into four groups of six animals each. Animals were fasted for 24 h before the study but had free access to water. The ethanolicextract at 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. were given to the animals. Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) was used as a standard. After one hour, the animals were anesthetized using anesthetic ether. The abdomen was opened, and the pyloric portion was ligated. The abdominal wall was closed by sutures. The after four hours the animals were sacrificed the abdomen was opened, and the stomach was dissected out. The stomach juices were collected into a glass tube.
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antiulcer activity of Trianthema triquetra roots ethanolicextract in Wistar albinorats using NSAIDs & Ethanol induced ulcer models. Plant material was collected from Tirupati A.P, during the month of June 2014. The roots were made free from dust and foreign material and dried under shade at room temperature. After a week the roots were powdered and passed through a sieve. The powder was weighed (500 gm) and was extracted by successive solvent extraction process. The yield of ethanolicextract of trianthema triquetra was found to be 7.31% W/W. Phytochemical screening was carried out for the detection of the phytoconstituents by simple qualitative methods. The dosing was designed as per the acute toxicity study reported earlier. The anti-ulceractivity was performed by NSAID and ethanol induced ulcer model at two different doses, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg. Wistar rats weighing(130-150gm) of either sex were used for the study. There was significant reduction of ulcers in the test groups observed in both NSAID and ethanol induced ulcer models. TTEE exhibited anti-ulceractivity in both curative and prophylactic experimental models which provides the evidence of its use as a potent antiulcer drug.
Albinorats of either sex were divided into six groups of six animals each. Animals were fasted for 24 h before the study, but had free access to water. Animals in the control group received only 0.1% of Tween 80 (10 ml/kg orally). Aqueous and Ethanolicextract of C. ternatea at 200 and 400 mg/kg, (p.o.) for each extract were given to the animals in the treatment group. Omeprazole (10 mg/kg) was used as a standard. After 1h of drugs treatment, they were anaesthetized with the help of anaesthetic ether; the abdomen was opened by a small midline incision below the lipoid process. Pyloric portion of the stomach was slightly lifted out and ligated according to method of Shay et al. avoiding traction to the pylorus or damage to its blood supply. The stomach was replaced carefully and the abdominal wall was closed by interrupted sutures. Rats were sacrificed by an over dose of anaesthetic ether after four hours of pylorus ligation.
Grape seeds were removed from the grapes and air dried for 1 week. 100 g of dried seeds were soaked in 300 ml of ethanol (95%) with occasional stirring for 24 hrs and filtered using a piece of filter cloth. The residue of grape seeds was soaked in 300 ml ethanol (95%), and the above procedure was repeated twice. The entire fluid was collected and concentrated at 500°C with vacuum in rotary evaporator (Fig. 1). Fig. 1 shows the ethanolicextract of GSE employed in this study. Animals
A safe oral dose of EEPD and AEPD was determined through the acute oral toxic test in rats as described by the Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) as per 423 guidelines (OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals). The EEPD&AEPD at different doses up to 2000mg/kg,was prepared by dissolving the extract in distilled water and the concentration was adjusted in such a way that it did not exceed 1ml/100g of the rat. The extract was then administered (p.o) and animals were observed for behavioral changes, any toxicity and mortality up to 48 h. The doses (250 mg/kg,p.o) of EEPD and AEPD were later chosen for this study based on the acute toxicity testing.
ABSTRACT: The leaves and fruits of Smilax perfoliata are traditionally used for treatment of various ailments such as rheumatism, lumbago, nourishing the functions of spleen, stomach, muscle and bone. The intent of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-ulceractivity of ethanolic leaves and fruits extract of Smilax perfoliata Linn in albinorats. Gastric ulcers were induced by employing pylorus ligation method of induction. The anti-ulceractivity was analyzed by estimation of free acidity and the total acidity. The antioxidant potential was analyzed by method of DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The results obtained showed that the leaves and fruits of Smilax perfoliata possess antioxidant potential and are capable in the ministration of gastric ulcers.
