Top PDF Experimental evaluation of paraffin based phase change material on thermal performance in building

Experimental evaluation of paraffin based phase change material on thermal performance in building

Experimental evaluation of paraffin based phase change material on thermal performance in building

1.2 Problem Statem ent Lately, numerous experimental researches were performed on PCMs to determine the feasibility o f applying them as high performance building construction materials in terms o f thermal management. Iraq being a major producer o f crude petroleum oil and related products, from which paraffin is highly abundant at low cost. Despite their availability, local paraffin as PCMs for building purposes are not explored yet. Thus, it is vital to explore the possibility o f using locally extracted paraffin as a thermal storage material in hot and dry climate buildings’ construction, where the consumption o f electricity is too high and expensive for maintaining the air conditioning and heating/cooling systems in the nation. Moreover, except for three months over the year, hot and climate region as well as majority o f the G ulf States face severe summer with temperatures as high as 55°C. During such extreme hot weather condition the sensitive expensive devices and technology housed in the building faces problem due to sudden power cut and major shut-down. Failure o f such costly equipment often causes high economic losses for the nation as such as DNA device which inside building. To beat such high heat climate and discomfort during summer days, huge air-conditioning set-ups are prerequisite in the building architecture to keep them cool and comfortable. This is quite expensive and not environmentally friendly. Therefore, alternative economic routes are needed to be developed such as using local paraffin as useful PCM.
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Evaluation of thermal energy dynamics in a compacted high conductivity phase change material

Evaluation of thermal energy dynamics in a compacted high conductivity phase change material

4 However, PCMs have so far achieved limited applications in buildings due to their relatively poor thermal response and other integration barriers. To this end, some research efforts towards enhancement have been carried out by various investigators. Sarl [9] developed and tested an experimental composite PCM with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and obtained an increase of 24% in its thermal conductivity. Li et al [10] investigated a novel form-stable phase change material comprising of micro-encapsulated paraffin and HDPE material and also achieved up to 25% thermal enhancement. Other researchers such as Borreguero et al. [11], Feldman et al. [12] and Darkwa and Zhou [13] have further evaluated different composite PCM materials and achieved good heat transfer enhancements but did report reductions in energy storage densities. In this current study it is proposed to overcome these barriers through pressure compaction technique whereby an atomized metal powder of predetermined size is combined with PCM particles in a pressure controlled environment to obtain an enhanced composite material.
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Nano Enhanced Phase Change Material Paraffin Wax with Ti02 for Thermal Energy Storage Application

Nano Enhanced Phase Change Material Paraffin Wax with Ti02 for Thermal Energy Storage Application

Latent heat thermal energy storage technique has proved to be a better engineering option primarily due to its advantage of providing higher energy storage density with the smaller temperature difference between storage and retrieval. Thermal energy can be stored in the form of sensible heat in which the energy is stored by raising the temperature of the storage material solid or liquid. Rock or water is the best example. Meanwhile thermal energy can be stored as latent heat in which energy is stored when a substance changes from one phase to another by either melting or freezing. The temperature of the substance remains same during phase change. In order to increase the effective thermal conductivity usually highly conducting materials are added to the paraffin wax. Titanium dioxide nano particle is mixed with phase change material and experimental analysis has been carried out to investigate the performance improvement due to the addition of nano titanium(Tio2) particles in paraffin wax in a shell and tube heat exchanger by both the cyclic as well as individual charging and discharging.
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Thermal performance evaluation of an integrated photovoltaic thermal phase change material system using Taguchi method

Thermal performance evaluation of an integrated photovoltaic thermal phase change material system using Taguchi method

In this study, Taguchi method was used to design trial simulations based on an orthogonal array in order to obtain the maximum amount of the information on the thermal performance of the system with a minimum number of simulation exercises. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the response significance of the individual factors and identify the percentage contribution of each factor to the objective function. The sum of squares of factors, the pure sum of squares of factors, the variance of factors and percentage contribution of factors were the key statistic parameters used in ANOVA [9]. Five parameters, including the PCM type, the thickness of the PCM brick, the length of the PCM TES unit, the PCM charging air flow rate, and the size of the air gap between the glass cover and the PV cell in the PVT collector were selected as the control factors for performance analysis since these variables have been reported to be critical to the performance of PVT collectors and PCM TES units [10-12]. The PCMs considered in this study were SP24E and SP26E available from Rubitherm with a melting range of 24-25 o C and 25-27 o C, respectively [7]. Other control factors were designed to have three levels as
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Thermal energy storage using paraffin wax and stability study of the phase change material containing nanoparticles

