4.106 In terms of ADHD-related symptoms, the CHP intervention reduced parent-rated family impairment more than control (p=0.043), largely during the period when parents were attending training sessions. This effect was not seen in other areas of impairment (overall, peer relationships, parent-child relationship, or academic). There was no difference between the intervention and control groups in teacher- rated classroom behaviour (including academic and interpersonal aspects). 4.107 In terms of academic outcomes, there was little evidence of benefit from the intervention. It did not significantly impact academic performance in maths or science (i.e. grades achieved). The intervention group performed better in English language classes when maternal education level was controlled for (p=0.046), although differences were largely seen in the early and middle part of the year, with the groups performing similarly by the end of the year. There was a difference between the groups in social studies performance over time (p=0.01): the
5.52 Luxford et al. (2016) evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) programme on symptoms of anxiety, social worry and social responsiveness. The study included thirty-five pupils with ASD from four mainstream secondary schools. Eighteen pupils received six, 90-minute CBT sessions led by the same researcher in all four schools. Teaching assistants (TAs) supported the delivery of the intervention, allowing strategies learnt within CBT sessions to be reinforced across the school day, and to remind and encourage the pupils to use learned strategies when required. Thus, this model actively targeted the generalisation of skills outside of the CBT session, in a naturalistic environment. Following CBT intervention, adolescents with ASD (versus a waiting-list comparator group) showed greater reductions in anxiety symptoms, school anxiety and social worry as reported by teachers, parents and participants themselves, and these results were maintained after six weeks.
Another major finding is that the general public are misinformed and hold stereotypical attitudes about ADHD which lead to youth feeling mistreated. The participants requested the public modify their negative attitudes towards youth with a diagnosis of ADHD. The researchers claim their findings give a specific voice to the youth in articulating the stigma which they perceive is attached to ADHD (Walker-Noack, Corkum, Elik & Fearon, 2013). Hinshaw, (2005) reported that increased knowledge alone does not necessarily transform attitudes and the stigma of mental disorders. This must be addressed at a number of levels within society. At a school level, the psychologist may assist with stigma reduction by educating the family on the appropriate education act legislation, connecting families with advocacy programmes and support groups, providing counselling sessions and recommending evidence-based interventions (Walker-Noack, Corkum, Elik & Fearon, 2013). This enhanced level of support from the school psychologist may also help to reduce the stigma held by teachers and support staff, as well as the stigma held by other pupils. Milich, McAnninch & Harris (1992) found the impressions and behaviour of typically developing children towards a child with ADHD were negatively impacted by simply providing preliminary negative information about that child’s behaviour. Coleman Walker, Lee, Friesen and Squires 2009, found that one in four peers blame the child for his or her disorder and that children with mental health diagnoses hold beliefs about their own condition (Coleman Walker, Lee, Friesen & Squires 2009).
Attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a disorder that is commonly diagnosed and involves the academic, social and family functioning of the child. Prevalence of the disorder is approximately 5.3% worldwide and occurs mostly in boys. The consequences of ADHD may be substance abuse and other personality disorders, e.g. delinquency. Research has indicated that drug or behavioural interventions may decrease the rate of conduct and personality disorders. Diet therapy may include polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) and iron supplements in children with low ferritin levels which may improve ADHD symptoms. Drug therapy that involves stimulants (methylphenidate) has been proven to be effective with a good safety profile. However, concerns have been raised about cardiac, psychiatric and growth side-effects. The nonstimulants (atomoxetine) have no abuse potential and reduce insomnia. They also have a better effect on growth in children. Other therapies include antidepressants and α 2 -agonists. It is important to treat each patient using individualised therapy. The role of the pharmacist is important to monitor and minimise side-effects. New treatment options comprise modified formulations of currently available medicines.
50. Hennissen L, Bakker MJ, Banaschewski T, et al; ADDUCE consortium. Cardiovascular effects of stimulant and non-stimulant medication for children and adolescents with ADHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of trials of methylphenidate, amphetamines and ato- moxetine. CNS Drugs. 2017 Mar;31(3):199-215. doi:10.1007/s40263-017-0410-7. 51. Shire Pharmaceuticals Limited. Intuniv 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg prolonged-release tablets.
