Top PDF Evidence of assortative mating in autism spectrum disorder

Evidence of assortative mating in autism spectrum disorder

Evidence of assortative mating in autism spectrum disorder

To examine genetic assortative mating in ASD, we investigated the genetic similarity of the parents (spouses) compared to the genetic similarity of non-spouse pairings (we created) restricted to male/female pairings from the same ancestral population using kinship coefficients. The investigation of the genetic similarity between ASD parents was carried out using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWASs This approach has previously been used to examine assortative mating for traits such as height, BMI, education [5,7], but not to our knowledge in the context of ASD. An approach that has some similarity was used to investigate genetic assortative mating in ASD using pairwise genetic distance, in contrast to kinship coefficients, to investigate if spouses were more related than randomly mated parents [33]. Population stratification was not accounted for when estimating pairwise genetic distance but comparisons were within a small subset of the data obtained from one population. Another study also examined ASD genetic assortative mating using summary statistics from an ASD GWAS study but found no significant evidence due to sample size and limitations of ASD known variants [8].
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No evidence for assortative mating within a willow warbler migratory divide

No evidence for assortative mating within a willow warbler migratory divide

geographically distinct wintering areas in Africa. The subspecies may have diverged from a common refuge after the last ice age, and neutral genetic markers are homogeneous across their range. By contrast, several phenotypic traits and genetic markers of two chromosomal regions previously identified show steep clines across the divide. The evolutionary forces that maintain this migratory divide remain unknown. Here we use plumage colour, morphology, genetic markers and feather stable nitrogen-isotopes ( δ 15 N) to assess if assortative mating between migratory phenotypes could be acting as a possible mechanism for keeping the two forms genetically separate and maintaining the migratory divide. We colour-ringed a willow warbler breeding population in the central part of the hybrid zone and observed the breeding population to assess phenotypic and genotypic traits of social pairs. Results: Our data suggest that wintering area and genetic ancestry had an effect on male arrival time to the breeding grounds which could contribute to assortment. However, evidence for assortative mating could not be detected based on a comparison of plumage colour, morphology and δ 15 N between social mates.
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Comparison of Evidence-Based Practices for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Comparison of Evidence-Based Practices for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Comparison of Evidence-Based Practices for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) and Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA, 2015) reinforce and clearly define the requirement of using evidence-based practices (EBPs) to improve student outcomes. Evidence-based practices are defined as treatments or approaches that have been found effective through replicated research (Boutot, Raulston, & Dukes, 2017). Although multiple interventions are available to support students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school settings, careful consideration is required to discern which practices are considered evidence-based. In accordance with federal law, educators are required to use research-based interventions, or those with evidence of effectiveness from publications in peer-reviewed journals (IDEA, 2004; Yell, 2016). IDEA specifically mandates that the IEP include special education and related services derived from peer-reviewed research, and the ESSA (2015) requires school districts to use EBPs showing a statistically significant effect on student outcomes (ESSA, 2015). That is, in order to promote in-school and post-school success of students with disabilities, educators must use strategies that have been shown to be effective through replicated research. The proper identification and implementation of EBPs is not only necessary but essential when it comes to the development of individualized intervention programs for students with ASD in order to support their academic and functional needs.
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Assortative mating and divorce: evidence from Austrian register data

Assortative mating and divorce: evidence from Austrian register data

It turns out that changes in assortative mating are not related to the rising divorce rate. Nei- ther immigration nor secularization are related to the upward trend in divorce. This outcome is the net result of two countervailing effects: mixed couples have (compared with a homogeneous native couple) a higher risk of divorce, which is offset by a lower divorce hazard of (homoge- neous) non-native couples. In the case of age at marriage, we even observe that, if spouses had continued to marry at a young age, divorce rates would have increased more sharply. These results are also robust in the smaller sample of spouses with children. Moreover, changes in assortative mating in terms of education do not contribute to the trend in divorce over time as well. Most of these effects change in size over time. For instance, the destabilizing effect of mixed ethnic couples has tremendously increased, and the stabilizing effect of a higher age has somewhat decreased over time. We offer some plausible explanations for these trends. Finally, we provide some evidence based on survey data that the rising trend in divorce may be the results of changing social norms.
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Evidence of neurodegeneration in autism spectrum disorder