Thermal energy storage using paraffin wax and stability study of the phase change material containing nanoparticles

A few main operational factors can be varied to improve the performance of the thermal storage unit and its storage capacity. These factors are related to properties of the HTF, namely, the HTF inlet temperature and HTF flow rate. Most of the experimental studies proved that increasing the HTF inlet temperature results in reduced melting times at varying degrees (Korti & Tlemsani, 2016; Dinker et al., 2016; Tayssir et al.; 2016; Zhang et al., 2017; Yang et al., 2017). An increased temperature difference between HTF and PCM gives rise to a higher heat transfer rate. Yet, there is a limit in the reduction of charging times as discussed by Yang et al. (2017). They pointed out that increasing the inlet HTF temperature from 72°C to 77°C did not yield the same reduction in charging speed compared to a case where the inlet HTF temperature was increased from 67°C to 72°C. Charging at a low HTF inlet temperature was found to be more uniform throughout the storage, whereas charging at a high temperature induced more uneven dynamic melting (Korti & Tlemsani, 2016, Sundaram et al., 2016). The effect of the volumetric flow rate of HTF on charging and discharging, on the other hand, was found to be subtle (Zhang et al., 2017; Korti & Tlemsani, 2016, Sundaram et al., 2016) and sometimes negligible (Yang et al.,2017). This was because an increase in flow rate only enhances forced convection in the heat exchanger pipe; while an increase in HTF temperature improves the heat transfer among the HTF, heat exchanger and PCM (Yang et al., 2017). Tayssir et al. (2016) also showed the greater influence of the HTF flow rate on charging at high inlet HTF temperatures.
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Design and Analysis of Phase Change Material based thermal energy storage for active building cooling: a Review

Design and Analysis of Phase Change Material based thermal energy storage for active building cooling: a Review

In this experimental set up PCM latent heat cool energy storage can be provided with water by utilizing conventional water cooling towers which helps to cool the circulating water. during night shutters are opened and also a cooling tower pump is also in on mode so that a free flowing ambient air comes in contact with cooling tower water which cools the water to the desirable range of 150C TO 200C, when this cooled water reaches to TES tank absorbs heat from the PCM and lowering its temperature to its freezing point. At this point PCM absorbs the latent heat without lowering its temperature further. This cooled water is used to circulate through a fan coil unit during day period for cooling the room. Again this latent heat of PCM maintains the low temperature of circulating water.
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Design and Analysis of Phase Change Material based thermal energy storage for active building cooling: a Review

Design and Analysis of Phase Change Material based thermal energy storage for active building cooling: a Review

In this experimental set up PCM latent heat cool energy storage can be provided with water by utilizing conventional water cooling towers which helps to cool the circulating water. during night shutters are opened and also a cooling tower pump is also in on mode so that a free flowing ambient air comes in contact with cooling tower water which cools the water to the desirable range of 150C TO 200C, when this cooled water reaches to TES tank absorbs heat from the PCM and lowering its temperature to its freezing point. At this point PCM absorbs the latent heat without lowering its temperature further. This cooled water is used to circulate through a fan coil unit during day period for cooling the room. Again this latent heat of PCM maintains the low temperature of circulating water.
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Experimental Investigation and Performance Enhancement of Phase Change Material with Al2O3 Micro Particles

Experimental Investigation and Performance Enhancement of Phase Change Material with Al2O3 Micro Particles

