Process to develop evaluatorcompetencies
CLEAR AA’s first step included an intensive literature review and interviews with key informants within and outside of South Africa. One group included people who had been involved with, or had ex- perience of, developing competencies in different countries and or- ganizations around the world. This included critics, supporters, and “fence sitters.” The second group of individuals comprised South Afri- can academics who taught evaluation, private sector individuals who implemented evaluation training or evaluations, active members of SAMEA, and select government officials who conducted or commis- sioned evaluations. The literature review included reviewing exist- ing competencies that were written or translated into English and journal articles that supported and critiqued evaluatorcompetencies. This led to a paper that informed government of the kinds of compe- tencies that had been developed and the advantages and pitfalls of having (and not having) such lists. CLEAR AA used this document to engage the DPME in lengthy discussions that then heavily informed the development of the competencies (Podems, 2012). Although the DPME provided their reflections and perspectives on the skills and knowledge that they thought were important for those who conduct evaluations, the majority of their feedback focused on program man- agers who manage evaluations.
In the SouthAfrican context, DIVERSITY can indeed be written in capital letters. The country’s history is fraught with differentiation, segregation, exclusion and discrimination (Bekker & Carlton, 1996; Eades, 1999). The replacement of the apartheid regime by the first democratically elected government in 1994 facilitated opportunities for everyone in the rainbow nation towards the celebration of diversity (Beck, 2000; Charlton & Van Niekerk, 1994). This road, to reconstruct the SouthAfrican society, has been far from smooth (Hunt & Lascaris, 1998; Thompson, 2001). Organisations realised that diversity often leads to frustration, misunderstandings, unhealthy conflict and an increase in turnover of people if it is not properly managed (Milliken & Martins, 1996; Van Eron, 1995). Often such organisations use mechanistic approaches to diversity (Cilliers & May, 2002). Although these approaches do little more than achieve certain structural and behavioural changes, they seem to create an environment in which consultants and employees can work with diversity. A solitary diversity intervention is however doomed to failure since the emotions and resistance that it elicits, normally fuel various unconscious dynamics that subvert the possibility of true connection between and change in employees. Studying diversity from the systems psychodynamic perspective implies exploring the unconscious dynamics that influence the way similarities and differences amongst employees are viewed and acted upon. The aim of such endeavours would be to gain an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of SouthAfrican diversity by analysing and interpreting the experiences of participants in such experiential events.
In response to the WHO Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity for Health, academics approached the NDOH’s Health Promotions Unit in February 2005, highlighting the importance of implementing a ‘Move for Health Day’ campaign in SA. Government officials were receptive to the message, which was compatible with the ‘Healthy Lifestyles’ campaign. Two meetings followed to discuss potential strategies to promote this campaign to other stakeholders and service providers in SA. Following these meetings, the NDOH invited other governmental departments, NGOs, tertiary institutions and representatives from the private sector to be part of a task team.
Globalization, with its emphasis on the growing interdependence between nations and its economies, is bringing profound changes in international relations. Driven mainly by the precepts of the private sector and the tenets of the market economy, globalization engages and at times collides with international, national, regional and local systems of government, with the resultant consequences for an accountable and competent public sector. Farazmand & Pinkovski (2007, p. 9) are, however, of the opinion that given the competitive nature of globalization, it did not have the transformational impact envisaged and that it did not lead to the building of effective governance systems, with competent bureaucracies concerned mainly with how they can most effectively serve citizens, promote the common good, and be accountable for the policy choices. Globalization has also seen a declining faith in the state and public administration with management being regarded as the key to improved public administration. Private sector management is seen as the inspiration for improved public management, in the context of a shift in focus from administration to delivery, and can be summed up by the term New Public Management (NPM). Generally speaking, this trend could be described as a transformation from public bureaucracy to one model of administration that is business like, but is not like a business. New Public Management highlights the adoption of a business outlook and this is manifested through a set of techniques and methods related to performance evaluation and measurement and by a set of values such as productivity, competitiveness and quality. Business logic is the dominant one which underlines in the core values of administrative culture (efficiency, effectiveness and economy) without replacing the traditional values of legality, impartiality and equality (Van Dyk-Robertson, 2010, p. 4).
procurement committees and the duties of the accounting officer.
