Top PDF Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Hypertension in Cameroonian Adult Population

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Hypertension in Cameroonian Adult Population

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Hypertension in Cameroonian Adult Population

In our study, place of residence, Sudanese ethnicity and obesity were associated with EDS in hypertensive subjects. In the series of Stater et al. including 173 apneic and non- apneic patients recruited from a London sleep study center, obesity was associated with EDS regardless of other sleep disorders and hypertension [25]. After adjusting for confounding factors, our obese subjects were 63% more likely to have EDS compared to subjects with normal BMI. This risk was 175% in the study including 411 hypertensive subjects recruited from a hospital center in Douala, Cameroon [21]. Other studies have also reported an association between obesity and EDS [9, 26].
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Excessive daytime sleepiness and adherence to antihypertensive medications among Blacks: analysis of the counseling African Americans to control hypertension (CAATCH) trial

Excessive daytime sleepiness and adherence to antihypertensive medications among Blacks: analysis of the counseling African Americans to control hypertension (CAATCH) trial

We used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to assess the sever- ity of daytime sleepiness. This is a self-reported eight-item questionnaire using a Likert-type scale in which the respon- dent indicates a number ranging from 0 (would never doze or sleep) to 3 (indicating a high chance of dozing or sleep- ing) based on a given situation including sitting and read- ing, watching television, or sitting and talking to someone. Respondents who scored greater than 10 would be considered sleepy. Validation studies show satisfactory test-retest reli- ability (R = 0.82) and a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.88. 27
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Prevalence and determinants of excessive daytime sleepiness in hypertensive patients: a cross-sectional study in Douala, Cameroon

Prevalence and determinants of excessive daytime sleepiness in hypertensive patients: a cross-sectional study in Douala, Cameroon

BP was measured twice on the upper left arm, after at least 5 min of rest, using a validated automatic BP device (Spengler) and the second BP value was used for ana- lysis. 6 Hypertension was diagnosed if the patient had a systolic (and/or diastolic) BP of 140 (90) mm Hg or higher on two different occasions, or if the patient was on BP lowering medications over the last 15 consecutive days. Controlled BP was de fi ned as systolic BP less than 140 mm Hg and diastolic BP less than 90 mm Hg in patients under BP lowering medications. 6 Participants were considered to have diabetes if they were treated with hypoglycaemic medications (insulin diabetes medi- cations) or if their fasting blood glucose levels reached 126 mg/dL or more. 15 Dyslipidaemia was de fi ned by high total cholesterol (>2.7 g/L), high levels of triglycer- ides (>1.4 g/L), high levels of low-density lipoprotein (>1.6 g/L) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein chol- esterol (<0.29 g/L). 16 Waist circumference >94 cm in men or 80 cm in women was considered to be high. Neck circumference was considered high when it was ≥ 43 cm. 13 Participants who smoked at least one cigarette per day were classi fi ed as current smokers and those who had stopped smoking for more than 3 years were classi fi ed as former smokers. Patients were considered snorers when their bed partners or house mates testi fi ed to it. Hyperuricaemia was de fi ned by blood uric acid level greater than 70 mg/L. 16
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Neuropsychiatric Complications of Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Neuropsychiatric Complications of Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Performance deficits during neuropsychological tests can be documented with even mild OSA. Health - related quality of life (HRQL) is an important domain for measuring the impact of chronic disease [4]. In patients with OSA excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), may contribute to the impaired quality of life (QOL) [5]. Apart from serious and life threatening disorders such as hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident and heart failure, OSA causes defects in cognitive functions and mood. Neuropsychological impairment, resulting from OSA, affect daily life activities and the ability to set up regular social life. Although some studies reported that anxiety and depression are more common among OSA patients, and impairing the quality of life is much severe compared to normal population, other studies report no relationship between OSA and QOL, anxiety and depression [6].
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PREVALENCE OF EXCESSIVE DAYTIME SLEEPINESS (EDS) AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

PREVALENCE OF EXCESSIVE DAYTIME SLEEPINESS (EDS) AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

EDS is found to be associated with increased inflammatory markers such as TNF α and IL-6 [21]. If these cytokines remain chronically it will predispose an early onset of systemic disorders like Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension etc., Also individuals with EDS were reported to have psychological problems like irritability and decreased quality of interpersonal relationships [14]. All these factors can ultimately impair the quality of life and reduce the lifespan of the affected individual. This can be prevented by early lifestyle modifications with the complete understanding and co-operation of the affected individuals
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Prevalence and Assessment of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Diabetic and Obese Patients.

Prevalence and Assessment of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Diabetic and Obese Patients.

