Setting of examination standards was made more difficult by the introduction of modular structures because students were able to put a lot of credit into the examination bank of results prior to the overall standard setting for the GCSE being conducted. This meant that examination boards did not have as much leverage over the final outcomes; an issue that was discovered in 2002 when the modular A level examinations were first issued and in 2012 when the first modularGCSE English results were released. Early entries also made the standard setting process problematical because it was difficult to use the same system for gauging how the cohort of students was likely to perform on the examination when a large proportion of them had taken the examination without the same level of maturity and possibly even curriculum exposure and study as in the past.
Evidence presented in this report stems from a research project consisting of a systematic review of the literature, quantitative research, and qualitative research. The systematic review of the literature documented arguments and empirical evidence related to the advantages and disadvantages of modular and linearexaminations. The quantitative research strand examined with large-scale datasets the impact of linear and modular exams on GCSE outcomes, changes in the outcome, and GCSE attainment gaps (e.g. SES and gender). The qualitative research strand used semi-structured interviews to assess teacher beliefs on the impact of examination structures and potential influences on teaching practices. A number of findings relevant for policy makers emerge from this research. Classification schemes for modular assessment structures (Ertl & Hayward, 2010) were useful in thinking about the kind of examination that modular GCSEs had been. The qualification was subdivided into units, where credit for these units was typically only available within the qualification and the curriculum was specific to the qualification: this is an ‘internal’ approach. Our review of modular assessment showed that it was uncommon for it to be used for high-stakes academic examinations, with some exceptions. Notable amongst these is the entire Grade Point Average (GPA) system of teacher assessment used in the US, which might be thought of as modular and Scotland has a modular assessment regime. School-leaving examinations were made modular very late in England in comparison with vocational qualifications and higher education.
We are also reforming A-levels. Schools and universities were unhappy that constant assessment and modularisation got in the way of proper learning, so we are reforming those exams with the help of school and university leaders. GCSEs will also be reformed in a similar fashion. The qualifications should be linear, with all assessments normally taken at the end of the course. Examinations will test extended writing in subjects such as English and history, have fewer bite-sized and overly structured questions, and in mathematics and science there should be greater emphasis on quantitative problem-solving. Internal assessments and the use of exam aids will be kept to a minimum and used only where there is a compelling case to do so, to provide for effective and deep assessment of the specified curriculum content.
There are, however, two study requirements that students are unable to undertake in the comfort of their home, residential schools and examinations (USQ, 2011). Residential schools are intensive courses that are completed during USQ holiday periods and give external students the opportunity to engage with lecturers face- to-face. These classes are held at a USQ campus and require students to travel to attend. Examinations are held at the end of each semester and require that all students attend a formal examination centre. Exam centres have been set up by the University across Australia and in many countries overseas. If you live within 100km of an examination centre University policy states that you must complete your exams at that centre (USQ, 2011). Although students are encouraged to attend residential schools, many faculties do not require compulsory attendance in order to successfully complete the degree. Therefore for many students the only inflexible aspect to their studies is undertaking examinations and determining a more flexible mode for completing examinations would be extremely beneficial for distance students.
Since Hirschberg first reported a case of pri- mary spinal melanoma (PSM) in 1906, approxi- mately 30 cases of PSM have been reported to date . PSM can occur throughout the cranial and spinal regions, however, it occurs most fre- quently in the middle or lower thoracic spine . PSM was observed more frequently in Caucasians and PSM in Asians is rare. Most PSMs were reported to be intraspinal without irritation of the vertebrae and peri-vertebral space: the diagnosis of PSM is difficult because of its unusual location and the possible varia- tions in its appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) output. In some cases, even where post-operative histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were per- formed, the diagnosis can still be difficult as
The overall examination justification rate of just 50.8%, which was achieved by combining the referral and medical record clinical details, still demonstrates a number of examinations that are not justified in either the referral or medical chart records. The difference between referral (24.7%) and overall examination justification (50.8%) rates reveals that clinical details that provide justification are not being provided by the treating clinician. Clinical details need to be shared with medical imaging staff as they are used to guide the imaging required, such as what region of the body to include and whether any additional views to the minimum set are required. Radiographers use a range of projections to image the body; they are used to demonstrate different anatomic relationships and are guided by the patient’s symptoms and the pathology under investigation. If the clinical details on the referral are lacking, then the necessary images may not be acquired. For example, the three routine projections of postero-anterior (PA), oblique and a lateral view of the wrist are not the best images to determine if injury has been sustained to the scaphoid. 19 Additional views of the scaphoid are beneficial and can also improve the accuracy of the medical imaging report.