Music therapy as a mechanism to improve several stress related problems and treat individuals with mental disorders has been proven. This study is aimed to assess the impact of music therapy on ADHD children. Children diagnosed with ADHD, in the age group of 10-12 years in Hyderabad schools, whose parents agreed to follow the music therapy are registered for the study. Fifteen children formed the study group. Another group of 10 normal children from the same demographics (school, class and age group) formed the control group. The experimental group is asked to take their regular medical protocol consisting of medications, diet, and exercise and school schedule. In addition, children are asked to listen to 6 songs of their choice from Carnatic music genre, for a duration of 40 minutes daily in one or two sessions, over a period of three months. Their mothers are trained to monitor them. IQ tests are administered at the beginning and at the end of the study for both groups. Diet survey by 24-hour recall method is conducted. By the end of the study period, the performance of the children improved by academic evaluations and in the regularity of classwork is assessed.
Attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is commonly diagnosed and involves the academic, social and family functioning of the child. Prevalence of the disorder is approximately 5.3% worldwide and occurs mostly in boys. The consequences of ADHD may be substance abuse and other personality disorders, e.g. delinquency. Research has indicated that drug or behavioural interventions may decrease the rate of conduct and personality disorders. Diet therapy may include polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) and iron supplements in children with low ferritin levels which may improve ADHD symptoms. Drug therapy that involves stimulants (methylphenidate) has been proven to be effective with a good safety profile. However, concerns have been raised about cardiac, psychiatric and growth side-effects. The nonstimulants (atomoxetine) have no abuse potential and reduce insomnia. They also have a better effect on growth in children. Other therapies include antidepressants and α2-agonists. It is important to treat each patient using individualised therapy. The role of the pharmacist is important to monitor and minimise side- effects. New treatment options comprise modified formulations of currently available medicines.
The control group comprises 12 male (40%) and 18 female (60%) students, who were evaluated in their pub- lic school in Campinas, SP and selected on their teachers’ confirmation of satisfactory performance with no evidence of attention deficits or learning disabilities. The participants were referred for interdisciplinary (neuro- logical, neuropsychological and speech language therapy) diagnosis at UNICAMP’s Research Laboratory. CG was matched with EG for age, and subjects underwent neuropsychological evaluation by a psychologist. Other criteria required for CG inclusion were IQ within the normal range (>80), no complaint of sensory or motor def- icits), nonuse of psychotropic medications, absence of any associated neurological symptoms and a signed pa- rental informed consent form.
Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders defined by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Symptoms begin in childhood and may persist into adolescence and adulthood. Currently available pharmacological treatment options for attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder in children and adolescents include stimulants that are efficacious and well tolerated; however, many of these preparations require multiple daily dosing and have the potential for abuse. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, the first prodrug stimulant, was developed to provide a longer duration of effect. It demonstrates a predictable delivery of the active drug, d-amphetamine, with low interpatient variability, and has a reduced potential for abuse. A literature search of the MEDLINE database and clinical trials register from 1995–2011, as well as relevant abstracts presented at annual professional meetings, on lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children and adolescents were included for review. This article presents the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder in children and, more recently, in adolescents.
Methods: In this case-control study, all the 9-10 year-old boy students studying at the third and fourth grades were enrolled from schools in the 2nd educational district of Shiraz, south of Iran. Eighty students were then selected and enrolled into the ADHD group and the control group. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition- text Revised (DSM-IV-TR), and the Child Symptoms Inventory were used to diagnose the children with ADHD. We evaluated and analyzed impulsiveness, non-impulsiveness, emotional problems and incompatibility indices in the DAP and DAF tests in each group.
lack of gender effect on the standing task may indicate that ADHD symptomatology may be related to a balance deficit in both genders thus highlighting the same pathway involvement in the symptoms. On the catching task, the ADHD group showed significantly poorer performance with both hands than the control group. Generally, performance is more proficient with the preferred hand, however the difference between the two hands is said to be typically greater in right than left handers, considering that left handers generally display less functional asymmetry than right hand- ers 46 . However Jäncke et al 47 reported that right handers require
The table-45C and figure-14B shows that there is also no difference in the trend in follow-up (in all the four visits) among the sexes. This was in contrast to the widely reported fact that there is usually a sex bias in the access to health services in our country. As per the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) III, infant mortality, child mortality and under-five mortality, all three rates exceed in females as compared to males in India 284 . This difference in mortality is the clearest sign of overt and covert discriminatory behavioural practices which favour the treatment of sons over daughter. The NFHS III also reveals a continued son preference over daughter by both men and women, especially in the northern part of the country 284 . Discrimination against girls in India, especially in the northern region is well documented 285 . Saha et al reported a study investigating the extent of sex bias in utilization of health care facilities for children in our hospital. They found that that all the parameters they studied were significantly unfavorable to female children pointing to the fact that there exists a bias in the utilization of health care 286 .