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness [EDS] is defined in International Classification of Sleep Disorders based on the behaviour of falling asleep, including difficulty maintaining alertness or wakefulness and unintentionally falling asleep. 2 Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms affecting about 20 percent of the world population. Persons with excessive daytime sleepiness are at risk of road traffic accidents and have poorer health than comparable adults. The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are sleep deprivation, diabetic mellitus, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea and sedating medications. Other potential causes of excessive daytime sleepiness consist of certain medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy. 3
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Atopic Dermatitis and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness: Analysis of Data from 8362 Adult Subjects in a Sub-Saharan Africa Country

Atopic Dermatitis and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness: Analysis of Data from 8362 Adult Subjects in a Sub-Saharan Africa Country

Abstract: Sleep disorders in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are common and can have a negative impact on the quality of life of the affected subjects. Very little data are available on the association between AD and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in adults. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of EDS in subjects with AD and those without AD, and to investigate the determinants of EDS in adults with AD. In this cross-sectional population-based study conducted from 2015 to 2018 in Cameroon, adult subjects aged at least 19 years were included by multi-level stratified random sampling. AD was defined as the presence of a chronic itchy dermatitis evolving intermittently over a period of at least 6 months and electively affecting certain areas (fronts of the elbows, back of the knees, front of the ankles, under the buttocks, around the neck, around the eyes or ears) during the last 12 months preceding the survey. EDS was defined by an Epworth score≥10. Logistic regression was used to investigate the independent association between EDS and AD. A difference was considered significant if p<0.05. A total of 8362 subjects (55.2% women) with median age (25 th -75 th percentiles) of 39 (27-54) years were included. There were 217 subjects (2.6%) with AD and 1022 subjects (12.2%) with EDS. The prevalence of EDS was higher in subjects with AD than in those without AD (22.1% vs. 12%, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis integrating potential confounders (area of recruitment, age, education level, body mass index, association with other allergic diseases), AD remained independently associated with EDS with an adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of 2.18 (1.54-3.08). No independent associated factors to EDS were found in subjects with AD. There is an independent association between EDS and AD, and nearly one quarter of patients with AD has EDS in this setting. It is necessary to consider the systematic evaluation of EDS in subjects with AD to optimize their management.
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Excessive daytime sleepiness and falls among older men and women: cross-sectional examination of a population-based sample

Excessive daytime sleepiness and falls among older men and women: cross-sectional examination of a population-based sample

Information regarding alcohol consumption and daily energy intake were obtained from the Cancer Council food frequency questionnaire [26]. Daily alcohol intake was expressed as gram intake per day (g/day), and energy intake was assessed as kilojoule per day (kJ/day). Level of mobility was assessed via a self-report questionnaire and transformed into a binary variable. Participants were classified as ‘active’ if they indicated a positive response to engaging in ‘moving, walking and working energetically and participating in vigorous exercise’; alternatively, participants were classified as sedentary. Current use of a mobility aid was assessed via self-report. Nocturia was assessed via self-report: participants indicated if they ‘often rose at night to use the toilet’ and how many times, on average, they needed the toilet during the night. Frequency responses were pooled into the categories 0-1, ≥2 times/night. Cases of nocturia were identified as those who used the toilet ≥2 times/night. Similar methods have been employed when assessing nocturia among samples of community-dwelling older adults [27]. Self-reported hours sleep per night was assessed as both a continuous and catagorised factor. Short sleep duration was defined as <6 hours/night, average sleep duration was 6-9 hours/night, and long sleep duration was classified as >9 hours/night. Similar methods have been employed to characterise sleep duration among com- parable population-based studies [28]. Current use of tobacco smoking and medication use (sedatives/hypnotics and antidepressants) were documented by questionnaire. The presence of diabetes was identified by fasting plasma glucose >7.0mmol/L and/or positive self-reported diagnosis and/or use of insulin and/or hypoglycemic agents.
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Factors Associated with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome under CPAP Treatment

Factors Associated with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome under CPAP Treatment

unusually high sleep efficacy and/or reports about 2 hours more sleep on each weekend day than each weekday, chronic sleep restriction is suspected [7]. Sleeping with the CPAP more hours will presumably result in improvements of sleepiness. According to the 2010 Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK) Japanese Time Use Survey [18], average sleep time per day in adult employed Japanese were 6 hours 55 minutes on weekdays, 7 hours 29 minutes on Saturday, and 7 hours 51 minutes on Sunday. Consequently, each day of the week marked the shortest sleeping hours since 1970. In a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey [19], the 1-month point prevalence of poor sleep quality in Japanese white-collar daytime employees was significantly higher than in the general population of Japanese adults. Most of the OSAS patients treated by CPAP are daytime employee. The present study esti- mated 19.4% of the OSAS patients with EDS showed actual sleep time to be less than 5 hours/day. This dura- tion might be equivalent to that of subjects with behave- ioral induced insufficient sleep syndrome in ICSD-2 [9]. For behavioral induced insufficient sleep patients, regu- larizing bedtime and increasing time in bed produces a resolution of their symptoms, but no other manipulations help significantly [7,20].
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Clinical Reasoning: A teenage girl with excessive daytime sleepiness, “fainting spells,” and dream mentations