Evidence of neurodegeneration in autism spectrum disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously-acquired skills and abilities. Loss of neurological function in ASD, as observed in affected children who have regressed, can be explained as neurodegeneration. Although there is research evidence of neurodegeneration or progressive encephalopathy in ASD, the issue of neurodegeneration in ASD is still under debate. Evidence of neurodegeneration in the brain in ASD includes: (1) neuronal cell loss, (2) activated microglia and astrocytes, (3) proinflammatory cytokines, (4) oxidative stress, and (5) elevated 8-oxo-guanosine levels. The evidence from this review suggests that neurodegeneration underlies the loss of neurological function in children with ASD who have experienced regression and loss of previously acquired skills and abilities, and that research into treatments to address the issue of neurodegeneration in ASD are warranted.
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Screening Tools for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Primary Care: A Systematic Evidence Review

Screening Tools for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Primary Care: A Systematic Evidence Review

Historically, children with ASD have been identified in pediatric primary care (PC) through soliciting parental concerns, as part of provider- driven surveillance, and periodic developmental screening using a standardized tool. Although developmental vulnerabilities associated with ASD are often identi fi able in toddlers, the median age of diagnosis in the United States is . 4 years. 5 Given concerns that (1) delays in diagnosis limit access to intervention, 6 (2) brief PC observations may fail to elicit concerns, 7 and (3) ethnic, racial, and linguistic disparities exist in early identi fi cation, 8–10 the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the use of screening tools as part of developmental surveillance at well-child visits and ASD-speci fi c screeners at the 18- and 24-month visits. 11 However, in 2016, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued a report noting insuf fi cient evidence for or against universal screening for ASD in a well- child asymptomatic population. 12 Although there was evidence that screening tools had sufficient accuracy, the USPSTF found insufficient evidence regarding the impact of early treatment on cases detected by screening compared with usual case detection. 12 This discrepancy between American Academy of Pediatrics guidance and insufficient evidence in the USPSTF report has proven confusing and controversial to the scientific community, pediatric providers, and those they serve. 13
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FMRI correlates in autism spectrum disorder populations: evidence for intolerance of uncertainty

FMRI correlates in autism spectrum disorder populations: evidence for intolerance of uncertainty

Stern et al. expanded the decision-making process, providing twenty subjects with four pieces of evidence sequentially to make a decision. They were informed of two card decks with given color probabilities and asked to indicate which deck was being drawn from as four cards were presented. As more information was presented, or as more cards were drawn, the likelihood that the cards were from a given deck were better known (less uncertain). Decision making accuracy was valued based on a point system. Over the course of each four-card trial, subjectively reported feelings of certainty increased and subjectively reported feelings of uncertainty decreased. fMRI data revealed ACC, precuneus, and left postcentral gyrus increases in activity with greater uncertainty. The researchers place their findings in the context of a theory of the role of ACC in
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No evidence of differences in cognitive control in children with autism spectrum disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder: An fMRI study.

No evidence of differences in cognitive control in children with autism spectrum disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder: An fMRI study.

Cognitive control is a broad concept including many behaviors re- lated to the ability to regulate one’s behavior, for example by stopping or suppressing ongoing behavior when it is no longer appropriate or required. This ability is crucial for successfully navigating the demands of daily life. Previous work has suggested that repetitive behavior in ASD and OCD may be related to impairments in cognitive control ( Chamberlain et al., 2005 ; Hill, 2004 ; Moritz et al., 2002 ; Mosconi et al., 2009 ; Snyder et al., 2015 ), yet it has been challenging to find a consistent relation between repetitive behavior and cognitive control in ASD and OCD. Findings from studies investigating cognitive control in ASD using varying tasks have been inconsistent, with many reporting no deficits in ASD ( Geurts et al., 2009 ; Yerys, 2015 ). To complicate matters further, both ASD and OCD have high levels of comorbidity with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ( Abramovitch et al., 2015 ; Masi et al. (2006) ; Stevens et al., 2016 ; Grzadzinski et al., 2016 ; Mayes et al., 2012 ) and the neural circuits involved have been suggested to overlap (e.g. Ameis et al., 2016 ; Norman et al., 2016 ). As such, one hypothesis may be that differences in cognitive control in OCD and ASD may in part be driven by elevated symptoms of comorbid ADHD.
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Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder

No medication can improve the core signs of autism spectrum disorder, but specific medications can help control symptoms. For example :sleeping problems – this may be treated with a medication such as melatonin; depression – this may be treated with a type of medication known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI);epilepsy – this may be treated with an anticonvulsant; attention – this may be treated with a medication such as methylphenidate; aggressive and challenging behavior, such as tantrums or self-harming – this may be treated with a type of medication called an antipsychotic if the behavior is severe or psychological treatments haven’t helped. These medications can have significant side effects and are used only with caution by doctors specialized in that field. There’s no evidence that special diets are an effective treatment for autism spectrum disorder. For growing children, restrictive diets can lead to nutritional deficiencies. 62
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Erudition of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Erudition of Autism Spectrum Disorder

There is accumulating evidence supporting a significant contribution of environmental factors to the pathophysiology of ASD [8][9]. Environmental exposure may cause profound changes in brain development and influence neurological processes such as cell differentiation, synapto gene-sis and axon myelination[9] . For instance, it was shown that maternal lifestyle and diet can have beneficial effect on fetal brain development[9]. This should provide accurate information about the potential risks of ASD, and could guide parents and physicians in their decisions.. Environmental factors are also likely to interact with the genetic profile and cause aberrant changes in brain growth, neuronal development, and functional connectivity. Several studies found that tobacco smoking and exposure to alcohol or recreational drugs during pregnancy could cause structural brain anomalies as observed in children with ASD.
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Autism Spectrum Disorder: Diagnostic Considerations

Autism Spectrum Disorder: Diagnostic Considerations

A disorder with very pervasive effects on development, especially when mani- fested early in life is very early onset schizophrenia. Early onset schizophrenia is rare. When it occurs the available behaviors to analyze in the young child are few and developmental variation within a group of same age children can be wide. Ob- taining evidence for abnormal perceptions such as auditory hallucinations requires extensive interactive interviewing skills and the ability to phrase questions that are relevant to the younger child. What will be clear is that the very young schizo- phrenic child needs help. The direction will be different if the condition is severe ASD. Gathering data from multiple sources and being open to the possibility of a diagnosis of very early onset schizophrenia rather than ASD improves the chance of proper diagnosis.
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What Are the Possible Causes for Autism Spectrum Disorder?

What Are the Possible Causes for Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Although the Institute of Medicine already stated that there is no concrete evidence that the MMR vaccine causes autism, people are still skeptical. No one suspected thimerosal to be toxic, seeing as it was found in such small doses in vaccines. In the 1970’s it was known that large doses of mercury were harmful. It was only in the late 1990’s that scientists suggested that even relatively low exposure to organic mercury could be dangerous to fetuses and young infants (Baker, 2008). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration suggested removing thimerosal from vaccines in 2001, because of the biological plausibility that thimerosal may pose as a neurotoxic harm. However, trace amounts of thimerosal are present in influenza vaccines which infants and pregnant women may be exposed to. Six studies were included, testing for a link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism. The results of the studies suggested that there is no connection between thimerosal and increased risk of autism (Kalkbrenner et. al., 2014).
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Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

An unexpected finding was the absence of significant cor- relations between tract-specific measurements and severity of clinical symptoms in adulthood as measured by the ADOS. One possible explanation for this negative finding is that ADOS scores, although commonly used to support a diagnosis of ASD, may not be suitable for quantifying the exact severity of current symptoms, especially in adults. It is also possible that participants with ASD compensated for their childhood deficits through observation of other people and alternative modes of communication. This has been widely documented for the language deficits by previous behavioural studies (Eisenmajer et al., 1996; Gilchrist et al., 2001; Howlin et al., 2003). This may lead to changes at the functional, or cortical level, but not within the white matter—leading to a mismatch between white matter abnormalities and current symptoms severity. Indeed, in a recent study we showed that in ASD, current and historical language symptoms were associated with different neuro- anatomical correlates (Lai et al., 2014). In general there is limited evidence in the literature of a direct correlation be- tween white matter abnormalities and clinical symptoms. The most common finding reported is a direct correlation between uncinate fasciculus abnormalities and impaired social cognition. For example, Chen et al. (2011) reported a negative correlation between white matter indices and social deficits in ASD, where increased Social Responsiveness Scale scores correlated with reduced frac- tional anisotropy in right uncinate fasciculus. Similarly Kumar et al. (2010) used tractography to show that macro- structural alterations within the uncinate fasciculus in ASD were correlated with the severity of symptoms, including socio-emotional deficits, on the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale. One interesting study that used DTI after a commu- nication intervention in 22 low functioning young males with ASD found a positive correlation of uncinate fascic- ulus fractional anisotropy with both therapy duration and symptom improvement measured using the Child Autism Rating Scale (Pardini et al., 2012). While all of these find- ings suggest that ASD is characterized by differences in white matter tracts, the exact biological mechanism modu- lating these differences cannot be elucidated by diffusion techniques but may be understood by other methodologies, including post-mortem studies.
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Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

