Frictionstirwelding (FSW) process is an emerging solid state joining method in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. The welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and axial force plays a major role in deciding the joint characteristics. In this investigation central composite design technique and mathematical model was developed by response surface methodology with three parameters, three levels and 20 runs, was used to develop the relationship between the FSW parameters (rotational speed, traverse speed, axial force,) and the responses (tensile strength, Yield strength (YS) and %Elongation (%E) were established.
 E. Salari, M. Jahazi, A. Khodabandeh, and H. Ghasemi- Nanesa, “Influence of tool geometry and rotational speed on mechanical properties and defect formation in frictionstir lap welded 5456 aluminumalloy sheets,” Mater. Des., vol. 58, pp. 381–389, 2014.  B. Parida and S. Pal, “Fuzzy assisted grey Taguchi approach for optimisation of multiple weld quality properties in frictionstirweldingprocess,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 35–41, 2014.  R. K. Kesharwani, S. K. Panda, and S. K. Pal, “Multi
FrictionStirWelding (FSW) is currently used in many aircraft and aerospace sheet metal structures involving lap joints and there has been growing interest in recent years in utilizing this process for joining aluminum alloys. In this paper, FrictionStir Lap Welding (FSLW) of the 6061-T6aluminumalloy was carried out to obtain the optimum welding condition for maximum shear strength where the rotational speed, axial load, and welding speed were taken as process parameters. An L-9 orthogonal array, a Taguchi Method with con- sideration of three levels and three factors was designed and executed for conducting trials. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio were employed to investigate the influence of different welding parame- ters on the shear strength and obtain the optimum parameters. The Fish- er-Test was also implemented to find the design parameter which had the most important effect on the characteristic of quality. The results indicated that the tool rotational speed had the maximum percentage contribution (51%) on the response (shear strength) followed by the welding speed (38%) and the axial load (8%) while the percentage of error was 3%. However, to confirm the main effects for the means and S/N ratios of the experiment, theoretical shear strength values were computed to predict the tensile strength. The maximum shear strength of 60 MPa was achieved and the effec- tiveness of the method was confirmed. The optimum parameter combinations that provided higher shear strength were: rotational speed of 1200 rpm, weld- ing speed of 45 mm/min and the axial load of 11.5 kN.
In this study, Vikas, Mandeep Singh  use Al 6063 T6 is used as working material. Process parameters rotatory speed, traverse speed and in order to find their impact on tensile strength, the axial force is varied. The test was scheduled in the Taguchi orthogonal array L9. S / N ratios analyze the best possible setting parameters and ANOVA determines the contribution from the input parameter. Al6063 alloy butt joint specification with threaded cylindrical pin by FSW technique was successfully developed. They use rotational speeds 850rpm, 1050rpm, 1200rpm, traverse speeds 40mm/min, 58mm/min, 78mm/min and axial forces are 4kN, 5kN, 6kN.The optimal combination for FSW process parameters is a spindle speed of 1200 rpm, a translational feed of 78mm / min, an axial load of 6 KN, which achieves maximum tensile strength. .The maximum contribution of translation feed was 81.31% and rotational velocity was 15.44% accompanied by axial force with minimal influence of 2.03% on tensile strength. B. Influence of Tool Pin Geometric shapes on FrictionStir Welded similar AluminumAlloy Joints In this study, an effort was produced to evaluate the tensile strength under distinct tool pin geometries of comparable joints of FSW structural aluminumalloy plates. .The instrument pin geometries used in this investigation were triangular, rounded and hexagonal. In this case study, AA 6082-T6 sheets 200 mm X 80 mm X 8 mm were used. Based on ASTM-B557, the 19.05 mm wide and 158.57 mm2 cross sectional area were prepared.(refer fig. 2 Tensile Test sample) .Then tensile test was performed on UTM to define the tensile strength of 9 samples were welded using different pin profiles. .
S. Jannet et. al. 2013 dealt with Comparative investigation of frictionstirwelding and fusion welding of 6061-T6 and 5083-O aluminumalloy based on mechanical properties and microstructure. states .In this paper, the mechanical properties of welded joints of 6061T6 and 5083 O aluminumalloy obtained usingfrictionstirwelding (FSW) with four rotation speed (450, 560, 710 and 900 rpm) and conventional fusion welding are studied. FSW welds were carried out on a milling machine. The two plates of AA6061 aluminumalloy were Frictionstir welded in the butt configuration by using conventional vertical milling machine. The two plates were placed side by side and clamped firmly to prevent the abutting joint faces from being forced apart. In this study, there are four major controllable factors each one at four levels namely rotation speed (600, 700, 800, 900 rpm), Welding speed (10, 14, 16, 19 mm/min), pin tool length (5.3, 5.5, 5.7, 5.9 mm), tool pin offset distance (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mm). The optimum operating conditions of FSW have been obtained for two plates of aluminumalloy AA6061 welded in butt joint. The maximum temperature is obtained at 435ᴼC through optimized parameters using ANSYS. The obtained temperature is about 70 to 90% of the melting point temperature of the parent material. This indicated that the quality of weld is good. The ANOVA summary results of the gray relational grade indicates that pin tool length, transverse speed, rotation speed and tool pin offset distance are the relatively significant FSW process parameters, respectively, for affecting the multiple performance characteristics.
