Top PDF Evidence summary : reducing the attainment gap : the role of health and wellbeing interventions in schools

Evidence summary : reducing the attainment gap : the role
of health and wellbeing interventions in schools

Evidence summary : reducing the attainment gap : the role of health and wellbeing interventions in schools

randomisation at either school or class level. Comparison groups usually received routine school provision. In the UK, this is likely to include exposure to social and emotional learning activities during, for example, routine PSHE lessons. Thus, the interventions under study are compared to an active comparison which may have contained similar elements. In contrast, routine provision in the USA may be considerably different.

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Rapid Evidence Review : reducing the attainment gap : the role of health and wellbeing interventions in schools

Rapid Evidence Review : reducing the attainment gap : the role of health and wellbeing interventions in schools

outcomes. The following section looks at interventions that promote healthy lifestyles and their potential impact on wellbeing and attainment. The final section discusses the findings of the previous sections. The method used to identify papers for this review is detailed in Appendix 1. The review was restricted to research conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) and Ireland to ensure that findings were as relevant to the Scottish education system as possible. As children who have higher social and emotional wellbeing tend to do better in school, 1 studies that reported wellbeing outcomes were included.
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Beyond evidence-based interventions: implementing an integrated approach to promoting pupil mental wellbeing in schools with pyramid club

Beyond evidence-based interventions: implementing an integrated approach to promoting pupil mental wellbeing in schools with pyramid club

rising tide of psychological distress among children and young people, coupled with extensive spending cuts to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), has created a treatment gap with increasing numbers of pupils presenting with mental health and behaviour difficulties in schools (Taggart et al., 2014). The crucial role of schools in providing early intervention to pupils with psychological difficulties is recognised, with some authors insisting that mental health should be part of the ‘core business’ of schools (e.g. Bonell et al., 2014). This sentiment is incorporated within a settings- based approach to health (World Health Organisation, 1986), integrating sectors from the wider social system (e.g. schools, public health, local authorities and social care): it builds on the principles of community participation, partnership, empowerment and equity. A strategic framework for mental health that reduces risk and increases protective factors for children is imperative (Department of Health (DH), 2015) and couched within a settings-based model, places schools in a pivotal position to offer socio-emotional interventions. A political shift marked by decentralisation has given schools the capacity to influence the services that are commissioned by feeding information on the mental health needs of their pupils into local transformation plans. Moreover, they can contract services directly, working with local providers to support mental health promotion and deliver early interventions according to individual school needs. This article discusses school as an ‘ideal’ setting for promoting mental
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Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

records the successful PRRINN-MNCH implementation of the CCER intervention at scale in a very challenging envi- ronment. This community-based, emergency obstetric care strategy ensured the timely referral and arrival of women experiencing maternal emergencies at upgraded SBA facili- ties essential for saving their lives. Integration of the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy contributed to saving more than one-third of the lives saved. CCER is an equitable, efficient, and culturally appropriate approach for saving the lives of rural women experiencing maternal emergencies in resource-constrained countries. CCER is especially effi- cient because virtually every timely, community referral for emergency maternal care results in a saved life, whereas only one in every eight births delivered by an SBA is expected to be a delivery-associated complication requiring lifesaving care. Although the available evidence fails to meet rigorous randomized controlled trial standards and lacks data directly linking women benefitting from community referrals to their EmOC treatment, the evidence indicates that CCER warrants further implementation in northern Nigeria and elsewhere. In order to establish a strong public health evidence base, 4
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Evidence-Based Interventions for Promoting Adolescent Health

Evidence-Based Interventions for Promoting Adolescent Health

Although there have been many curriculum-based programs of this kind operating over the last fifteen years there are few published evaluation studies and most are poorly designed (Abbey, Madsen, & Polland, 1989; Klingman, 1989; Nelson, 1987; Orbach & BarJoseph, 1993). In some cases studies aim only to increase students’ “gatekeeper” role, increasing knowledge of possible response options if potential suicide is suspected {430, 431}, including professional support options {424}. The program of Eggert et al {345} differed from earlier studies by focusing on adolescents at high risk of school dropout by virtue of non-attendance, poor academic performance, previous dropout or referral for being at risk of dropping out. The intervention was more comprehensive in adopting a life skills approach within a small group intervention framework. Attitudes to suicide were the specific focus addressed within the program. The intervention was delivered by school personnel and taught each day as part of the normal class timetable. Three groups were defined, though not clearly, through a randomised procedure. Two groups received different doses of the intervention (two semesters vs one) and a control group was included. The control consisted of a comprehensive assessment, referral to a key worker and parental notification of risk. Non-participation in the
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The role of public gardens in enhancing diabetic patients’ health and wellbeing