To enhance the effective thermal conductivity of the system fig (1) shows the inner pipe is made of copper. The outer pipe is made of galvanized iron (GI). The outside of the outer pipe was insulated with 3 mm thick rope to reduce the heat loss during charging and discharging process of the PCM. The outer pipe inner side was filled with 230gms commercial grade paraffin wax being used as latent heat storage media. Resistant Temperature Detectors (RTDs) (T1, T2, T3, T4) were used for measuring the inlet and outlet temperature of heat transfer fluid (HTF) and the PCM temperature at two locations in the PCM tank. A two tank systems are used for maintaining a constant pressure head for inlet water to maintain nearly constant flow rate. Heaters with RTDs were also provided in the water tanks for constant inlet water temperature during charging mode. Flowing hot water through inner pipe started the energy charging test, and the stored energy was extracted by passing cold water in the inner pipe. The temperature of water at inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger at four axial locations were measured simultaneously at an interval of 10 min.
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Experimental Investigation and Performance Evaluation of Solar Still using Phase Change Material

Experimental Investigation and Performance Evaluation of Solar Still using Phase Change Material

Different designs of solar still have emerged. The single effect solar still is a relatively simple device to construct and operate. However, the low productivity of the Solar still triggered the initiatives to look for ways to improve its productivity and efficiency. These may be classified into passive and active methods. Passive methods include the use of dye or charcoal to increase the solar absorbitivity of water, applying good insulation, lowering the water depth in the basin to lower its thermal capacity, ensuring vapor tightness, using black gravel and rubber, using floating perforated black plate, and using reflective side walls. Active methods include the use of solar collector or waste heat to heat the basin water, the use of internal] and external condensers or applying vacuum inside the solar still to enhance the evaporation/condensation processes, and cooling the glass cover to increase the temperature difference between the glass and the water in the basin and hence increases the rate of evaporation.
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Parametric Study on Phase Change Material Based Thermal Energy Storage System

Parametric Study on Phase Change Material Based Thermal Energy Storage System

The behavior of a packed bed latent heat thermal energy storage system is analyzed. The packed bed utilizes the spherical capsules filled with paraffin wax as phase change material (PCM) usable with solar water heating sys- tem. The equations are numerically solved, and the results obtained are used for the thermal performance analy- sis of both charging and discharging process. The effect of inlet heat transfer fluid temperature (Steffan number), mass flow rate and phase change temperature on the thermal performance of capsules of different radii have been investigated [1]. The application of Taguchi’s robust design coupled with fuzzy based desirability function approach for optimizing multiple bead geometry parameters of submerged arc weldment and Fuzzy inference system has been adapted to avoid uncertainly, imprecision and vagueness in experimentation as well as in data analysis by traditional Taguchi based optimization approach [2].
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Experimental Investigation of Visualization and Package of Phase Change Material for Thermal Management of 18650 Lithium Ion Battery

Experimental Investigation of Visualization and Package of Phase Change Material for Thermal Management of 18650 Lithium Ion Battery

A latent heat thermal energy storage method based on phase change material (PCM) such as paraffin has raised increasing interests for thermal management of lithium-ion batteries. The solid-liquid phase change process of PCM is ana- lyzed to investigate the thermal energy storage [6]. Thermal conductivity en- hancement of PCM has been studied extensively over several decades to work out the problems of low thermal conductivity of PCM by adding highly conduc- tive materials such as fins [7], expanded graphite [8] and metal foams [6] [9]. Wang et al. [7] did an analysis of the thermal behavior of a composite paraffin and fin structure. Their results showed that the battery temperature for the finned cases were lower than that for the pure PCM case, indicating that adding fins improved the thermal performance of battery. The new phase change com- posites using erythritol as a PCM and graphite and nickel particles as highly thermal conductive fillers was developed by Teppi et al. [8]. And the effective thermal conductivities of phase change composites became two orders of mag- nitude larger than that of the original PCM. Metal foam with high thermal con- ductivity and high porosity can be applied to enhance the thermal conductivity of pure PCM. Copper foam and nickel foam with various porosities and pore sizes were impregnated with pure paraffin with vacuum assistance by Xiao et al . [9]. Their results showed that the effective thermal conductivities of the compo- site PCMs were drastically enhanced, e.g. the effective thermal conductivity of the paraffin/copper foam composite PCMs fabricated by the foam porosities of 88.89% and pore size of 25 PPI (pore per inch)were 16.01 W/m·K, which are about forty-four times larger than that of pure paraffin. In our recent work [7], we examined the thermal behavior with PCM-fin composite structure in battery thermal management and determined the characteristic temperature points. And further investigation was conducted to explore the underlying heat transfer me- chanism of pure PCM along with the help of experimental visualization [10].
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Nano-enhanced phase change material for thermal management of BICPV