A319.Using Anova and Signal to noise ratio of robust design, effect on tensile strength of FSW process parameters is evaluated and optimum welding condition for maximizing tensile strength is determined.The authors also developed empirical relationships to predict the grain size and hardness of the weld nugget of the frictionstir welded AA7075-T6Aluminumalloy joints. Six factors, Five levels, central composite, rotatable design matrix is used for optimization of the experimental conditions. The empirical relationships are developed by response surface methodology incorporating tool and process parameters. A linear regression relationship is also established between grain size and hardness of the weld nugget of frictionstir welded joints. The welded nugget grain size is related with hardness of the joint. The developed relationships are effectively used to predict the weld nugget grain size of the joint non-destructively by measuring the weld nugget hardness . Investigated joining of two dissimilar aluminum alloys AA2014 and AA6061 usingfrictionstirwelding. The experiments were conducted on vertical end milling machine. The FSW has been conducted at range of 760-2000rpm by determining their mechanical properties with 15 no of experiments which is designed in RSM.This is followed by the conduct of ANOVA ensuring the statistical significance of the process parameters.Then non-traditional optimization technique namely GENETIC ALGORITHM (GA) has been used to derive the optimized process parameters of this welding technique.Thus after conducting all the experiment the testing is done and the optimization is done through using MATLAB 17 .
FrictionStirWelding (FSW) is considered to be the most significant development in metal joining in recent decades. In this investigation, the quality and corrosion behavior of a submerged frictionstir welded sample of AA6061-T6alloy were studied. This paper examines the three parameters used for this process such as rotational speed (rpm), welding speed (mm/min) and water level (mm). Visual inspection, X-ray radiography, micro-structural evolution and corrosion testing were employed to analyze the welded samples. A total of three levels (low, medium and high) were used for rotational speed (rpm) and welding speed (mm/min), each along with three varying water levels (mm) for radiography and corrosion analysis of the nine samples. No defects were observed on the weld region via visual inspection. Radiography tests indicate various defects in the welded samples with higher water level as its parameter. The interfacial and nugget region of the welded sample was also studied for the defect free sample evaluated by radiography technique, using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), showing no defects, good mixing and re-crystallized structure. The corrosion rates of the welded samples were studied via polarization in 3.5% Na-Cl solution, showing a high corrosion rate for samples with higher water level as their parameter.
Actually, this comprehensive study is the first report attempting to quantify the corrosion evaluation of FSLW in AA6061-T6 aluminium alloy according to welding parameters and process sensitivity. The goals of the present study is to evaluate the influence of FSW parameters mainly ω and ν on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6061-T6 and then corrosion behaviors of desirable AA6061-T6 welded lap joints. In this study, parametric studies were performed involving a lap type of weld including process parameters such as rotation speed (ω, rpm) and welding speed (ν, mm/min). Different rotation speeds and welding speeds were determined according to predefine weldingprocess parameters. Overlap shear tensile testing and micro- hardness measurement was conducted for evaluating the effect of the FSW process on the mechanical properties of weldments. Metallography examinations of weldments structure (i.e. macro and micro) was performed for investigating the influence of the FSW process on the microstructure of AA6061-T6aluminumalloy. According to ASTM standards, corrosion behaviors of desirable AA6061-T6 welded lap joints was examined by using various corrosion test methods including immersion test (i.e. intergranular corrosion test, ASTM G110) and potentiodynamic polarization tests (i.e. Tafel plots and pitting scans, ASTM G59 &G61). Optical microscopy (OM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with dispersive energy X-ray (EDX) analysis were utilized for characterizing the weldment microstructures.
In this paper, an attempt was made to investigate the impact of process parameters of FSW in the mechanical properties of the joint. From this investigation, the following conclusions have been derived: (i) The weld root surface of all the weldments showed visually a well joined defect free sound flat surface. (ii) The increase in stir–probe rotation speed more than 1200 rpm enhanced the weld soundness which may be a result of softening process associated with dynamic recovery and recrystallization process at the weld. (iii) The formation of fine equiaxed grains and uniformly distributed, very fine strengthening precipitates in the weld region are the reasons for the superior tensile properties of FSW joints. (iv) The width of the stir zone may depend on the balance between the total heat input and the cooling in the plasticized material. The area of the weld nugget zone size slightly decreased as the welding speed increased. Comparing with other welding speeds, the lowest speed 16mm/min results better mechanical properties and increase in the area of the weld nugget.