The role of public gardens in enhancing diabetic patients’ health and wellbeing

The results showed that urban areas under investigation do not encourage patients to wander around. The lack of walkability and physical activity is linked with reported blood pressure problems [see Eckel et al. 9]. The lower number of garden lots is associated with infrequent social, religious and recreational activities. The SEM results showed positive impact of gardens on patients’ health. However, this relationship is affected negatively by vacant land size and number. Thus, when there are larger vacant lands near patients' homes, more patients watch TV. When there are more vacant lands lots, patients feel high levels of micro albumin urea and HBA1C level and reported lipid problem. The longer distance to the garden is associated with the patient's frequent complain of home organization and size, and this –in turn- is associated with social problems at home.
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Health and Wellbeing in Schools. Delegation from the Netherlands 20 th November 2014

Health and Wellbeing in Schools. Delegation from the Netherlands 20 th November 2014

– “every education authority must, in relation to each child and young person having additional support needs for whose school education the authority are responsible, make adequate an[r]

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Exploring the impact of social inequality and poverty on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children and young people in Scotland

Exploring the impact of social inequality and poverty on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children and young people in Scotland

The Scottish Attainment Challenge (informed by insights gained from implementation of the London Challenge (Greaves, Macmillan, & Sibieta, 2014)) was launched in 2015 by the Scottish Government to promote more equitable education outcomes and close the gap in attainment between rich and poor. It builds on ‘Curriculum for Excellence’ (CfE), the national curriculum; ‘Getting it Right for Every Child’ (GIRFEC), a multi-disciplinary approach to supporting children’s welfare; and the ‘Children and Young People (Scotland) Act (2014),’ strengthening the rights of children and young people through legislative process. The policy is supported by funding (£750 million in 2018) from the Scottish Government, channeled through a range of income streams directly to local authorities and schools vi , the appointment of
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Systematic review of the evidence for sustained efficacy of dietary interventions for reducing appetite or energy intake

Systematic review of the evidence for sustained efficacy of dietary interventions for reducing appetite or energy intake

Data obtained following a period of repeated exposure are necessary to judge if any evidence of adaptation mani- fests itself. Confirmation of reliable, sustained, effects are relevant to regulatory assessment (to substantiate a health claim) and to assure consumer confidence in commercial products and programmes that claim beneficial effects on appetite or EI. For this, it is essential to have an objective ba- sis to determine whether or what duration of exposure would be needed to observe or exclude the possibility of ad- aptation. This has important implications for the designs and resources required for research trials. Guidance from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) notes that ‘ [e] vidence for a sustained effect with continuous consumption of the food should also be provided in order to exclude ad- aptation ’ (1), although no specific duration is recommended for substantiating appetite or EI claims. In assessing the ef- fects of different dietary carbohydrates on EI and satiety outcomes, the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutri- tion (SACN) included trials with an intervention of three consecutive days or more (2). No basis for this criterion is given, and it is not clear if this duration is sufficient to ex- clude potential adaption. Moreover, given that for some di- etary manipulations, the effects might develop rather than diminish over time, acute studies may produce false negative as well as false positive indications of longer-term efficacy.
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Systematic review of the evidence on housing interventions for ‘housing-vulnerable’ adults and its relationship to wellbeing

Systematic review of the evidence on housing interventions for ‘housing-vulnerable’ adults and its relationship to wellbeing

112 parents move into employment, education or training. However, many of the participants did give birth just before or during the pilot and unsurprisingly the main change in economic status for participants on leaving the project was an increasing number that were fully occupied with looking after their young children from 42% to 57%. Many young people did however participate in training and/or project development courses, and aspirations for future employment were high. Nearly one fifth (18%) of young people surveyed reported that their general health was ‘better’ at the end of the pilot period than it had been before using pilot services. More generally, there were consistent reports from young people and project staff of improvements in young people’s psychological well- being, especially improved self-esteem as a result of their involvement in the pilot. Young people consistently reported feeling better able to manage their finances as a result of their involvement in the pilot projects. Fewer young people were behind with their rent or board payments at the point of leaving (16%) compared to point of entry (24%).
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Why is the BME attainment gap such a wicked problem?

Why is the BME attainment gap such a wicked problem?