Nano-enhanced phase change material for thermal management of BICPV

Building-Integrated Concentrated Photovoltaics (BICPV) is based on Photovoltaic (PV) technology which ex- perience a loss in their electrical e ffi ciency with an increase in temperature that may also lead to their permanent degradation over time. With a global PV installed capacity of 303 GW, a nominal 10 °C decrease in their average temperature could theoretically lead to 15 GW increase in electricity production worldwide. Currently, there is a gap in the research knowledge concerning the e ff ectiveness of the available passive thermal regulation tech- niques for BICPV, both individually and working in tandem. This paper presents a novel combined passive cooling solution for BICPV incorporating micro-fins, Phase Change Material (PCM) and Nanomaterial Enhanced PCM (n-PCM). This work was undertaken with the aim to assess the unreported to date bene fi ts of introducing these solutions into BICPV systems and to quantify their individual as well as combined e ff ectiveness. The thermal performance of an un-finned metallic plate was first compared to a micro-finned plate under naturally convective conditions and then compared with applied PCM and n-PCM. A designed and fabricated, scaled-down thermal system was attached to the electrical heaters to mimic the temperature pro fi le of the BICPV. The results showed that the average temperature in the centre of the system was reduced by 10.7 °C using micro-fins with PCM and 12.5 °C using micro- fi ns with n-PCM as compared to using the micro- fi ns only. Similarly, the e ff ect of using PCM and n-PCM with the un- fi nned surface demonstrated a temperature reduction of 9.6 °C and 11.2 °C respectively as compared to the case of natural convection. Further, the innovative 3-D printed PCM contain- ment, with no joined or screwed parts, showed signi fi cant improvements in leakage control. The important thermophysical properties of the PCM and the n-PCM were analysed and compared using a Di ff erential Scanning Calorimeter. This research can contribute to bridging the existing gaps in research and development of thermal regulation of BICPV and it is envisaged that the realised incremental improvement can be a potential solution to (a) their performance improvement and (b) longer life, thereby contributing to the environmental bene fi ts.
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Nano Enhanced Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage Application

Nano Enhanced Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage Application

Latent heat thermal energy storage technique has proved to be a better engineering option primarily due to its advantage of providing higher energy storage density with the smaller temperature difference between storage and retrieval. Thermal energy can be stored in the form of sensible heat in which the energy is stored by raising the temperature of the storage material solid or liquid. Rock or water is the best example. Alternatively thermal energy can be stored as latent heat in which energy is stored when a substance changes from one phase to another by either melting or freezing. The temperature of the substance remains constant during phase change. In order to enhance the effective thermal conductivity usually highly conducting materials are added to the paraffin wax. Aluminium oxide nano particle is mixed with phase change material and experimental analysis has been carried out to investigate the performance enhancement due to the addition of nano alumina (Al2O3) particles in paraffin wax in a shell and tube heat exchanger by both the cyclic as well as individual charging and discharging.
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Thermal Performance of Corrugated Solar Air Heater Integrated with Nanoparticles to Enhanced the Phase ‎Change Material (PCM)

Thermal Performance of Corrugated Solar Air Heater Integrated with Nanoparticles to Enhanced the Phase ‎Change Material (PCM)

