In general, the qualitative interviewing method is advantageous over other methods because when facing the difficulties of the participants, the researcher can observe directly, and the interviewing method can reveal vital historical information provided by the participates, such as previous (bad or good) situations that the customer or manager participants experienced while dealing with past customer complaints or servicemanagers’ behavior. Also, the interviewing method puts the researcher in control through his or her role of questioning (Creswell, 2014). Face-to-face interviews are the standard research method for the phenomenological research approach because the nature of such an approach requires gathering information that is mainly about human experiences and an individual’s views (Denscomb, 2014). Also, the collection of the data that are related to these experiences require deep explanation and investigation, which cannot be better detailed with any other type of data collection methods that does not involve face-to-face interviews. The desired outcome of the phenomenological research approach can be fulfilled through face-to-face interviews because the interviewees describe how things were experienced by those who were involved (Denscomb, 2014). For example, the phenomenological investigation of something likes customers’ satisfaction toward the quality of the after-sale services provided by their automobile dealers focuses on the experiences of being satisfied or dissatisfied with the variety of the after-sale services provided. This method helps the researcher try to understand how customers judge types of services from their point of view and how they evaluate or explain the causes of being satisfied or dissatisfied. Moreover, face-to-face
The importance of the service sector has sharply increased in the countries in today’s high competitive global market. The expectations and demands of the public are increasing day by day. Normal infrastructure and processes fall short in fulfilling those expectations and demands. As a result of which service sector is going through revolutionary change, which affects the way in which we live and work. Hence, new services are being launched on regular basis to meet the existing and potential needs of customers. Now, service becomes one of the most important elements for gaining a competitive advantage in the marketplace. The efforts of servicemanagers and academic researchers are directed towards understanding how customers experience or perceive the quality of service. Service providers mainly focus on providing superior servicequality to achieve higher level of customersatisfaction. Satisfying customers is one of the main objectives of every business as it can result in increasing the company’s income and they are more likely to purchase additional products and services and often generate new businesses for the companies through word-of-mouth recommendation. The study area that has attracted significant interest towards the understanding of customersatisfaction is servicequality. The object of improving servicequality is to give rise to customersatisfaction. Servicequality, as perceived by the consumer can have both direct and indirect impact on customer loyalty. The size of service sector is increasing in almost all economies around the world. At one end there are huge international corporations operating in industries such as airlines, banking, hotels, telecommunications and insurances. At the other end there are locally owned and operated small businesses such as restaurants, automobileservice centers, beauty parlors, laundries, etc. Any serviceindustry cannot survive in this highly competitive environment until it satisfies its customers by providing good qualityservice by . In services it is the customer who defines the quality and human side of service is key to deliver quality by Katarne and Sharma .
In terms of maintenance requirement the highest frequency was 43 which represent 63% under the category (M) which means their requirement is “Must have” (M). This is very crucial to the performance of after-sales services as “must have” is important not only from the customer perspective but for the company as well. The customer expects that the reported problem as a reason why the customer sent the car for servicing in terms of maintenance must be solved. This implies that if this requirement is not fulfilled the customer will be extremely dissatisfied (nonlinear impact on overall customersatisfaction). On the other hand as the customer takes this requirement for granted, their fulfillment will not increase the customersatisfaction (asymmetric impact on overall customersatisfaction. This is good as majority of the customers are happy that this re- quirement was met by CFAO Motors Kumasi Branch. More has to be done by CFAO Motors as 35% of the customers see this requirement as one-dimensional considering its consequences. This result aligns with  stressing the need of managers coming out with strategies that aligns with the perception of the cus- tomer’s appreciation of quality.
Of late, the policy makers have realized gravity of the problems since they appear interested in discussing and deliberating upon the problems of customer services even in the boardrooms. With the increasing level of customer expectations, it is essential that to be more specific the public sector commercial banks innovate strategies and promote technology- driven, user-friendly services to increase the market share vis-à-vis to project a positive image. This makes a strong advocacy in favour of bank marketing since its application in a right fashion would answer to a number of unsolved questions.