Clinical Reasoning: A teenage girl with excessive daytime sleepiness, “fainting spells,” and dream mentations

DISCUSSION Our patient presented with excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (REM intrusion in wakefulness), and sleep paralysis. These symptoms, along with hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, characterize narcolepsy. Fragmented sleep at night is a newly recognized feature of narcolepsy. However, narcolepsy was unlikely given her normal sleep la- tency and HLA testing. Nocturnal sleep distur- bances, such as vivid nightmares, may be part of RBD, which may be the initial manifestation of nar- colepsy. 1 RBD, a parasomnia characterized by lack of

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Daytime sleepiness in Japanese patients with multiple system atrophy: prevalence and determinants

Daytime sleepiness in Japanese patients with multiple system atrophy: prevalence and determinants

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Niigata University School of Medicine. We per- formed a single-hospital prospective study on patients with probable MSA [15] who were admitted to our hos- pital between 2005 and 2011. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. A patient’s degree of daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Japanese version of the ESS [16]. Possible scores ranged from 0 for the lowest degree of sleepiness and 24 for the highest degree of sleepiness. EDS was defined when the ESS score was greater than 10 [17]. Patients who had not experienced the situations included in the questionnaire because of disease progression were asked to estimate their answers. Assessments were also performed with the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS) [18] and cognitive function tests, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) [19] and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) [20]. All patients underwent standard PSG.
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TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NARCOLEPSY: A REVIEW

TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NARCOLEPSY: A REVIEW

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder specifying the abnormal sleep manifestations which mainly impact the quality of life of narcolepsy patients. The exact cause is unclear but found significant evidences that orexin/hypocretin deficiency causes narcolepsy which regulates sleep. Treatment focuses on symptomatic relief throughout medication, education, and behavioral therapy. Stimulants are the first line treatment for the excessive daytime sleepiness. Modafinil, sodium oxybate, amphetamine, methylphenidate, and selegiline are effectual treatments for somnolence associated with narcolepsy. Tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs are one of the best treatments for cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations. Benzodiazepines are the best regimen for disturbed nocturnal sleep.
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Factors Associated with Smoking Behaviors among Military Cadets of King Khalid Military Academy (KKMA), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2015-2016)

Factors Associated with Smoking Behaviors among Military Cadets of King Khalid Military Academy (KKMA), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2015-2016)

Excessive daytime sleepiness was prevalent among medical students, Medical College, University of students, no differences were found between the students with excessive daytime sleepiness and their counterparts regarding academic grades, technology use, coffee consumption and sleeping pills intake, further multicenter studies are needed to determine the risk factors and management when appropriate. The study limitations were the fact that it was conducted at a single College, so generalization cannot be insured, and the reliance on a self- reported questionnaire is more prone to subjectivity.
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Impact of sleep disordered breathing on performance in judo players

Impact of sleep disordered breathing on performance in judo players

population used CPAP for less than 4 hours, partly due to the short-term design of the study. This suggested that their adherence to CPAP was poor, and the full effect of CPAP on judo performance could not be described, although ESS and performance were still improved. Similar results have been reported in a previous study which showed that even patients with poorer CPAP adherence experienced improvements in ESS scores. 27

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Immediate effect of CPAP titration on perceived health related quality of life: a prospective observational study

Immediate effect of CPAP titration on perceived health related quality of life: a prospective observational study

total PGWBI score and Health and Vitality subscales. However, adequately powered studies are necessary to examine gender differences in OSA clinical manifesta- tions and response to CPAP. Gender differences could be explained by female characteristics such as greater bodily attention, as well as social acceptance for females to express distress [25]. Females in a healthy population reported poorer well-being and had a higher symptom complaint rate [13, 15]. Furthermore, other studies sug- gest that females have more psychological morbidity and a poorer HRQoL than men in association with OSA [26], that may be due to differences in experience of OSA, like insomnia, depression vs. sleepiness, irritability. Another finding of the present study is that both patients receiving home and laboratory CPAP titration
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Sleep disturbances among patients with epilepsy

Sleep disturbances among patients with epilepsy

The data presented in Table 6 differ substantially depend- ing on the country and the area of the world. This results from observation period, population and age of epileptic patient, seizure, and therapy. Nonetheless, it should be stressed that the groups which were compared differed in size and that the population chosen for this study by the author was the biggest (N = 302).