The ethanolicextract of flowers of Delonix regia (leguminosae) was obtained and investigated for its gastro protective activity in experimental induced ulcer model. Pretreatment with 70% ethanolicextract of Delonix regia flowers at the doses (100, 250 and 500mg/kg.p.o) were administered through the oral route. The Antiulcer effect of ethanolicextract of Delonix regia flowers was studied in aspirin, alcohol and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulceration experimental models and the results were compared with that of lansoprazole (8mg/kg, p.o.) as reference standard drug. The various parameters like Ulcer index and percentage protection in all the models and gastric volume, pH of gastric juice, free acidity and total acidity in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulceration model were monitored. From the findings of our study, the ethanolicextract of flowers of Delonix regia showed gastroprotective effect of in a dose dependant manner.
Vitex negundo possesses numerous biological activities proved by many experimental studies. The present study revealed that ethanol leaf extract of Vitex negundo possess anticonvulsant effects in Swiss AlbinoRats and also reduce mortality. The present work did not include the identification of the active principal and its mechanism of action. Therefore, further research should be carried out to identify the active principal and elucidate the exact mechanism of action.
The Zingiber officinale rhizomes (ginger) were cut into smaller pieces, dried under shade for 10 days and pulverized to coarse powder using a manual blender. The ginger powder was extracted with ethanol by continuous extraction in a soxhlet. After extraction the solvent is removed, typically by means of a rotary evaporator, yielding the extracted compound. The non-soluble portion of the extracted solid remains was discarded. The extract was dried under vacuum, stored at room temperature and protected from direct sunlight in the Department of Pharmacology, Mamata Medical College, Khammam.
Albinorats weighing 150-200g of either sex were used for the study. They were acclimatized to laboratory conditions and were fasted 36hrs before the study.. Animals were kept in plastic cages under controlled conditions of temperature 23±2 0 C and were given free access to rat chow and water till 36hrs prior study. The animals were transferred to the lab one hour before the start of the experiment.
To evaluate antidiabetic activity of Chloroxylon swietenia in STZ induced diabetes in albinorats. Forty two albinorats were randomly divided into seven groups (n=6). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60mg/Kg). Distilled water, Tween 80, glibenclamide, Chloroxylon swietenia aqueous extract (CSAE), ethanolic extracts (CSEE) of 200 and 400mg/kg were given orally for 14 days to the normal control, diabetic control, standard group and test groups respectively. Glucose, TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), HDL (High density lipoprotein), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), creatinine, direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin levels were estimated. ANOVA followed by Student- Newman-Keuls test was used to analyze the data. CSAE of 200mg/kg showed a significant reduction in glucose, ALT, TB and ALP levels in diabetic rats. CSAE of 400mg/kg showed a significant decrease in glucose, AST, ALT, TB, DB and ALP levels in diabetic rats. CSEE of 200mg/kg showed a significant decrease in glucose, ALT, TB, ALP and creatinine levels in diabetic rats. CSEE of 400mg/kg showed a significant decrease in glucose, AST, ALT, TB, DB and ALP levels in diabetic rats. Both extracts show antidiabetic activity in STZ induced diabetes.
The study was carried out to find out the antiulcer activity and thrombolytic activity of aqueous extract of Tiliacora acuminate. For this study albino Wistar rats(150-200g) were used .Four groups of rats were selected containing six animals in each group. The study was carried on different gastric ulcer models and ulcers were induced by pyloric ligation and aspirin. The animals were treated with Omeprazole 20mg/kg and AETA 200 and 400mg/kg. Ulcer index was calculated in both models. In pyloric ligation model, free acid, total acid, and total protein were also determined. Thrombolytic activity also determined. AETA produced significant reduction in ulcer index (0.72) when compared with control (4.5) in both ulcer models. In pylorus ligated model it showed significant reduction in volume of acid secretion and increased mucin and total protein content .It also produced significant increase in Free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation content. AETA produces significant antiulcer activity which is comparable to standard drug Omeprazole. It also produces significant Thrombolytic which is comparable to standard streptokinase.
The introduction of drugs such as amitriptyline, fluvoxamine, imipramine, citalopram, venlafaxine, and others has modernized the treatment of depression. The marvellous efficacy of imipramine in these depressive disorders has paved the way for the introduction and use of newer antidepressant agents. However, the safety factor in respect of the imipramine antidepressant drugs has been rather intriguing and hence a definite need is visualized for the introduction of safer antidepressant drugs having no troublesome adverse effects . The ARS was used as a model of depression induced by stress, which has both emotional and physical components in combination to distress the brain’s intracellular redox status. The main purpose of using restraint is that it induces an inescapable physical and mental stress which is not accompanied by a conditioned response. It is important to clarify that this study was performed in female rats because women are more susceptible to the development of depressive disorder followed to lifetime stress events than men .