An unexpected finding was the absence of significant cor- relations between tract-specific measurements and severity of clinical symptoms in adulthood as measured by the ADOS. One possible explanation for this negative finding is that ADOS scores, although commonly used to support a diagnosis of ASD, may not be suitable for quantifying the exact severity of current symptoms, especially in adults. It is also possible that participants with ASD compensated for their childhood deficits through observation of other people and alternative modes of communication. This has been widely documented for the language deficits by previous behavioural studies (Eisenmajer et al., 1996; Gilchrist et al., 2001; Howlin et al., 2003). This may lead to changes at the functional, or cortical level, but not within the white matter—leading to a mismatch between white matter abnormalities and current symptoms severity. Indeed, in a recent study we showed that in ASD, current and historical language symptoms were associated with different neuro- anatomical correlates (Lai et al., 2014). In general there is limited evidence in the literature of a direct correlation be- tween white matter abnormalities and clinical symptoms. The most common finding reported is a direct correlation between uncinate fasciculus abnormalities and impaired social cognition. For example, Chen et al. (2011) reported a negative correlation between white matter indices and social deficits in ASD, where increased Social Responsiveness Scale scores correlated with reduced frac- tional anisotropy in right uncinate fasciculus. Similarly Kumar et al. (2010) used tractography to show that macro- structural alterations within the uncinate fasciculus in ASD were correlated with the severity of symptoms, including socio-emotional deficits, on the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale. One interesting study that used DTI after a commu- nication intervention in 22 low functioning young males with ASD found a positive correlation of uncinate fascic- ulus fractional anisotropy with both therapy duration and symptom improvement measured using the Child Autism Rating Scale (Pardini et al., 2012). While all of these find- ings suggest that ASD is characterized by differences in white matter tracts, the exact biological mechanism modu- lating these differences cannot be elucidated by diffusion techniques but may be understood by other methodologies, including post-mortem studies.
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'Autism' or 'Autism Spectrum Disorder': Does either represent a natural kind of psychological disorder?

'Autism' or 'Autism Spectrum Disorder': Does either represent a natural kind of psychological disorder?

Despite this, they do not say anything more about what this “special quality” actually is, and in view of the substantial changes in the defining characteristics of autism over many years this is clearly very difficult to do. There is also a question of whether autism does actually have a distinct prognosis in the sense of distinguishing it from other conditions (I return to this question below). Consequently, the heterogeneity of autism, coupled with the lack of any consistent and replicated evidence for a unifying cognitive account of the symptoms of the condition (or explication of its “special quality”), raise significant doubts about whether autism or ASD can represent a natural kind in psychology. I therefore now examine this issue in the context of natural kinds in science.
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Intergenerational Economic Mobility and Assortative Mating

Intergenerational Economic Mobility and Assortative Mating

children report no earnings or income (because, for example, they were unemployed at the time of the survey). Two exceptions are the studies by Couch and Lillard (1998) and Minicozzi (2003). Both studies, which interestingly consider only men, conclude that there exists an important role for assumptions on labour market selection in identifying intergenerational income mobility, but their evidence is mixed. Couch and Lillard assign one dollar of income to individuals who have a valid report of no earnings, and find that more selected samples lead to higher intergenerational correlations between sons’ and fathers’ incomes. Minicozzi uses another method and estimates different Manski-type bounds around sons’ income. Contrary to Couch and Lillard, she finds that dropping both unemployed and part-time employed sons leads to a higher degree of mobility than if part-time employed sons had been included.
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Autism spectrum disorder in people with multiple disabilities