International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology CSEIT19537 | Received 10 April 2019 | Accepted 26 April 2019 | March April 2019 [ 5 (2) 1261 12[.]
International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology CSEIT172140 | Received 10 April 2019 | Accepted 26 April 2019 | March April 2019 [ 5 (2) 1242 1[.]
International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology CSEIT1952313 | Received 01 April 2019 | Accepted 22 April 2019 | March April 2019 [ 5 (2) 996 1[.]
At approximately 09:36 UTC on 27 April 2016, a phreatic eruption occurred on Whakaari Island (White Island) produc- ing an eruption sequence that contained multiple eruptive pulses determined to have occurred over the first 30 min, with a continuing tremor signal lasting ~ 2 h after the pulsing sequence. To investigate the eruption dynamics, we used a combination of cross-correlation and coherence methods with acoustic data. To estimate locations for the eruptive pulses, seismic data were collected and eruption vent locations were inferred through the use of an ampli- tude source location method. We also investigated volcanic acoustic–seismic ratios for comparing inferred initiation depths of each pulse. Initial results show vent locations for the eruptive pulses were found to have possibly come from two separate locations only ~ 50 m apart. These results compare favorably with acoustic lag time analysis. After error analysis, eruption sources are shown to conceivably come from a single vent, and differences in vent locations may not be constrained. Both vent location scenarios show that the eruption pulses gradually increase in strength with time, and that pulses 1, 3, 4, and 5 possibly came from a deeper source than pulses 2 and 6. We show herein that the characteristics and locations of volcanic eruptions can be better understood through joint analysis combining data from several data sources.
The key is to strengthen the producing papers, printing, confidentiality, and security management, testing or- ganization, marking exam papers, reading scores, analyzing examination paper, binding, archiving, being in the charge of the examination, touring test and the various links of responsibilities such as routine management. It needs to emphasize: 1) In the proposition of examination paper it is advocated in the classified guidance, ex- amination database should be constructed scientifically. According to the different teaching content adjust data- base in time; after fine-tuning forming the test with volume at random; 2) Organization of the exam. In view of the different ways of examinationreform, according to the mode and characteristics of examination, choice the corresponding management. Especially in the current case, the network teaching platform has been established basically, cooperative education is further improved, the teaching mode reform in the classroom continuously strengthen, in a certain area, of intercollegiate between online test, group discussion, and school internship diary, the learning (experience) equalization and combining qualitative way of formative assessment. Through the homework in the class, class discussion, classroom questioning, classroom tests, and so on, by the ways to un- derstand the students’ master degree, teachers, students, social development main body evaluation, to achieve higher education park between the mutual recognition of credits and the teaching resources sharing. This is not only beneficial to the higher level to develop a high level of curriculum resources, but also to improve the edu- cation resource utilized efficiently.
To provide a method to validate the MILP operation and to deliver a real time solution, a heuristic approach was devel- oped to optimize the PRBs assignment based on the user’s priority. The heuristic, as shown in the flowchart in Fig. 4, starts by initializing the data parameters, sets, variables and reads the received power (Q) values from a separate file. A check for user prioritization takes place. This affects the users’ admittance order to the system. If user prioritization is ON (i.e. big data analytics are used), the OPs will be arranged according to their priority such that the most crit- ical OP will be served first. This kind of check is vital at this stage due to the sequential nature of the heuristic, thus, the first few users will be granted high SINRs due to the higher number of available channels. OPs do not compete with each other over the available PRBs, i.e. their interfering candidates are normal users only. Finding the PRB at which a user achieves a relatively-high SINR is done by assigning a PRB where interference is attributed to a subset of | B | − 1 interferers with minimum interfering power to that user at its PRB, where | B | is the number of BSs (the cardinality of B ). As the heuristic continues to run, the PRB availability is reduced. Once the PRBs are allocated to the OPs, the total number of allocated PRBs will equal to (2 ∗ Z). On the other hand, the number of free PRBs (FPRB) will be equal to [B ∗ N] − [2 ∗ Z ] giving a total of 2 FPRB combinations. Finding an interfering user with the minimum power on each RB (i.e. maximum SINR) results in reducing the above number of combinations. Accordingly, a pool with the length | FPRB | comprised of the highest achievable SINR on each PRB will be formed. The heuristic follows a semi-greedy approach . Thus, one SINR will be randomly selected from the pool of best SINRs. The reasons behind this selec- tion criterion are (i) to establish local fairness between the user and its interferer so that the interferer does not endure a huge impact by being assigned a very low-powered PRB; moreover, (ii) to conform to the objective function in which each individual user’s SINR is maximized while maximizing the overall system-wide SINR. Once the user is assigned a SINR, the corresponding PRB(s) is assigned to the user and the interferer. The heuristic repeats the above procedure
The course was arranged by the Danish Ultrasound Diagnos- tic Society and was primarily focused on the use of vaginal US, with a shorter part of the day focused on abdominal US. The course consisted of an 8-hour introduction to the use of US, including lessons on the technicalities of US equipment, image optimization, and anatomy and physics of both the abdomen and pelvis. Secondly, practical sessions were undertaken, during which participants were taught to perform an US examination in a practical laboratory setting in 4–5-person groups. Each participant practiced a particular examination while the others observed. Healthy volunteers were hired to be the models (be examined).