Ludin and Cheng (2014) found some factors including website design, security, e-servicequality and information quality that affect customersatisfaction in the case of online shopping. Moreover, Lin, Wu, and Chang (2011) showed that information quality, system quality, servicequality, product quality, delivery quality, and perceived price affect customersatisfaction. Security, information availability, shipping, quality, pricing, and time are the main factors influencing customer explained by Vasić, Kilibarda, and Kaurin (2019). Momtaz, Islam, Ariffin, and Karim (2011) argued that although many studies have not focused on advertisement which affect customersatisfaction because advertisement generates positive perception from the intention to the purchasing to consumption. Thus, the authors revealed that advertisement is the main factors and also product quality, brands, and experience influence customersatisfaction.
With the help of government supported credit policy for farmers’ tractor market expend rapidly. By 1990 Total 12 Lacs tractors were in the field. After liberalization since 1992 it has not been necessary to obtain an industrial license for tractor manufacture in India. With no production constrain and, more and more competitor in the market now game has changed. Intense competition also led to rapid advances in design and quality. Now India is world’s biggest producer and consumer of tractors. With Rs. 4,000 Cr. Industry and so many options Indian tractor customer has become king.
For analysis of the relationship betweenServiceQuality, Customersatisfaction, and Customer loyalty, researchers applied the Structural Equation Model- Partial Least Squares (SEM- PLS). Peng and Lai (2012), were of the view that PLS has gained prominence across many research fields such as operations management. Nell and Ambos (2013) said PLS is commonly used in strategic management and de Brentani et al. (2010) also asserted the use of PLS in innovation management. It is against these backgrounds that, the researchers have chosen the PLS for analyzing the models (Chin and Newsted, 1999; Peng and Lai, 2012; Wetzels et al., 2009). Another good reason for the use of PLS is because it is suggested for a few and medium-size sample less than 200 (Chin et al., 2003). In this regard, my sample size of 157 befits the use of PLS. Peng and Lai (2012), stated categorically that SmartPLS is widely known and used analytical tool for a population (sample) size ranging from 50 to 100 cases.
The work place social and psychological conditions of internal customers and maintenance personnel such as employee harassment, conflict resolution, interaction and communication between employees also affect the servicequality of equipment maintenance. The HR Manager is responsible to develop appropriate workplace policies and they are to be implemented through counseling, training and awareness programs.
Favourable servicequality sentiments were expected to result in higher levels of customersatisfaction (Yavas et al., 1997). Sureshchandar et al. (2002) identified the existence of strong relationships betweenservicequality and customersatisfaction while emphasizing that these two are conceptually distinct constructs from the customers’ point of view. Further stated that, continuous improvement of both servicequality and customersatisfaction are required due to the strong correlation between them. Superior servicequality and high levels of customersatisfaction are the important goals to enhance the business performance of the banks (Sureshchandar et al., 2002). Similarly, the studies of Yap, Ramayah and Shahidan (2012); Caruana (2002); Levesque and McDougall (1996) also found a positive effect of servicequality on customersatisfaction. Zameer et al. (2015) also stated that increase in servicequality leads to increase in customer’s satisfaction level. In a study conducted by Arasli et al. (2005) spotted that all the servicequality dimensions were statistically significant for the overall satisfaction in Northern Cyprus while except tangibles other dimensions were statistically significant for banks in Southern Cyprus. According to Yavas et al. (1997) servicequality dimensions, namely responsiveness, empathy and tangibles were identified as significant predictors of Turkish customersatisfaction. Thus, based on the above justification following hypothesis is proposed: H O1 : There is no relationship betweenservicequality and customersatisfaction
The focus of this research is to identify the relationship betweencustomerservice training and the customerssatisfaction. Any form of training in organization is intended to provide the necessary skills, attitude and knowledge needed by the employees to perform well in order to achieve the organizational goals. The effective of the training program normally will be identified through the evaluation process. Even though the training program is very effective the end result or ultimate aim for any organization will be the satisfaction of its customers. The satisfaction of the customers will determine the survival of the organization. This research intend to answer five main research questions.
