Top PDF Experiment 3 Acid and Base Titration

Experiment 3 Acid and Base Titration

Experiment 3 Acid and Base Titration

why the volume of H why the volume of H 2 2 SO SO 4 4 that has been use is less than that has been use is less than HCl. HCl. In this experiment, there are some mistake like use more than acid volume to titrate In this experiment, there are some mistake like use more than acid volume to titrate solution C or NaOH. The volume has pass the end point, so the volume uses is much more than solution C or NaOH. The volume has pass the end point, so the volume uses is much more than needed. To overcome this problem, we can titrate slowly and shake the volumetric flask for about needed. To overcome this problem, we can titrate slowly and shake the volumetric flask for about 30 second when the solutions show changing in colour from dark purple to colourless. The other  30 second when the solutions show changing in colour from dark purple to colourless. The other  rea
Show more

9 Read more

Triphenylmethanol and Tris(2 (hydroxymethyl)phenol) Derivatives: Synthesis and Application as Indicators for Acid Base Volumetric Titration

Triphenylmethanol and Tris(2 (hydroxymethyl)phenol) Derivatives: Synthesis and Application as Indicators for Acid Base Volumetric Titration

4,4',4''-Methanetriyltris(2-(Hydroxymethyl)Phenol) (3) 5,5',5''-methanetriyltris(2-hydroxybenzoic acid) (2), (1.50 gm, 3.5 mmol) was dissolved in 50 mL THF under anhydrous condition [15] [16]. The solution which was equipped with a magnetic stirrer and ice bath, was cooled down to 0˚C and then a 1M borane solution in THF (45 mL, 45 mmol) was added drop- wise over a period of 90 min. After the completion of addition of 1M borane so- lution, the ice bath was removed, and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm up to room temperature. The resulting mixture was stirred for 1 hr at room temperature and then was refluxed at 65˚C for 3 hrs. At the end of which analy- sis of a small aliquot of the reaction mixture indicated the completion of the reaction. The reaction mixture was carefully quenched with 15 mL of water, concentrated by rotary evaporation, and then was made acidic with a pH of 6.5 by addition of 1N HCl and subsequently extracted with Et 2 O. The organic layer
Show more

9 Read more

LEAVES EXTRACT OF PHYLLANTHUS MUELLERIANUS USED AS A NATURAL INDICATOR IN ACID BASE TITRATION

LEAVES EXTRACT OF PHYLLANTHUS MUELLERIANUS USED AS A NATURAL INDICATOR IN ACID BASE TITRATION

The ability of indicator to show wee-marked changes of colour in certain ranges of pH qualifies it as an acid-base titration indicator. The Phyllanthus muellerianus extract was screened for its use as an acid base indicator in various acid base titrations, and the results of this screening compared with the results obtained by standard indicators methyl red, phenolphthalein and mixed indicator [methyl orange: bromocresol green]. For the titration of strong acid and base (HCl and NaOH) and weak acid and weak base (CH 3 COOH and
Show more

5 Read more

Experiment 5 - Double Indicator Titration

Experiment 5 - Double Indicator Titration

Experiment 5: Double Indicator Titration Page | 2 III. DISCUSSION OF FUNDAMENTALS Introduction In the previous experiments, it is cited there that there are many types of titrations, and they differentiate according to what type of reaction it is. This experiment talks about an acid-base titration reaction, except that it revolves under a wider concept than the former experiments done, which is called as double-indicator titrations. Double indicator titration is defined as another titration method that is applied on the observation of polyprotic bases and acids. Practically, polyprotic acids and bases contain more than one equivalence point, and for which different indicators should be used in the process to determine the different endpoints of different pH. In this experiment, the carbonate species is to be used. Carbonate is in the form of CO 3 2- , meaning it can
Show more

16 Read more

Application of Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea Linn) extract as an indicator of
acid base titration

Application of Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea Linn) extract as an indicator of acid base titration

Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea Linn) are used as folk medicines. The roots and seeds are used as thenerves tonic and laxative. The leaves and roots are used in the treatment of urinogenital disorders, anthelmintic and antidote to animal stings [1].Flowers of butterfly pea contain anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are plant pigment, which are responsible for red violet-blue color in plant flowers [2].There are six major anthocyanins ternatins (A1, A2, B1, B2, D1 and D2) [3]which were characterized as malonylated delphinidin 3,3’,5’-triglucosides having 3’,5’-side chains with alternating D-glucose and p-coumaric acid [4].
Show more