CONCLUSION: The ethanolicextract of C. pentandra may exert its effect via central nervous system, acting on the thermoregulation centre in the hypothalamus, causing thermogenisis thereby leading lipolysis and contributing to weight loss. Also by decreasing the level of intestinal ALP, it may decrease fat absorption by preventing the breakdown of dietary fat in the gastrointestinal tract. When the extract treated group was compared to CD control, it does not produce promising hypolipidaemic effect. The dose of C. pentandra (125 mg/kg) can be the optimal dose showing anti-obesity activity. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that C. pentandra has therapeutic potential in the management of obesity.
Various studies have shown that stressful events are associated with oxidative damage in the brain as a result of increase or decrease in the production of ROS which also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of stress. Huge decrease in SOD activity and CAT activity induced as a result of ARS is an index of pro-oxidative conditions . In the present study, 12 h restraint stress-induced a significant oxidative damage, as indicated by decreased SOD and decreased CAT, which was significantly reversed by EECO pretreatment. Lipid peroxidation is considered as a critical mechanism in causing cell injury during oxidative stress. Several studies have demonstrated that restraint stress significantly elevated LPO level in the hippocampus of rats.
Antiulcer study of ethanolic extracts of Diospyros virginiana leaves and bark were performed as per the standard methods. The effect of D.virginiana on acid alcohol induced ulceration was studied and the results were tabulated in table-1. For antiulcer activity, volume of gastric juice, pH, total acidity, free acidity, ulcer lesion and ulcer index were estimated both from control and tested animals. D.virginiana both extracts significantly reduced the ulceration induced by acid alcohol. Ulceration due to administration of acid alcohol is shown in the stomach section of albinorats. The gastric damage as thick red lines and lesions as red areas were observed in the stomach. A significant (P< 0.001) reduction in volume of gastric juice was observed in both leaves, bark extracts and ranitidine treated animals when compared to control. Similarly, administration of drug and leaves, bark extracts elevated the pH level of gastric juice over control.
The third parameter is histolopathogical study where trichrome staining and H & E staining were done. Trichrome stain is the method used to determine the amount of collagen that was present in the tissues. Collagen appears to be in Blue/greenish colour when it is stained using trichrome stain. Tissue from control group shows small amount of collagen, which are present in normal condition in the stomach. The amount of collagen present in the omeprazole group is very much less compared to ulcer control group and cells in the omeprazole group appear to be columnar cells in intact condition whereas rats from the ulcer group were having degenerative cells with pyknotic nucleus. Collagen amount were also seemed to be less in pre-treated group compared to ulcer control group. A cell from the pre-treated group appears to be intact and normal compared to cells from the ulcer group that were undergoing severe degeneration.
The ethanolic extracts of root of Bergenia ligulata were assessed for hepatoprotective activity in albinorats that was compared with standard drugs. Acute toxicity studies were carried out for ethanolicextract of Bergenia ligulata root on healthy Swiss albino mice of body weight 25- 35g by using Up and Down or Stair case method. 53 Evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity was done by measuring the levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transminase (SGOT) serum alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels. 50 The ethanolicextract of the roots of Bergenia ligulata was found to produce significant activity. 11
Nelumbo nucifera has long been used as a folk medicine in treatment of diarrhoea, fevers, bleeding and other inflammatory conditions. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antiulcer effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera. The hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Nelumbo nucifera was subjected to phytochemical screening which confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phytosterols and saponins. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation technique and by subjecting the animals to cold restraint stress. The extract was administered in three different doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally in all the experiments. The dose was calculated based upon acute toxicity studies. Ranitidine and Misoprostol were used as the standard drugs. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing the ulcer index of the test group with that of the vehicle control group and standard group. The antiulcer potency was evaluated by determining and comparing the ulcer idex of the test group with that of the vehicle control group and standard group. The antiulcer activity was however less than the standard drugs. The above may be due to the presence of flavonoids, tannins and other phytoconstituents in the plant extract.