In present experiment we select 4mm thickness of Aluminium sheet. Aluminium sheet was cut with the dimensions of 4mmx70mmx100mm using shearing machine and the edges of the plate are filed to get smooth surface finish. After the plates are cut into required sizes, fix the plates side by side on work table rigidly by clamps to form butt joint. The tool material selected for this experiment is H13 Tool Steel due to its excellent combination of high toughness and fatigue resistance. Tool profile is threaded pin profile.
In this study, the effect of rotational speed and traverse speed on the micro – and macrostructure, and mechanical properties (tensile and microhardness properties) of frictionstir butt-welded 6061-T6 aluminium alloy has been investigated. A number of research studies have been conducted on frictionstirwelding of various aluminium alloys, the rotational and traverse speeds were noticed to have a greater influence on the formation of a quality weld. In this study, welds were fabricated from different parameter combinations by varying the rotational and traverse speeds during the welding procedure. The rotational speeds employed representing the low, medium and high settings are 700, 900, and 1100 rpm respectively while the traverse speeds utilised were 60, 80, and 100 mm/min traverse speeds. To ascertain the joint integrities, the welds were characterised through hardness, microstructure, and tensile tests. The hardness test was performed along the cross-section of the welds. The changes in the microstructure and hardness were analysed and further correlated to the tensile strength of the 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope were used for microstructural analysis. Instron machine and Vickers hardness machine were used to perform tensile and hardness tests, respectively. The results showed that the grain size decreased from the heat affected zone (HAZ) towards the centre of the nugget zone (NZ) due to the stirring during the FSW process. The average hardness in the NZ decreased when the rotational speed varied from 700 rpm to 900 rpm, and then increased with a further increase in the rotational speed to 1100 rpm at constant traverse speeds of 60, 80 and 100 mm/min.
ABSTRACT: Within this research study, Taguchi system of style of experimental was utilized to assess the impact of some weldingprocess parameters of sound state welding techniques like rotational speed(spinning velocity), travel speed in addition to pin profile on Tensile Strength (UTS), microhardness in addition to effect strength of FrictionStir Welded (FSW) 2024 light weight aluminumalloy joint. An orthogonal array of L9 design was actually employed for experimental trials and also Signal to noise proportion( S/N) values for each process specifications was computed. Based upon the S/N review the optimal level of process specifications was actually decided on as 1120 revoltions per minute, 25 mm/min and also Cylinder pin with Flutes( CWF) for best Tensile Strength and also micro Hardness. The ideal degree of process parameters for Impact toughness was actually pinpointed as 1120rpm,31.5 mm/min and also Tapered Cylindrical pin account( Drawback). Depending on to Analysis of variance (ANOVA), it was seen that the task of spinning, travel velocity and also pin geometry was 37.31, 64.84 and 1.13 per-cent effect on Ultimate tensile strength, 34.16, 51.28 and 0.58 per-cent impact on micro Hardness as well as 50.10, 43.7 and 6.2 percent influence on Influence Toughness of joint respectively. Eventually based upon FSW guidelines a model was actually created for tensile strength, Micro Hardness and Toughness values. The results were confirmed by further experiments, which yield the experimented values as 349.83 MPa for tensile strength, 114.26 Hardness and 7.8kJ Impact strength.
Figure 4 shows the cross-sectional macrostructure of the dissimilar FSW joints between the UFGed 1050 Al and 6061-T6 Al alloy plates, which were obtained at different revolutionary pitches ranging from 0.5 to 1.25 mm/rev. Since the 6061-T6 Al alloy was etched black using Keller’s reagent, the interface and mixing status of the two materials could be readily discerned in the joints. The entire stir zone of the FSW joint consists of the shoulder-affected zone and probe-affected zone. The shoulder affected zone becomes larger at higher rotation speed or lower welding speed, while the probe affected zone shows less sensitive to the welding condition. This has been recently confirmed by the investigation with an adjustable rotating tool . As a result, a crown-like stir zone is generally formed along the transverse direction, especially for thin plates like in this study. It can be found that the area of the stir zone became larger with the decreasing welding speed for all the samples. At higher revolutionary pitch of 1 and 1.25 mm/rev, the bending of the interface between the alternative layers of the aluminum sheets was observed in the UFGed 1050 Al side near the stir zone as shown by the arrow in Figure 4c. Generally, a well chemically etched cross-section of the frictionstir weld reveals an onion-ring structure in the stir zone with a round flow pattern formed by bright and dark lamellae in the dissimilar aluminum joints [31,32]. However, in this study the round flow pattern containing bright and dark lamellae was not observed in the stir zone, probably due to the relatively smaller thickness of the plates. In contrast, roughly two kinds of mixing types could be classified. One was the mixing of dissimilar materials caused by the lower heat input at the high revolutionary pitches of 1 and 1.25 mm/rev. In this case, the size of the stir zone
________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract - The Austenitic stainless steel 304 and Aluminium alloy 6082 T6 were friction welded. The welded samples were prepared for tensile test. The optimization of weldingparameter is found by design of experiments. The effect of parameter over tensile strength is analyzed. The present work was focused on optimization of Aluminium alloy-Stainless steel welds. Many intermetallic compounds are formed at the interface. This may lead to have a difference in mechanical properties of weld joints with respect to the varying parameters.