determined that the smallest sample size adequate to detect moderate effect sizes between conditions would be 44 participants per condition. The research coordinator enrolled participants, balanced them by school district, gender, and medication status, and then assigned them via a computer random number generator into the 3 con- ditions (neurofeedback [NF], cognitive training [CT], and control). School personnel would have considered it un- ethical to remove students from the classroom for a sham condition; therefore, a control condition was chosen. The control condition received computer attention training (CompAT) treatment the following school year. Teachers were informed if their student was in the control versus a treatment condition but not the specific intervention condition.
overstimulated. or, if the child has trouble completing tasks, parents can help their child divide large tasks into smaller, more manageable steps. also, parents may benefit from learning stress-management techniques to increase their own ability to deal with frustration, so that they can respond calmly to their child’s behavior. Sometimes, the whole family may need therapy. therapists can help family mem- bers find better ways to handle disruptive behaviors and to encourage behavior changes. finally, support groups help parents and families connect with others who have similar problems and concerns. Groups typically meet regularly to share frustrations and successes, to exchange information about recommended special- ists and strategies, and to talk with experts.
Due to its excitatory effect, stimulants are subject to particular prescription requirements (German Narcotics Law, Appendix 3). Currently, adult patients in Germany can only receive treatment through off-label prescriptions containing stimulants, since medicinal products for ADHD have been solely approved for children and youth. Ther- apies containing ATX are approved for adults and can be reimbursed by health insurances if the individual received treatment for ADHD during his/her childhood or youth. ADHD is associated with other mental diseases. Numer- ous studies show a strong correlation between ADHD and drug abuse as well as anxiety, affective disorders and personality disorders.
diagnosis for CYP with and without ADHD, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for each injury type for CYP with ADHD compared to those without, using a Cox regression model. We adjusted hazard ratios for a priori confounders (age, sex, geographical region, area-level deprivation and calendar year at study entry). We then adjusted for each comorbid condition (learning disability, epilepsy, cerebral palsy) in turn. However, after an inspection of Read codes for behaviour disorder in CYP with ADHD compared to CYP without, we noted a peak of behaviour disorder codes around the date of diagnosis in CYP with ADHD. We did not see a similar peak of behaviour disorder codes for CYP without ADHD. This implied that GPs may use Read codes for behaviour disorder prior to a CYP being given a definitive diagnosis of ADHD by a specialist. Therefore we did not adjust for behaviour disorder because adjustment for behaviour disorder could effectively adjust estimates for ADHD itself. For other confounders, when adjustment for a comorbid condition led to a change of >10% in the adjusted HR the confounder was retained in the model and the remaining comorbid conditions were assessed for inclusion in the model as described (Maldonado & Greenland, 1993).
Attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders that has recently been increasingly considered by psychologists and researchers. Due to its nature, this disorder also affects on mental health of parents, in addition to the child's health. Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of group interventions based on parent-child relationship on promoting the mental health of parents of children with Attention-DeficitHyperactivityDisorder, aged 6-11 years. Methodology: In a quasi- experimental study using pre-test and post-test design with three experimental groups of pharmacotherapy, combined (pharmacotherapy and family-oriented intervention) and family-oriented, mothers of 30 children with ADHD disorder were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method; these subjects were randomly selected from the educational districts of Tehran. The combined and family-oriented groups were trained in a parent-child relationship group for 10 sessions and the drug therapy group received only medication. All subjects were evaluated by Mental Health Scale in two stages (before intervention and after intervention). Data was analyzed using covariance analysis. Findings: The results showed that the implementation of educational program based on parent-child relationship resulted in a significant increase in the mental health of parents of children with hyperactivity and attentiondeficitdisorder in the combined and family-oriented groups. Conclusion: Interventions based on parent-child relationship with pharmacotherapy (combined method) are effective in increasing the mental health of parents of children with hyperactivitydisorder and attentiondeficit disability; therefore it is suggested that therapists use this method to help this group.