Furthermore, any interventions designed to address identified problems may be bound by the allocation of resources, for example, in staff time. Therefore, the response to a wicked problem may stop when resources have been exhausted, but this may not deliver a solution. The REACT initiative, of which this project was a part, was funded by the HEFCE catalyst fund; however, support for the resulting interventions carried out by participation of the partner institutions was unfunded. This meant that resource costs were consumed by the host institution and the offered incentive for action by departments and course teams took the form of support and encouragement from the governing Directorate, rather than in time and money. This is noted as a possible barrier to engagement with suggested solutions. Discussions often centred on the re-interpretation of activity which already existed, with the research team providing support for more systematic methodologies and evaluations. Given these considerations, this paper would continue to question why dedicated resource
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Do some schools narrow the gap? : differential school effectiveness by ethnicity, gender, poverty and prior attainment

Do some schools narrow the gap? : differential school effectiveness by ethnicity, gender, poverty and prior attainment

schooling process. Strand (1999) in a study of over 5,000 inner London pupils reported that Black Caribbean and Black Other boys, Black African pupils with high attainment at age 4 and White British pupils entitled to Free School Meals (FSM) all made less than expected progress between age 4 and age 7, after also accounting for age, pre-school education, English as an Additional Language (EAL) and Special Educational Needs (SEN). Fryer and Levitt (2004, 2006) use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) cohort to report that, once they controlled for a small number of covariates, the Black-White test score gap on entry to Kindergarten was eliminated. Over the first two years of school however the achievement of Black children fell behind their White, Hispanic and Asian peers, and Black children continued to lose ground at age 7 and age 9, on average by 0.1 SD per year relative to Whites. Further research is needed to confirm these longitudinal analyses of progress during primary school, preferably using national populations rather than samples or local area data. This present study addresses this need.
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People and Urban Environment: Landscape role in health and wellbeing

People and Urban Environment: Landscape role in health and wellbeing

Even today in millennium era, a walk through the park, the sound of mingle birdsong or the sight of colourful flowers and leaves will make people feel good as well as the urban forest providing a natural contrast to the harshness of buildings, the noise and dirt of busy traffic. For over the years we have been conscious of the link between greenery and improved public health. Trees offer more than interest to the landscape. They also provide crucial breathing space. Trees are particularly good at filtering out pollution, and clean air is good for public health which is one of the significant issues in most communities. The Qur’anic descriptions of paradise are full of magnificent cool gardens with shade, fruit trees, sweet scents and running water - a tranquil oasis of peace. One can see the appeal of such a vision of heaven to those living in the arid lands from which Islam emerged (Wescoat, 2003). Indeed, the Arabic word ‘jannah’ means both garden and paradise. The Islamic Empire spanned from the 7 th to the 16 th century. From the
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Mapping Universal Prevention and Promotion Interventions for Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Wellbeing : a Rapid Overview

Mapping Universal Prevention and Promotion Interventions for Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Wellbeing : a Rapid Overview

knowledge. On the whole, gatekeeper training has been shown to be effective for improving suicide-related knowledge (Robinson et al., 2013; Mo et al., 2018; York et al., 2013; Harrod et al 2014). There is mixed evidence as to the effectiveness of gatekeeper training for improving suicide-related attitudes and behaviour (Mo et al., 2018), and mixed evidence on the impact of universal programmes on attitudes (Robinson et al 2013). Help-seeking: Mixed evidence was found for help-seeking attitudes and behaviours (Klimes-Dougan et al., 2013; Cusimano & Sameem, 2010; Robinson et al., 2013; Wei et al., 2015), (including some evidence of adverse effects) (Klimes-Dougan et al., 2013; Kuiper et al., 2018). Negative consequences: Several reviews identified unanticipated adverse consequences of suicide prevention programmes including negative impact on help seeking and attitudes (Kuiper et al 2018) and on suicidal behaviour (Wei et al 2015). Several reviews identified that further research is required to systematically evaluate any potential harm or possible negative consequences of suicide prevention programmes (Wei et al., 2015; Kuiper et al., 2018; Robinson et al 2013). Other factors: One review showed that males and females could benefit from programmes differently (Hamilton & Klimes-Dougan, 2015). 1 review focusing on post-secondary educational settings (Harrod et al., 2014) found evidence of effectiveness for increasing short-term knowledge of suicide but insufficient evidence overall to support the widespread
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Closing the attainment gap – a realistic proposition or an elusive pipe-dream?

Closing the attainment gap – a realistic proposition or an elusive pipe-dream?