The DBE has a broad interest in business innovation enabled by ICT, noting that IT-based innovation always costs money. Because of the infrastructure requirements and the need for long-term planning and budgeting, DBE has formulated a maturity roadmap for office productivity to advance the use of IT applications, within the existing network and wireless infrastructure. The Department uses VOIP and IP telephones in offices, telephone conference applications, and is looking to introduce video-conferencing. The GITO office is studying the user experience and productivity; introducing a mobile policy and mobile devices, initially with mail services; considering the “bring your own device” approach; adopting VPN remote access with active sync, and other technology- aided innovation. Dropbox-type collaboration functionality, electronic filing and workflow applications are also in the roadmap. Many applications are already available in government enterprise agreements, but widespread adoption needs more investment in user training. DBE has virtualized one of the data centres on its own private VPN, moving from tapes and disks to increased virtualization at the backend. It is acknowledged that much more innovation can be done at front end, but this will have to be well structured, with ready for use applications, that are effectively budgeted for over the medium to long term.
The CEO and top management of SAPO are appointed by government on a contract base for a period of five years. Very few of these contracts have been renewed over the past two decades. This has led to a high turnover of managers in SAPO and a very diverse management team in relation to qualifications and experience. Some managers have been in the employ of SAPO prior to commercialisation and others have less than one year of service.
During 1980s the government also appointed various committees and commissions (the De Kock Commission, the Stals committee, and the Jacobs committee) to provide recommendations for South Africa’s capital market reforms. The Jacobs Committee in 1988 suggested that the requirement for holding prescribed assets should be abolished and highlighted the need for market makers in government bonds (Davey, 1992). As per the Prescribed Assets Act, created in 1958 to generate funds for semi-government organizations and the development of SouthAfrican homelands, the pension funds and the insurance companies were obliged to keep part of their assets as ‘prescribed assets’ in public sector debts (IMF & The World Bank, 2003). Until 1989, pension funds had to invest 53% of their assets and long term insurers had to invest 33% of their liabilities in government debt. The act provided encouragement for hold-till-maturity investor behaviour and proved to be a significant hindrance in the creation of a liquid debt market. By late 1980s, the Prescribed Asset act was repealed. Further, the SouthAfricangovernment took the initiative to consolidate smaller issues to create benchmark in different maturities up to 20 years (Hove, 2008). As a result a nascent secondary market in government bond started developing. Phase 2: Beginning of bond trading on the stock exchange and the creation of an electronic settlement system
In his study, Matshedisho (2007b) interrogates the challenges of access to higher education for students with disabilities from a human rights perspective. He states that one of the difficulties of redressing unequal access to higher education for students with disabilities arises out of the challenge of transforming formal rights on paper into real rights. He says that the SAHE system has been systematic in perpetuating structural inequalities and social injustice. To resolve this, three points are raised: the need to transform policies so that they address ideological impediments to what constitutes reasonable support; formal rights do not automatically make rights real to people; and the need to involve academic staff in decision- making processes about support for students with disabilities. Matshedisho notes that South Africa seems to be moving along a contradictory path of espousing disability rights and the social model of disability, yet remaining embedded in the practice and legacy of ‘benevolence’. He posits that this is evident from the challenges that disability support services face and the lack of political commitment to disability issues by government and higher education. Part of dealing with the problem is to have a disability policy for higher education institutions and to prioritise disability as part of redressing social inequalities in South Africa. While he seems to blame acts of benevolence, these acts are not inherently negative; however, they should not be the sole solutions to better provision for students with disabilities in higher education.
In order to determine the needs of the market a pilot survey was undertaken. A questionnaire was issued to the members of the International Association for Impact Assessment South Africa (IAIAsa) regional Western Cape branch. A total of 150 questionnaires were distributed with their quarterly newsletter. Sixteen replies were received which constitutes approximately a 10 percent return rate. As a second phase of the pilot SWOT (Strengths. Weaknesses. Opportunities and Threats) analysis five professionals. selected on the basis of their experience. considerable expertise and professional status. were interviewed to obtain specific insights into the specific requirements and challenges for environmental scientists in the following sectors: local government. provincial authority, and private practice. The third phase of the analysis included an analysis of environmental course outlines offered by SouthAfrican Universities.