No industrial license is required for setting up of any unit for manufacture of automobiles except in some special cases. The norms for Foreign Investment and import of technology have also been progressively liberalized over the years for manufacture of vehicles including passenger cars in order to make this sector globally competitive. At present 100% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is permissible under automatic route in this sector including passenger car segment. The import of technology/technological upgradation on the royalty payment of 5% without any duration limit and lump sum payment of USD 2 million is also allowed under automatic route in this sector. With the gradual liberalization of the automobile sector since 1991, the number of manufacturing facilities in India has grown progressively.
Despite the traditional competitive strategies in the grocery retailing, which include product conception, pricing, placement and promotion, marketers still rely on the integration of servicequality (SQ) as a main differentiation agenda to win competition (Cameran, Moizer & Pettinicchio, 2010). The earlier studies on the SQ cover its interrelationship with customersatisfaction (CS) (Cameran, Moizer & Pettinicchio, 2010), customer loyalty (Omar & Musa, 2011), buying behaviour (Perez, Abad, Carrillo & Fernandez, 2007), repurchase intention (Olaru, Purchase & Peterson, 2008), marketing segmentation (Okumus & Yasin, 2007), and implication strategies for various industries. One of the challenges faced by international retailers is a growing competition as well as increasing customer expectations (Zehir, Muceldili & Zehir, 2012; Cameran, Moizer & Pettinicchio, 2010) and the proliferation of demands in cross-cultural markets (Ihtiyar and Ahmad, 2012b; Hui, Chern & Othman, 2011). These changes in market force retailers to really understand and establish competitive strategies for long-term business success and CS. In this respect, measurement of SQ has played a crucial role for enhancing and improving CS in retail industry. How would SQ scores be different amongst emerging economies are yet to be explored and it would be interesting to make this comparison considering the enormous growth potential of nascent markets for retailers.
The population of the study was customers who patronized air-conditioning and refrigeration systems workshops for maintenance and repair work. A multistage sampling technique was adopted to collect data for the analysis. First, the Central Region was selected due to its strategic location between the capital region and the oil and gas regions of Ghana. Second, five administrative districts in the Region were sampled using purposive sampling, namely Cape Coast Metropolis, Swedru, Kasoa, Winneba and Dunkwa Municipalities. These are the five most populous administrative districts in the region (Ghana Statistical Service, 2012); settlements where most of the residents use domestic and industrial refrigerators including deep freezers, and air conditioning systems.The third sampling stageinvolved sampling ofsix maintenance and repair shops, employing purposive sampling technique, from each district. Finally, ten customers from each workshop were accidentally and conveniently selected. Thus a total of 300 customers, sixty from each administrative district,were involved in the study. However,taking into consideration returned questionnaire, missing data and ease of computation, 170 questionnaires were analyzed, at an effective response rate of 68.3 percent. The effective response rate of each district was Cape Coast Metropolis 68.33% (41 respondents); Swedru 53.33% (32 respondents): Kasoa 66.67%(34 respondents); Winneba 50%(33 respondents); and Dunkwa 50% (30 respondents).A pilot study of 32 customers helped to structure the questionnaire using English as the medium of communication.