6 Read more

On the Titration of a Weak Acid with a Weak Base: Application to the Potentiometric Determination of    the Degree of Acidity of Vinegar

On the Titration of a Weak Acid with a Weak Base: Application to the Potentiometric Determination of the Degree of Acidity of Vinegar

Article 3.1 of Spanish Royal Decree 661/2012 of April 13 (BOE No. 100 of April 23, 2012) defines vinegar [16] as "the liquid suitable for human consumption resulting from the double alcoholic and acetic fermentation of products of agricultural origin”. Wine vinegar is the product obtained exclusively by acetic fermentation of wine (article 3.3, RD 661/2012) [16-19]. Vinegar is a product obtained by the oxidation of ethanol contained in alcoholic beverages of low graduation thanks to the action of microorganisms (acetic bacteria). It contains different organic acids, mainly acetic acid, and other components such as sulphates, chlorides, sulphur dioxide, etc. Total acidity or acetic grade is a quality index, and is defined as all the volatile and fixed acids contained in vinegar expressed in grams of acetic acid in 100 ml of vinegar (acidity degree), i.e. % w / V. It can be determined by titration with a solution of a base of known concentration. Spanish legislation provides that commercial vinegars must contain at least 60 grams of acetic acid per litter (6% w/V) for wine vinegars. That is, commercial wine vinegars must have an approximate concentration of 1 M acetic acid. For other kind of vinegars, the minimum concentration required is 50 g/L acetic acid.
Show more

8 Read more

Formal Titration of Amino Acid

Formal Titration of Amino Acid

In the titration of amino acids to determine the ability of the enzyme trypsin degrade or hydrolyze gelatin into parts smaller again. The principle of this experiment, the protein follows the zwitter ion theory is an amino acid has two active sides (-COOH group and the amine group- NH 2 ), so it can be titrated using acids and bases. But in reality, the ammonium group of the amino acid is a buffer at high pH (above pH 11) so it is not possible to titration at the end point of the indicator. This is because an indicator generally has a pH scale as far as possible close to pH 7 due to acid-base titration is a neutralization reaction. Similarly, the carboxyl groups in amino
Show more

5 Read more

Investigation of a Simple and Cheap Source of a Natural Indicator for Acid Base Titration: Effects of System Conditions on Natural Indicators

Investigation of a Simple and Cheap Source of a Natural Indicator for Acid Base Titration: Effects of System Conditions on Natural Indicators

Commercial indicators are expensive and some of them have toxic effects on users and can also cause environ- mental pollution [1-3]. For these reasons there has been an increasing interest in searching for alternative sources of indicators from natural origins. These alternatives would be cheaper, more available, simple to extract, less toxic to users and environmentally friendly. Volumetric analysis is one of the key quantitative techniques used to analytically determine both inorganic and organic acid interaction with strong or weak acids and bases in raw materials, intermediates and finished products for quality assurance purposes [1]. This is accomplished via the use of appropriate weak organic dyes or acids pH indicators. Most pH indicators are either weak organic acids or bases dyes which accept or donate electrons. The change in color at a marginal range is attributed to their acidity or basicity properties. Although there are automated ti- tration apparatus that determine the equivalent points be- tween reacting species, indicators are still needed for teaching and research laboratories for simple titration [1]. Natural indicators have been extracted from Hibiscus (red species), Bougainvillea and rose flowers [1]. Several authors have reported on the effectiveness of natural in- dicators in acid-base titrations e.g. Nerium odorum,
Show more

6 Read more

Acid Base Titration Determination of the Purity of KHP (Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate)

Acid Base Titration Determination of the Purity of KHP (Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate)

Since there is only one acidic hydrogen in KHP (the one that is shown in boldface in the above formula), an equal number of moles of the strong monoprotic base NaOH and the amphiprotic KHP will react. (Although we are primarily interested in the acidic properties of KHP in this experiment, since KHP is amphiprotic it can also react with acids, in which case a diprotic acid named phthalic acid, H 2 C 8 H 4 O 4 is produced.) The volume of your