Among the remainder of parents who are not offered their first choice, the proportion who successfully appeal or use waiting lists to access a higher preference school is almost one-fifth (19 per cent). And around one-in-seven (15 per cent) are successful in using these routes to secure their first preference school. Again, geography has a significant impact. Figure 1.6 shows that around four-in-ten parents in Bath and North East Somerset, West Berkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire gain access to their first choice of school when not offered this initially. By contrast in authorities such as Trafford, Hackney and Newham just 6 per cent of parents do so. These rankings look fairly similar when broadening the considering access to any school that is preferred to the one initially offered. It is generally more rural areas where parents are more likely to improve on their initial offer. Chapter 5 looks in more detail at the area-level characteristics that are associated with parents being more likely to get into their first preference school using appeals and waiting lists.
Abstract:- The objective of this paper is to develop an efficient fixture for key way milling a gear shaft. The fixture is developed to not only provide or facilitate uniform quality in manufacturing but also to provide a system that eliminates individual marking, positioning and frequent checking. This system makes use of a Modular type of fixture which provides an added advantage interchangeability of parts of the fixture. The clamping position of the fixtures, the kinematic constraint balance and the cutting forces are taken into account for the design of the fixture. Solid Edge is used to design and draft the fixture. In addition, the system provides the manufacturer the feature of doing 2 milling operation without the need to interchange the component after each operation. Isometric Standards are followed in the design of this fixture.
The main problems related to Emergency Departments in hospitals are as follows: 1) Long waiting times between stations. After the registration and triage procedures, patients can wait so long times for the medical examinations. 2) In cases of epidemics or natural disasters, a large number of patients can apply to the Emergency Departments. During this complex period, patients are prioritized by physicians and these results cause longer waiting times for other patients. 3) On the other hand, the physicians in the Emergency Department may not be an expert for the patient's condition. For example, an urgent problem in the patient's eye requires an ophthalmologist and this case affects the waiting time of the patient. 4) After final controls of patients who stay in bed in observation department, doctors can decide to hospitalization for continue their treatment. During this period, it may cause long waiting times for other patients if not to been found a proper patient bed. This situation will affect patients to be dissatisfied with the doctors and other health staffs, and even from the hospital, and they will leave the hospital. 5) Patients can leave from the hospital without any excuse after registration or triage processes. 6) Patients may leave from the hospital without any payment after treatment due to the financial difficulties.
However, emphasis on internal assessment has also been problematic in some cases. For example, the Ofqual investigation into the issues around GCSE English in 2012 highlighted the high level of controlled assessment (60%) as an issue affecting results. Such a situation can put teachers into a “sensitive” position as they have significant control over the assessment and there can be strong pressure to deliver good results. 94
The rows of the above matrix ((1,1,1),(2)) (3) form a basis for the subspace V (3) ((1,1,1),(2)) of the vector space F 3 60 . We can consider this ten- dimensional subspace V (3) ((1,1,1),(2)) as a linear (60,10,6,3)-code (, p.16), where 60 means that each vector of this subspace has 60 coordinates, 10 means that the dimension of this subspace is 10, 6 means that any nonzero vector of this subspace
Both models use a compensation approach to grading in which the grade on a paper is determined by the total mark rather by meeting particular criteria (e.g. ‘must be able to…’). In order to provide more information about competencies, the Pilot has restricted each paper to narrow range of grades. Unusually for GCSE, curriculum content in GCSE mathematics is directly related to specific grades. The assumption underpinning the Pilot model is that questions can be accurately targeted at precise levels of difficulty, even though the examinations are not pre-tested (unlike national curriculum tests). This is in part because only, for example, grade A*-B students will have taught certain questions.