The final issue is that the timeshare industry has decreased in relative importance in the tourism economy of South Africa. In the industry’s heady growth phase of the 1980s timeshare was a vibrant part of the country’s expanding domestic tourism economy which itself was a driver of national tourism development at the time of sanctions and international boycotts on South Africa (Pandy, 2013). The industry’s prominence was highlighted particularly by government concern in the 1980s that the continued conversion of hotels to timeshare accommodation posed a threat to tourism promotion for international visitors. In the changed global environment of the 1990s as South Africa promoted international rather than domestic tourism major opportunities arose for growth in the tourism accommodation economy. These new market opportunities have been mainly taken up, however, by non- timeshare accommodation. The diminished role of timeshare is particularly so, especially if compared to the burst of new property developments in the hotel industry as well as appearance or growth of a range of other forms of tourism accommodation, including second homes and small-scale forms of accommodation such as bed and breakfasts, homestays, backpacker hostels and guest houses (see Hoogendoorn et al. 2005; Hoogendoorn & Visser, 2010a, 2010b, 2011; Rogerson, 2010, 2011a, 2011b, 2012a, 2013b, 2013c, 2013d, 2013e). Indeed, it is argued that the remarkable post-1994 expansion of the hotel industry, the surge of new bed and breakfast and guest house accommodation, the growth in the market for second homes tourism and the rise of backpacker hostels have all combined to push timeshare downwards in relative importance in the provision of accommodation for tourists. The marginalisation of the timeshare industry in South Africa is reflected in its minimal involvement in the 2010 FIFA World Cup and national government’s lack of interest in the industry despite a renewed policy focus upon stimulating domestic tourism.
In addition to this, the issue of ‘national treatment’ becomes imperative.The USA placed conditionality of equality of external companies and USA companies, under AGOA. 411
The inability of African companies to compete with USA companies, places them at a high risk of being driven out of the market. Competing on equal terms is problematic as discussed by Lenaghan because USA companies receive government support and also can secure loans globally at low interest rates and they can bank their profits offshore and are able to escape taxes. 412 This is unfair if one looks at the SouthAfrican poultry industry, which must compete equally with advanced companies who have more competitive advantages; and AGOA seems ignorant of the effects on the domestic industry such as job losses. Capacitybuilding in the Act remains insufficiently backed. 413 Davis agrees with this by giving recommendations that the United States could implement. Firstly, a restructure of AGOA is needed in promoting ‘national utilisation’ programs to be implemented. 414 Secondly, encouraging USA investors by offering low tax rates up to zero, particularly for companies that invest commodity products in AGOA countries. 415
Figure 36 reflects that CAE respondents were of the opinion that the more senior an internal auditor was, the more experienced the person should be. It appears from the difference between this ideal and reality, that internal auditors in national departments were opting to progress through the general employment ranks within their departments (achieve seniority in any area or discipline depending on where they could find a higher position) rather than to remain in an internal auditing position within the IAF, where they could build their auditing experience and practical knowledge. Internal auditors in national government did not appear to act as “career” internal auditors, and as an aside, the question also arises regarding the career paths of any individual initially employed in a highly sought after profession in the public sector. Possibly recognition and promotion are awarded on a “too little too late” basis.
Although the establishment process of most evaluation systems does not seem to conform to this policy stage to the book the role of international ‘think-tank' organisations somewhat fulfils it. A case in point, the United Nations Evaluation Group and the Centre for Learning on Evaluation and Results (CLEAR) (and other ‘think-tank’ organisations) assist with the policy formulation of most evaluation systems in the sense that they continually conduct studies on countries’ evaluation system experience and share these experiences with countries that are intending to establish one (Centre for Learning on Evaluation and Results Anglophone Africa, 2015; United Nations Evaluation Group, 2012). In addition, aspirant countries would also augment these international studies by conducting their own study tours visiting countries that are considered to have the best evaluations systems (Department of Performance Monitoring and Evaluation & Programme to Support Pro-Poor Policy Development, 2011). Based on both the international best practice studies and study tour reports the aspirant countries would select or adopt policy options that best suit their local context among other assessment criteria. For example, some countries may decide to have government programmes evaluated by external service providers while others may prefer to have programmes evaluated internally (Gaarder & Briceño, 2010). Better still, others opt to have a hybrid of the two options (Kusek & Rist, 2004).