Overall, the correlation results show that there is a significant relationship betweenservicequality dimensions and customersatisfaction, while, the results from regression testing show that only three servicequality dimensions have positive effect on customersatisfaction, i.e. after-sales service, empathy and responsiveness, while the rest, i.e. reliability, tangibles, product compliance and assurance are not significant. Regarding those factors, i.e. assurance, product compliance and reliability, even though the items, such as interpersonal skills and knowledge are important, based on this research, customers focus more on other factors, such as after-sales service which are more related to the matters of post purchase experience. Thus, banks should holistically improve the servicequality on lower correlated factors, such as assurance, product compliance or reliability in order to improve the overall performance of the bank. Otherwise it is hard for banks to maintain the customer loyalty due to stiff rivalry. Both banks, i.e. Maybank Islamic Berhad and Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad, should exercise good services offer to their customers with regards to officer ability, capability and also product features. One the most important aspects to be countered by banks is the training for their officers. This action should be taken seriously in order to refresh and upgrade the officer skill. As discussed from previous literature and findings of this paper, it is imperative for banks to attain and provide ample training to bank officers regarding servicequality. The possible context of the training can be conducted based on the proposed servicequality model from this research on how to increase the aspects of servicequality, such as after sales services, empathy, responsiveness, tangibles, reliability, product compliance and assurance. The findings of this paper validate the fact that certain facets of service delivery, such as the quality of the human interaction between bank officer and customers, are still important even in today’s phase of information technological advancement. Although Islamic banks should focus and invest in resources of developing internet banking facilities, and improving the access to bank services, Islamic banks also need to pay attention to the unchanging aspect of servicequality including the attitude of bank officers. At the end, only by recognising all the dimensions of servicequality will the Islamic banking in Malaysia succeed ultimately in fulfilling the customers’ expectations.
Kalafatis and Mathioudakis, 2011). In a case study conducted in a hotel in Sicily, Italy, Dominiciand Guzzo(2010) have found that service standardisation constraints satisfaction because customers are not able to customise their services. According to the authors, higher customersatisfaction could be achieved through customisation in services (Dominici and Guzzo 2010). Chand (2010) also argues that human resources practices help improve customersatisfaction and eventually performance of hotels. Similarly, Pugh, Dietz, Wiley and Brooks (2002) have focused their study on employees and have founda positive relationship betweencustomersatisfaction and employee satisfaction. The authors have verified that satisfied employees are able to increase customersatisfaction (Pugh, Dietz, Wiley and Brooks 2002).Beatson, Coote andRudd (2006) have also revealed that customers in hotels achieve higher satisfaction when they receive personal service from hotel employees compared to self-service technology where they have to self-serve themselves. This shows that hotel industry needs to give utter importance to value of the service delivered to customers in order to satisfy them. Besides that, this gives an idea that hotel customersprefer service received from hotels rather than ‘doing it themselves’.
Customersatisfaction is defined as the worldwide assessment of relationship satisfaction by any firm (Dwyer & Oh, 1987). Customersatisfaction for the most part relies upon two factors that is sensible quality food, general necessities and friendliness of the hotel (Das, Chawla, & Ray, 2017). Customersatisfaction is also dependent upon servicequality (Bolton & Drew, 1994). According to Cronin and Taylor (1994) customersatisfaction is usually recognized as the result of servicequality. It can further be explained as the positive relationship betweencustomersatisfaction and quality of products or services provided to customers. It is also established that there is a positive relationship betweenservicequality and customersatisfaction. Customersatisfaction is the key factor to determine hotel performance. Customersatisfaction has an impact on customer loyalty. Customersatisfaction positively influences to profitability of hotels. Customer loyalty also rises the income of the hotels (Anderson, Fornell, & Lehmann, 1994; Luo & Homburg, 2007; Yeung, Ging, & Ennew, 2002). If hotels want to retain in the business and earn profit they will have no choice other than satisfying their customers. Customers feel fulfilled when they have positive sentiments towards the concerned service or item. Such positive emotions are gotten from meeting or surpassing their needs, requests and desires. As it were, such positive emotions depend on the gap between their desires with their recognitions in the wake of accepting the service or utilizing the item. This gap will influence one's buying choice (Tareq & Nafez, 2019).