9 Read more

Constant Volume Titration: A Physical-chemistry CSTR-like Experiment

Constant Volume Titration: A Physical-chemistry CSTR-like Experiment

Abstract A new experiment is proposed as a laboratory activity for industrial chemistry undergraduate courses. It is a technique based on volumetric titration restricted to a constant volume. The modification of this titration imposes also immediate homogenization as in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR). As a consequence, the reaction mixture flows out of the cell during all the titration process. The detailed setup is described. The mass balance is used to derive the general equations governing the concentrations as function of the titrant volume. These equations are applied to the simplest case of a strong acid with a strong base reaction. The theoretical result is a continuous mathematical step function that predicts both the shape of the titration curve and the volume at the equivalence point. In the laboratory, the actual constant volume titration was carried out to gather experimental data. A pHmeter was used to monitor the titration from the beginning to beyond the equivalence point. The experimental data fit to the simulated curve. The fit is better if the solutions contain an inert salt to compensate ionic strength variations. An acid-base indicator was also used to detect the experimental equivalence point. The theoretical volume at the equivalence point is again confirmed by the experiment.
Show more

6 Read more

Acid Base Properties

Acid Base Properties

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines Abstract The organic compounds belonging to different functional groups have different properties affecting their chemical behavior. The experiment results are the following: cyclohexane and amyl acetate immiscible with HCl and NaOH; ethanol and ethylamine miscible with both reagents; phenol immiscible with HCl but miscible with NaOH, also does not form effervescence with NaHCO 3 ; and benzoic acid insoluble in HCl but soluble in NaOH, also form effervescence with NaHCO 3 .
Show more

5 Read more

Experiment 3

Experiment 3

METHODOLOGY Experiment 3 Prepare a 0.10 M buffer solution using 0.20 M salt solutions whose pH and volume will be assigned to you. The pH range will be between 2.0 to 8.2. Show your calculations for the volumes of the acid (base) and the salt to be used. Measure the calculated volumes using burettes. Mix and check the pH using a pH meter. Adjust the pH if necessary.

6 Read more

Natural Indicator for Acid-Base Titration from Thai Yellow Flower Extracts - Volume 10 Number 1 (Feb. 2019) - IJCEA

Natural Indicator for Acid-Base Titration from Thai Yellow Flower Extracts - Volume 10 Number 1 (Feb. 2019) - IJCEA

neutralizing with an acid or base of unknown concentration is called an acid-base titration [3], [4]. The equivalent point is very difficult to observe because the reaction between an acid and base will yield colorless salt and water. Acid-base indicators, also known as pH indicators, are usually weak acids or bases, which when dissolved in water dissociate slightly and form ions. A good indicator is a weak acid or weak base that is slightly soluble in water. The commercial indicators are relatively expensive and have a toxic effect on the user and can also cause environmental pollution [5].
Show more

5 Read more

Acid Base review q&a

Acid Base review q&a

Fourth line is the weak base. Note that it starts with a lower pH than the strong base (Third Line), and has a smaller range of equivalence. This smaller range is a result of the “buffering” effect of the conjugate acid of the weak base. For a strong acid, weak base titration, the equivalence point ends up being less than 7.0. The reason for this is that when the acid and base neutralize each other, the conjugate base is water (very weak, and no effect on pH) and the conjugate acid of the weak base is still weak, but has some effect on pH. For example ammonia (NH 3 ) neutralizes to ammonium ion
Show more

64 Read more

An Attractive Way of Developing the Concept of Systematic Titration Error of Visual Acid-Base Titrations (on the Basis of Logarithmic Acid-Base Diagrams)

An Attractive Way of Developing the Concept of Systematic Titration Error of Visual Acid-Base Titrations (on the Basis of Logarithmic Acid-Base Diagrams)

Aspartic acid itself (pK a1 = 1.94, pK a2 = 3.7 and pK a3 = 9.62) is a good representative of this class of amino acids. In abstract, a solution of the neutral amino acid not only could be titrated acidimetrically or alkalimetrically, as in the case of Alanine (in fact, Aspartic acid is, as all the amino acids, an amphiprotic substance). But a further question can be raised which attains to the fact that Aspartic acid is de facto a diprotic acid. Then, in principle, an alkalimetric titration of Aspartic acid can be performed up to a first stoichiometric equivalent point or continued to a second stoichiometric equivalent point (this dilemma arises with all multiprotic acids).
Show more

13 Read more

Experiment 1- Kinetics study of the hydrolysis of methyl acetate by acid-base titration.

Experiment 1- Kinetics study of the hydrolysis of methyl acetate by acid-base titration.