To facilitate scoping of potential new territory, the project required rapid access to existing geophysical and bathymetric survey data within the Exclusive Economic Zone and beyond. It soon became clear that very little of the large amounts of foreign academic data acquired over past decades is actually archived accessibly in South Africa and that the SouthAfricangovernment was not fully exercising its rights under UNCLOS, Part XIII, to access this data. Applications from foreign research institutions were being correctly delivered through diplomatic channels but were either not being responded to or the permits issued did not require a supply of the full data sets.
Performance management in organisations aids in identifying the potential of employees, growth rates and their competencies according to Jamil (2005). Fletcher and Williams (1998) mention that various organisations are attempting to integrate performance management into their culture in order to positively influence employee behaviour, in turn contributing to the success of the organisation as well as development of individuals within the organisation. This may be regarded as a two-fold or mutual benefit (Cited in Bayat 2011). Miah and Hossan (2012) mention that Armstrong (2006) emphasises the goal of performance management as creating and developing a culture of high performance where responsibility is taken for on-going improvement by employees and teams they form part of.
Cloud computing offers numerous competitive advantages to today’s businesses (Nkhoma & Dang 2013) as it offers the distributive IT hardware and software which saves the costs of the organisation’s IT infrastructure and this feature is especially beneficial for small and medium size business as they can adopt emerging software easily without requiring to purchase but share. The adoption of cloud computing is gaining momentum with the modernisation of legacy applications (Buyya, Broberg & Goscinski 2011) and positioning the updated applications in the clouds. Fresh applications are being implemented and deployed on clouds to be delivered to millions of global users simultaneously at an affordable rate. Some of the main reasons for adopting cloud computing (Babu, Babu, & Rangaewamy 2013) are economics of scale, reduce unnecessary software and IT support and increase computing power. Service provisioning is an important aspect of cloud computing because it directly impacts the user experience of the service (Whaiduzzaman, Gani, Anuar, Shiraz, Haque, & Haque 2014) as new users and companies seeking cloud services are constantly emerging with the vast diversity among the available cloud services makes it difficult for the customer to decide whose services to use or even to determine a valid basis for their selection. Cloud computing in other parts of the world; such as Vietnam (Kshetri 2010), is driven by the government’s belief that this technology will help the country build a skilled workforce and the universities, government ministries and telecommunication vendors have adopted the cloud. Many United States of America (USA) government agencies are outsourcing organisational functionality of email to cloud systems such as Gmail and Google applications due to the potential for greater costs savings from scalable architectures and open products (Weber 2011). The Bangladesh government has a fragmented education systems and need to give priority to human resource development thorough education by using cloud computing technologies to achieve this (Noor, Mustafa, Chowdhury, Hossain & Jaigirdar 2010) as cloud computing technology binds the resources into a single domain.
The content analysis aimed to answer research questions 1c and 2c focusing on what competencies frameworks are addressed in program curriculums and how the competencies are addressed in the program curriculums. For the content analysis of core evaluation course syllabi, the number of direct references to the ECPE and specific overarching categories were counted. Also, the number of direct references to the evaluatorcompetencies identified by the Canadian Evaluation Association and specific overarching categories were counted. Following this, descriptions of lectures, in-class activities, assignments, practical experiences, internship, practicum and advising were grouped into competency categories described below. Both the ECPE and the CES competency frameworks each have six overarching competency categories addressing similar competencies. Nevertheless, the competency categories cannot simply be combined based on the individual competencies within each category. Thus, the six ECPE categories were combined with the six CES categories to form a total of five categories. Figure 6 highlights which competency categories were combined based on the individual competencies falling under each category. The resulting five categories were arbitrarily named Ethics; Evaluation Analysis, Planning and Design; Data Collection, Analysis and Interpretation; Interpersonal Communication and Reflective Practice; and Project Management. The competency categories were combined to facilitate the coding of activities listed on syllabi.
led to only two professional associations’ commitment to doing so. Why has the field not yet conducted research that could ground the creation of a meaningful system of credentialing?