Autism spectrum disorder in people with multiple disabilities

The current study focused on a rather broad age range within our target population. Both children and adults were taken into account in the development of OASID. This is in contrast to most studies, where ASD instruments are usually aimed at children alone or have separate norms for children and adults (de Vaan et al. 2016a). However, since all participants have a moderate to profound intellectual disability and impaired communicative abilities, we do believe they can be grouped together for the purpose of the current study. This belief was strengthened by a lack of a correlation between age and OASID scores. Level of visual impairment and level of auditory impairment were also taken into account as possible confounders. However, chi-square tests indicated that level of visual and auditory impairments were equally distributed across ASD groups; hence we do not believe these impairments severely affected OASID scores. Level of intellectual disability, however, was associated with ASD group classification. Specifically, compared to the other ASD groups, in the group with profound ASD symptoms, a high proportion of people with profound intellectual disabilities were found. This is not uncommon since there is ample evidence that the prevalence of ASD is higher in people with intellectual disabilities than in people without, and that severity of intellectual disability and severity of ASD are related (Matson and Shoemaker 2009; O’Brien and Pearson 2004; de Bildt et al. 2005). The current results are in line with these findings. This study was based on the results of 60 participants, making the use of subgroups based on disabilities or age statistically difficult. For future research, and for the further development of OASID, it is recommended that OASID is tested on larger groups of participants, to fully study the effects of age, level of intellectual disability and level of sensory impairments. Only after these studies would it be possible to determine if different cut-off points are required for specific subpopulations.
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Assortative Mating and Female Labor Supply

Assortative Mating and Female Labor Supply

ing in the US has indeed become stronger over time. Most studies have investigated assortative mating in terms of educational attainment and found that husband and wife have become more similar with respect to education over time, see Mare (1991), Kalmijn (1991a), Kalmijn (1991b), Qian and Preston (1993), Pencavel (1998), Qian (1998), Schwartz and Mare (2005), Sánchez-Marcos (2008), and Schwartz (2010). Cancian and Reed (1998) and Schwartz (2010) report increased assortative mating by income. Sweeney and Cancian (2004) provide evidence for an increasing correlation between wife’s wage and husband’s income. Herrnstein and Murray (1994) report increased sorting by academic ability in higher education and by intelligence. In this paper, we use data from the Cur- rent Population Survey (CPS) to measure trends in assortative mating in terms of wage potentials. We …nd strong evidence that assortative mating in terms of wages has increased substantially over time.
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Understanding autism spectrum disorder in Hanoi, Vietnam

Understanding autism spectrum disorder in Hanoi, Vietnam

23 | P a g e However, unpublished reports, narratives and personal opinions posted in the media and forums reveal that these children and their families struggle desperately with the diagnostic process and intervention services, and experience considerable stigma and discrimination. There are very few facilities in public children’s hospitals and universities which are mostly in large cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, providing diagnosis and intervention services for children with ASD and their families. These facilities are often very crowded and lack staff, and children with ASD often wait several months to get a place (Brown 2009, CLAN 2010). From a service point of view, occupational therapy is not yet recognised in the country, paediatric hospitals often do not recruit social workers, there are limited physiotherapists in the field of ASD, and there is no community- based institution in which adults with ASD may live or receive services (CLAN 2010). Until late 2010, there was no formal training course for speech therapists in Vietnam. With the support from Trinh Foundation, an Australian organization, a two-year post-graduate training program has been carried out at Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine in Ho Chi Minh city since September, 2010 (Trinh Foundation 2014). Though the country emphasises inclusive education, anecdotal evidence suggests that children with ASD still have difficulties in enrolling and integrating into mainstream schools (Linh and Mung 2008). The number of private schools and centres that provide ASD care for children from two to 16 years old in Vietnam is very limited and these schools are also costly (Pham 2010).
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Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Spectrum Disorder. Goals & Objectives

Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Spectrum Disorder. Goals & Objectives

Previous reviews of the literature have noted limited quality and consistency in studies assessing ASD therapies, and an umbrella review found methodological weaknesses in systematic reviews of psychosocial interventions. While controlled trials seem to be increasing, much research is observational, generally with small sample sizes, limited follow-up, and limited discussion of the durability of treatment gains once active therapy ends. As the prevalence of ASD has increased, the available treatment options have also increased, but evidence overall for many interventions can only be considered preliminary. The need for synthesized research that evaluates the evidence base for various treatments and identifies gaps in the current literature that may drive the research agenda is great.
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