All of the above lead to the conclusion that a systems-approach that provides direction from the top but sufficient autonomy at the bottom is necessary if the challenge of addressing the attainment gap is to be overcome. It needs to be an approach that encourages and supports the flourishing of local initiatives and avoids simply ‘throwing money at the problem’ but doesn’t place all of the accountability on schools to deliver. This calls for high quality leadership and capacity building at all levels of the system and investment in people and the professional education of teachers. It also calls for a range of stakeholders, including the third sector and Higher Education Institutions, working effectively together in partnership with schools and local authorities so that the full range of expertise can be drawn upon and research informed practice and collaborative cultures developed.
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Closing the Gap? : trends in educational attainment and disadvantage. August 2017

Closing the Gap? : trends in educational attainment and disadvantage. August 2017

Further investigation is required to understand the underlying causes of the patterns seen and to bring out the very different circumstances that pupils with the same characteristics may experience. Whilst pupils with English as an additional language (EAL) make more progress and achieve higher outcomes, on average, than others, there are still significant numbers who have low attainment. The analysis here does not take into account the different levels of English proficiency that different ‘EAL pupils’ have, nor the time that they have spent in England’s school system – just over 40 per cent of the Key Stage 4 EAL cohort joined an English state-school at some point after the foundation stage. In conclusion, we find that, while there has been some small improvement in closing the gap between disadvantaged pupil and their peers, it is taking far too long. If we carry on at this pace, we will lose at least a further 3 generations before equality of outcomes is realised through our
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Screening and Interventions for Childhood Overweight: A Summary of Evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force

Screening and Interventions for Childhood Overweight: A Summary of Evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force

efit, because changes in serum lipid levels, serum insulin levels, serum glucose levels, and homeostatic model of insulin sensitivity values did not differ between groups. Among all trial completers (63–76% of all participants) at 12 months, significant improve- ments from baseline were seen in high-density li- poprotein cholesterol levels, serum insulin levels, and homeostatic model of insulin sensitivity values. Blood pressure was not improved, and in some cases increased blood pressure was a reason for discontin- uation. The rate of adverse effects and discontinua- tion was fairly high (12% discontinued and 28% re- duced the medication) (see also key question 6). We found no evidence for metformin use for weight loss/disease prevention among normoglycemic obese adolescents with weight outcomes after ⬎ 3 months, nor did we find acceptable evidence on al- ternative or complementary therapies.
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Understanding the gender and ethnicity attainment gap in UK higher education

Understanding the gender and ethnicity attainment gap in UK higher education

A further variable identified in a study by Ridley (2007) was the impact of less effective forms of study behaviour within BME student groups. Ridley’s research suggested that black students were more likely to use a ‘surface approach’ to studying when compared to white groups, and use of a surface approach was found to be negatively correlated with marks in exams and coursework. Another study (Dart et al., 1999) suggests that male students are more likely to adopt a surface learning approach so this may provide a partial explanation for attainment gaps. Claims have also been made that exams favour males and coursework females (Martin, 1997), and the increasing move toward coursework could be a contributory factor to the gender attainment gap. At the University of Oxford, where many courses are assessed on the basis of exams at the end of the final year, the gender gap is reversed - at least in terms of the proportion of students achieving first class degrees (Trigwell & Ashwin, 2003).
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GRAIDs: a framework for closing the gap in the availability of health promotion programs and interventions for people with disabilities

GRAIDs: a framework for closing the gap in the availability of health promotion programs and interventions for people with disabilities

The adoption of certain evidence-based research find- ings often takes years, if not decades, to reach its endpoint in clinical or community practice [20]. The Institute of Medicine [21], the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CAN-IMPLEMENT) [22,23], and the Guidelines Inter- national Network [24,25] have suggested that unnecessary and costly duplication of programs or services could be minimized or avoided if evidence-based guidelines were adapted rather than developed de novo . An alternative to the development of health promotion interventions de- signed for select groups of people with or without disabil- ities is to formalize a process for adapting guidelines established from the best available evidence. The Guidelines International Network defines adaptation as ‘the systematic approach to the endorsement and/or modification of a guideline(s) produced in one cultural and organizational setting for application in a different context’ [24]. Adapta- tion can render a program more responsive to a particular target group and increase the program’s sensitivity and fit for a new population that was not part of the original re- search [26]. It also offers greater transferability to real world settings (i.e., knowledge translation) because the ad- aptations can be selected by local service providers based on the needs of the end user(s) and the local context [23].
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The link between pupil health and wellbeing and attainment : a briefing for head teachers, governors and staff in education settings : November 2014

The link between pupil health and wellbeing and attainment : a briefing for head teachers, governors and staff in education settings : November 2014

This briefing draws on a rapid review approach that provides a broad, succinct scope of the scientific evidence. The complexity of the interrelationships between outcomes makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions about causality. However, this briefing offers head teachers, governors and school staff a summary of the key evidence that highlights the link between health and wellbeing and educational attainment. It underlines the value for schools of promoting health and wellbeing as an integral part of a school effectiveness strategy, and highlights the important contribution of a whole-school approach.
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