Clearly, the evaluation community has not fully reached consensus on a set of evaluatorcompetencies that would represent the diverse philosophical and practical approaches currently used in program evaluation (King et al., 2001; Smith, 1999; Worthen, 1999). It seems evident that the external pressures that in part encouraged and sup- ported the development of the JES and CES credentialing programs do not exist in every country around the world. Many evaluators, fearing a potential loss of professional status, may well argue that “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” If the field has survived for almost 50 years without formal credentialing, what are the compelling reasons for such development at this time? In discussing the movement toward professionalization in Québec, Jacob and Boisvert (2010) note that “one element underestimated by theorists is the political challenge faced by promoters of the professionalization of evaluation” (p. 365). What are the implications of the current situation? First, with two national credentialing systems already in place, careful research documenting the JES and the CES programs’ contexts, development, implementation, and outcomes may provide lessons for associations or organizations that choose to follow. Second, other professional as- sociations or organizations for evaluators—including, for example, country-wide associations, regional associations, and perhaps even IDEAS—may want to begin realistic conversations about the poten- tial for credentialing systems in their contexts, knowing that, under- standably, political and resource challenges may overwhelm initial efforts. Third, those associations that choose to move forward could identify and shape an approach for developing competencies. Such efforts may benefit from earlier work in the field of management (e.g., the process outlined in Figure 2), and, ideally, the competencies would be subject to a rigorous validation process. The real question is whether, after 50 years and regardless of their setting, evaluators see the potential value of competencies for the field and are willing and able to take this step toward increasing its professional status. NOTES
There is scant literature on the matter under consideration in this paper, namely locally- produced vehicles for the government’s vehicle fleet. Rossouw and Rossouw (2017) briefly address this matter in the context of averting a fiscal cliff in South Africa. Rossouw and Rossouw (2017) use the context of the Keynesian fiscal multiplier and argue for local purchases, thus increasing the gross domestic product (GDP) and economic growth from increased domestic government expenditure. Other than the paper by Rossouw and Rossouw (2017), nothing has been published on this topic. No literature about any policy of local vehicle production procurement could be found in public online search domains such as Google Scholar, Google Search, Bing Search and Yahoo Search. Further research included observing publicly available government policy databases of the USA, UK and Japan, which are all major vehicle manufacturing countries. These countries do not apply a policy of exclusively procuring locally- produced vehicles for their government fleets. German and South Korean databases are not publically available.
decentralise, the ANC, although it was against autonomous federal provinces, advocated ‘powerful, though not fully autonomous, metropolitan local government authorities’ (Piccard and Mogale, 2015, p.157). It did not see strong local authorities as impeding the achievement of the NDR vision that informs the organisation’s overall governance strategy and use of scalar practices. An analysis of the ANC approach to state power has to start with the expectation that all arms of the state are expected to pull together and develop policies that help the country to achieve the NDR. In 2012 the ANC government developed a comprehensive plan that is meant to guide the work of the state, the National Development Plan (NDP) that is colloquially known as Plan 2030 as it sets out what should be achieved in all areas and levels of the state by the year 2030. Chapter 5 gives more details on the NDP. The ANC still views itself as a national liberation movement and the leader of a broad national democratic movement that is charged with achieving the NDR's strategic objective and an establishment of a democratic state (ANC, 1996). This defines the very ‘nature and character' of the African National Congress (ANC, 1996, para 1.2). At some point, the national broad movement that the ANC considered itself as leading was understood to mean anyone and everyone who was guided by the vision of the Freedom Charter in their execution of the struggle against apartheid. This included those who believe in achieving only a national democracy and those who believed in a socialist society (ANC, 1996). Those ANC members and allies, like the SouthAfrican Communist Party (SACP), who believe in socialism convinced themselves to pursue a two-stage theory that allows the nationalist ANC to lead the first stage towards the achievement of a national democratic society and the