Previous literature had shown that a direct effects model to investigate servicequality program based on different samples such as perceptions of 145 tourists in a service context (Bitner, 1990), perceptions of 286 hotel customers from 5 selected luxury hotels in the Klang Valley (Mey et al., 2008), perceptions of 237 employees in a financial consultancy in Taiwan (Ouyung, 2010), 125 luxury hotel customers of Pakistan (Raza et al., 2012), and 295 rural tourism spot tourists in Malaysia (Osman & Sentosa, 2013). The outcomes of those studies reported that the willingness of service providers to properly implement tangibility, responsiveness, reliability, empathy, and assurance in delivering services had been the major determinants of customersatisfaction (Bitner, 1990; Mey et al., 2008; Ouyung, 2010; Raza et al., 2012; Osman & Sentosa, 2013). The findings of those studies had strongly supported the notion of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985) conceptual servicequality model, which revealed that matching betweenservicequality standards and customers’ standards might serve to decrease service performance gap and increase customersatisfaction about the quality systems. The application of the theory in a servicequality framework showed that the essence of servicequality was to maintain and promote customersatisfaction. For example, the willingness of providers to appropriately implement tangibility, responsiveness, reliability, empathy, and assurance in delivering services could lead to higher customersatisfaction in organizations (Bitner, 1990; Mey et al., 2008; Ouyung, 2010; Raza et al., 2012; Osman & Sentosa, 2013). 2.1. Conceptual framework and research hypothesis
Servicequality has been a major concern in recent years by professionals and researchers. It can be defined as a result of comparison between their perceptions of how their expectations of service has been done by the institutions. For example, according to (Zeithaml, Berry, & Parasuraman, 1990),therefore, the purpose of quality of service may be to serve customers in an organization that may be good or bad. It can be defined as the variance betweencustomer expectations and service perception (Parasurman, Zeithaml, & Berry, 1988). According to (Solomon 2009) as cited in (Agbor, 2011, p. 8) quality is one of the most important things that consumers expect from a service that makes the service unique. According to (Kotler, et al, 2002, p. 831). Other quality definitions are characteristics and features of the product or services that reflect their ability to meet the standards set out in order to meet the needs of the customer.
With the help of Government supported credit policy for farmers’ tractor market expend rapidly. By 1990 Total 12 Lacs tractors were in the field after liberalization since 1992 it has not been necessary to obtain an industrial license for tractor manufacture in India. With no production constrain and, more and more competitor in the market now game has changed. Intense competition also led to rapid advances in design and quality. Now India is world’s biggest producer and consumer of tractors. With Rs. 4,000 Cr. Industry and so many options Indian tractor customer has become king.
Severity plays an important role in the evaluation of service provider and customers weigh service failures more heavily than gains enjoyed (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979). Retailers should prioritize their objectives by determining whether they want merely to satisfy customer with their performance or to deliver maximum level of servicequality (Spreng and MacKoy, 1996). Researchers have proved that poor servicequality is one of the main reason of customer switching to competitor’s brand (Weitzel et al., 1989) as customers tend to shift to competitor’s products because of the dissatisfaction of servicequality rather than product quality itself (Whitely, 1991). It was argued that customers will exhibit more dissatisfied behavior for increased failure frequency or if they perceive that firm had ability to prevent it (Choi and Mattila, 2008). Reoccurring service failure or delay in service provokes dissatisfaction in customers (Diaz and Ruiz, 2002). Attributions from customer can be influenced by firm’s offer to customer for service recovery to compensate him in case of service failure. This can develop thinking in customers that firm cares for him and such failures will not happen again (Bitner, 1990). Attribution theory posits that high expectations result in high satisfaction (Brown, 2004). According to Keaveney’s (1995) the second most common reason of switching is service encounter failure. Service encounter failure could be bad attitude or unresponsiveness from employees while dealing with customer’s complaints or providing support.