Introduction: Hydrolysis occurs when the bond in a molecule is being broken down after addition of water. Acidbase – catalyzed hydrolyses is very common and it is used in the hydrolysis of ester such as methyl acetate. Hydrolysis occurs in a very low rate in pure water. Activation energy of the hydrolysis of methy acetate is required to be overcome by the reactants in order to complete the reaction. Thus, acid which produces hydrogen ion such as hydrochloric acid is used as a catalyst to increase the rate of reaction. As the rate of reaction is being increased, the activation energy is now being overcome.
Show more

11 Read more

Development of a micro-flow titration method and application to acid-base titration

Development of a micro-flow titration method and application to acid-base titration

また,混合器から検出器までの送液チューブ内で十分に 中和反応が進行し,検出器到達時点で平衡に達している必 要があるが,長い送液チューブでは流量比変化からの遅延 時間が大きくなり,正確な濃度決定を妨害する.なお,検 量線を用いる場合は長いチューブを用いても差し支えない が,検量線に検出器到達までの遅延時間に由来する切片が 現れる.また,流量を小さくすると十分な混合が行える一 方,遅延時間が長くなる欠点もある.長さ 50 cm,内径 0.5 mm の反応コイルを用いた場合,総流量 10 ∼ 200 µl/ min で明りょうな当量点が得られ,100 µl/min の場合に は 1 試料当たり 3 分以内での測定が可能であった.長さ 50 cm の反応コイルを用い,総流量 100 µl/min で,検量 線により定量を行った.通常の滴定分析では滴下体積に基
Show more

6 Read more

Non - Aqueous Acid - Base Titration

Non - Aqueous Acid - Base Titration

D IFFERENT A CID – B ASE T HEORY ................................... 3 Arrhenius’s AcidBase Theory ......................... 3 Limitations of Arrhenius’s AcidBase Theory ..... 3 Bronsted – Lowry Theory of AcidBase ........... 4

17 Read more

Exp 6 acid and base titration

Exp 6 acid and base titration

3. Which indicators bracketed the pH colour change of sample 2? In my opinion, the indicator should be phenolphthalein as just when the indicator was added into the sample, it quickly turns from colourless to pink. Phenolphthalein only shows colour change whenever it was in a basic solution thus proving us directly that the solution is in basic condition.

10 Read more

Acid-Base Titration Curves in an Integrated Computer Learning Environment

Acid-Base Titration Curves in an Integrated Computer Learning Environment

There are three types of variables present in the graphical model and they are represented by different icons: (1) constants (pKa1, pKa1, pKw, Ca, Cb, Va, Vb), which are parameters that users can easily change in the user interface via a slider bar or directly by entering a value, (2) auxiliary variables (Vb, Fa, [H + ], [OH − ]), which depend on other variables via mathemati- cal formulas, and (3) the independent variable (pH). The presence of the independent variable has to do with the kind of modeling language that underpins the graphical model. To date, modeling languages can be divided into three kinds: (1) so-called aggregate modeling lan- guages (e.g. STELLA, Powersim, Model-it, Coach), also referred to as system dynamics modeling languages, (2) object-based modeling languages (e.g., StarLogo), and (3) agent- based modeling languages (e.g., NetLogo, AgentSheets). Aggregate modeling tools use accumulations (commonly called stocks or containers), flows and other graphical descriptors of changing dynamics to describe a system that is in mathematical terms represented by a (system of) differential equation(s) or finite difference equations. In most cases, time is the independent variable, but it can be anything, e.g., in our model pH. The only thing that hap- pens when you run the above model is that pH is repeatedly incremented with a user-defined step size dpH, as shown in the text-based model of Figure 2. By the way, in Coach 6 you can always show the text-based or equations-based model that is equivalent to the graphical model. It is actually a matter of choice whether one prefers the text-based or graphical modeling approach, although research [54] indicates that graphical modeling tools support novice modelers in constructing their own models and in understanding other people’s models. Anyway, an important didactic point of graphical modeling is the active choice of relations made by the modeler: the role of the modeling engine is only to perform the calcu- lation of the instructions received and to display results in the form of graphs, tables, and/or animations. The chemical relevance of the value of parameters in the titration model is rapidly visualized: for example, a student can easily investigate the relation between the shape of the titration curve and the values of ionization constants of the acid and base involved.
Show more

19 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...