suria binti Suhaimi who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful research on the topic prototype of heatstress assessment system where she was provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted on this research, as well as my mother Noraini bt Abu Bakar who is gave me moral support and finance to complete the proposal writing.
Under extreme conditions, such as removing asbestos from hot water pipes for several hours in heavy protective gear, the body may lose salt through excessive sweating. Heat cramps can result. These are spasms in larger muscles—usually back, leg, and arm. Cramping creates hard painful lumps within the muscles.