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Moderating effects of depressive symptoms on the relationship between problematic use of the Internet and sleep problems in Korean adolescents

Moderating effects of depressive symptoms on the relationship between problematic use of the Internet and sleep problems in Korean adolescents

Additionally, we examined the moderating effect of de- pressive symptoms on sleep – related problems (insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and sleep-wake behavior prob- lems) with PIU using the Baron and Kenny method. In step 1, we conducted a regression analysis in which we analyzed the effects of the IAS scores and whether the individuals were included in the depressed group. Then, in step 2, we input the interaction variable between the IAS scores and whether the individuals were included in the depressed group back into the step 1 analysis. The step 1 analysis re- vealed that PIU did not have an effect on the SSS_Sleep-- Wake Behavior Problems Scale ( p > 0.05) or ISI ( p > 0.05). However, in step 2, we found a moderating effect of depres- sive symptoms on the SSS_ Sleep-Wake Behavior Problem Scale and the ISI scores (Fig. 1). In the depressed group, the SSS_ Sleep-Wake Behavior Problems Scale and ISI scores were not increased even with increasing IAS scores, but in the non-depressed group, the SSS_Sleep-Wake Behavior Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of adolescents with and without problematic Internet use
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Insomnia is associated to depressive symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure

Insomnia is associated to depressive symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure

Descriptive statistics were used to describe differences between the HF population with and without depressive symptoms. Categorical variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Continuous variables, if normally dis- tributed, were analyzed with the Student’s t-test (2-tailed) and presented as means and standard deviation (SD). The Mann-Whitney non-parametric test were used on skewed continuous variables, and presented as the median (md) and the 25th 75th percentiles. To determine the interrela- tionship between difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, early morning awakenings and non restorative sleep a Spearman’s rank correlation analysis was done. Binary regression modeling was used to ana- lyze the independent relation between depressive symp- toms and the insomnia variables. The model was ad- justed for covariates that in Table 2 had a univariate p value < 0.15 (i.e. NYHA class). The significance level was set at 0.05. Statistical computing was done with the SPSS 18.0.
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Sleep Problems among Pre-School Children in Qazvin, Iran

Sleep Problems among Pre-School Children in Qazvin, Iran

The study was approved by the research and ethics committee of Qazvin University of Medical Science in Iran. One-stage cluster sampling was used, with the entire population (region) divided into groups, or clusters. A random sample of these clusters was then selected. Qazvin city is divided into three urban districts, with 32 kindergartens. Fifteen kindergarten clusters were randomly selected. Children who were taking any medication treatment or had metabolic or psychological disorders were excluded. The guardians of 600 children signed a consent form. Of these, the questionnaires of 579 children (299 boys and 280 girls) were usable for the data analysis. Iranian versions of two questionnaires, the Children’s Sleep Habits questionnaire (CSHQ) (6,8,14,16) and BEARS (Bedtime problems, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Awakenings during the night, Regularity and duration of sleep and Snoring) (17), were completed by the interviewers. Bedtime problems in BEARS include resistance to going to bed and sleep onset latency (i.e. the time between going to bed and sleeping) > 20 minutes (18). The BEARS sleep screening tool is divided into five major sleep domains, providing a comprehensive screen of the major sleep disorders affecting children aged 2–18 years (15,17). Each sleep domain has a set of age-appropriate ‘trigger questions’ for use in the clinical interview. The CSHQ screens common sleep problems in children aged 2–12 years and consists of 33 items and 8 subscales. The items are rated on a 3-scored Likert scale (rarely = 0–1 night per week; sometimes = 2–4 nights per week; usually = 5–7 nights per week). Each question relates to the previous week, and is scored as 0, 1 and 2, respectively. A total score of more than 33 is the cut off and indicates sleep problems and sleep disorders in children (14,16–18). The data were collected from the mothers and trained questioners in three days.
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Prevalence of sleep disorders and its association with Obesity and academic performance among medical undergraduate students in North Karnataka

Prevalence of sleep disorders and its association with Obesity and academic performance among medical undergraduate students in North Karnataka

Conclusion: Sleep disorders are more prevalent among the medical undergraduates, and this would get exaggerated with obesity. Higher BMI values are associated with poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleeping and these factors in turn adversely affect academic performance in medical school. Hence healthy life style and maintenance of normal BMI is very important, along with adopting relaxation techniques such as Yoga and Meditation, to face the stress of the medical curriculum.

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