Frictionstirwelding (FSW) was invented in 1991 as a solid state weldingprocess, enjoying worldwide interest because of its advantages over traditional joining techniques. In the FSW process, a special rotating tool travels down the length of contacting metal plates, with a continual hot working action, creating a plastically deformed zone that is stirred into a solid-phase weld on the trailing side of the welding head pin. At the same time, the thermo-mechanical affected zone is produced by friction between the tool shoulder and the workpiece and by the contact of the material with the tool edges, inducing plastic deformation: it is considered that the formability of FS-welded material is influenced by FSW parameters [7-13].
Array design of experiment. Two processparameter which are spindle speed (rpm) and welding speed (mm/s) were considered under this study. Signal-to-Noise ratio (S/N) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to identify the significant welding parameters affecting the joint tensile strength. Two factors with three levels orthogonal array were developed by application of Minitab software. A total of nine numbers of trial run (L 9 ) were used to optimize the process parameters to attain the
Frictional heat is generated between the wear-resistant welding components and the work pieces. This heat, along with that generated by the mechanical mixing process and the adiabatic heat within the material, cause the stirred materials to soften without melting. As the pin is moved forward, a special profile on its leading face forces plasticized material to the rear where clamping force assists in a forged consolidation of the weld.The process advantages result from the fact that the FSW process takes place in the solid phase below the melting point of the materials to be joined. The benefits include the ability to join materials that are difficult to fusion weld, for example, 2XXX and 7XXX aluminium alloys, magnesium and copper, Low distortion and shrinkage, even in long welds, Excellent mechanical properties in fatigue, tensile and bend tests. Frictionstirwelding can be performed using purpose-designed equipment or by a modified existing machine tool technology such as a milling machine. The process is also suitable for automation and is adaptable for robot use. The other benefits include.
The FSWed samples were prepared for metallographic observations with a standard polishing down to 1 μm diamond paste followed by BUEHLER Vibromet polishing for 48 hours with 0.05 μm colloidal silica solution. A Keller etchant was employed for 15 seconds to reveal the microstructure. Optical micrographs were obtained with an OLYMPUS Lext OLS4100 laser scanning confocal microscope. Tensile specimens were machined from the welded plates so that the loading direction was parallel to the cross-welding direction of the joined plates. Specimens were extracted both from the base materials to provide a reference and from the joints as specified in Figure 3-a (the joint being centered in the specimen gage). Tensile test were performed on dog-bone tensile specimens with the geometry displayed in Figure 2.5-b. Tool plunging into material surface creates sharp edges which are stress concentration sites (Masoumi, Zedan, Texier, Jahazi, & Bocher, 2016); All tensile samples were consequently polished to remove the surface defects. Tensile tests were conducted on a 5kN Kammrath & Weiss micro-tensile device at a constant crosshead displacement rate of 7 μm.s -1 . The specimen
In this work, three process parameters such as spindle speed, welding speed and plunge depth were considered for frictionstirwelding .As it is difficult to perform number of experiments to find out the level combinations which yield good mechanical properties like tensile strength, TaguchiL9 orthogonal array is used to reduce the number of experiment. The material is bought and are cut into specific material and polished. They are then welded based on the different experiment obtained from Taguchi method. After welding is done the metals are cut as per the specific standard. The results are then analyzed using Taguchi method Keywords: Aluminum Alloys, Axial Force, Friction-StirWelding, Microstructure, Tensile Strength
that level. The mean response of raw data and S/N ratio of tensile strength for each parameter at level 1, 2, and 3 were calculated and are given in Table 5. The means and S/N ratio of the various process parameters when they changed from the lower to higher levels are also given in Table: 5. It is clear that a larger S/N ratio corresponds to better quality characteristics. Therefore, the optimal level of processparameter is the level of highest S/N ratio (Sharma et al., 2005). The mean and S/N ratio (Table 5.) for tensile strength were calculated by statistical software, indicating that the tensile strength was at maximum when rotational speed at 1200 rpm, traverse speed at 1.2 mm/s and axial force at 7000N. The comparison of mean and S/N ratio are presented in Fig: 4