Shalaby et al. [16] evaluated the performance of the corrugated absorber solar collector with and without paraffin wax. The collector is tested with and without the paraffin wax by using different water masses. The hourly production of the system with and without the PCM depending on the temperature difference between water and glass cover. They observed that the daylight productivity decreases by 7.4 % whereas, overnight productivity increases by 72.7 % when the PCM is used. Kabeel et al. [17] performed an experimental investigation of the finned absorber plate solar air collector with paraffin wax as a PCM. The suggested finned solar air collector was fabricated and tested under the climate condition of Tanta city Egypt. The authors found that the daily efficiency of finned solar air collector with PCM was increased by 10.8 % - 13.6 % compared to a finned solar air collector without PCM. Also, the finned solar air collector with PCM continues to four hours after sunset to be the outlet air temperature 8.6 °C higher than ambient temperature. Rabha and Muthukumar [18] provided a detailed analysis of energy and exergy of novel double pass solar air collector dryer integrated with the paraffin wax as a PCM. The dryer was operated for ten hours every day from 8 AM. to 6 PM. to dry 20 kg of red chili. They found that the values of energy and exergy efficiency for thermal storage unit are between 43.6 % - 49.8 % and 18.3 % - 20.5 %, respectively while, the average exergy efficiency of the drying chamber is 52.2 % and the overall efficiency of the drying system is 10.8 %. An experimental study was conducted by Arfaoui et al. [19] to evaluate the performance of solar air collector integrated with AC27 as a PCM under climate condition of Tunisia. They found that the outlet air temperature is almost constant which is 27 °C at nights during the discharge period and the daily energy efficiency amounted to about 47 %.
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Experimental investigation of the energy performance of a novel Micro-encapsulated Phase Change Material (MPCM) slurry based PV/T system

Experimental investigation of the energy performance of a novel Micro-encapsulated Phase Change Material (MPCM) slurry based PV/T system

radiation led to the increased PV/T module temperature, decreased solar thermal & electrical 21.. efficiencies and reduced slurry pressure drop; (2) increasing the slurr[r]

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PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL AS A THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE MATERIAL FOR COOLING OF BUILDING

PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL AS A THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE MATERIAL FOR COOLING OF BUILDING

506 those that have been impregnated with two types of PCMs, BS and commercial paraffin. Hawes et al. [ 16 ] presented the thermal performance of PCM’s (BS, dodecanol, paraffin, and tetradecanol) in different types of concrete blocks. The presentation has covered the effects of concrete alkalinity, temperature, immersion time and PCM dilution on PCM absorption during the impregnation process. Hadjieva et al. [ 17 ] have applied the same impregnation technique for concrete but with sodium thiosulphate penta hydrate (Na2S2O3.5H2O) as a PCM. Mehling et al. [ 18 ] were found that PCMs can be combined with wood–lightweight concrete and that the mechanical properties do not seem to change significantly. It forwards a new kind of under- .floor electric heating system with shape- stabilized PCM plates. Different from conventional PCM, shape-stabilized PCM can keep the shape unchanged during phase change process. Therefore, the PCM leakage problem can be avoided. This system can charge heat by using cheap night time electricity and discharge the heat stored at daytime.
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Experimental Study of Thermal Performance in Building Concrete Roof with Phase Change Material

Experimental Study of Thermal Performance in Building Concrete Roof with Phase Change Material

A.Manivanan and M.T.Jaffarsathiqali [2015] Investigated the Simulation and experimental study of thermal performance of a building roof with a phase change material (PCM) the results shows that this type of PCM room can decrease the indoor air temperature fluctuation by a maximum of 4 ◦ C.L.Venkatesh et al [2014] was presented the Phase Change Materials In Building Construction toReduce Room Temperature Fluctuations. Medrano M et al [2009] The review on thermal energy storage system using phase changing material and it’s widely used for many applications space heating and cooling in buildings solar application of peak energy storage on heat exchanger in improvement. It concentrates to raise in electric energy cost thermal storagetechnologies. In order to increase the content on the pcm .its prepared by using the macro packed pcm .its prepared by using n-octedecane,n-eicosane and n-docosaneto get the thermal conductivity was more than pure pcm .and also widely used in application material in buildings.
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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL.

The Continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the climb in fuels prices are the main driving forces behind efforts to more effectively utilize various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. The scientists all over the world are in search of new renewable energy sources. One of the options is to be developing the energy storage devices, which are as important as developing new sources of energy. It leads to saving of premium fuels and makes the system more cost effective by reducing the wastage of energy and capital cost. Heat exchangers with phase change material (PCM) are a solution to store energy (Amar M. Khudhair 2004). Thermal energy storage improves the efficiency and eliminates the mismatch between the energy supply and energy demand of solar thermal energy applications. Among the different types of thermal energy storage, a phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage exhibits superior efficiency and dependability due to its high storage capacity and nearly constant thermal energy (Abduljalil A 2013). The transient forced convective heat transfer between heat transfer fluid (HTF) with moderate prandtl numbers and the tube wall, heat conduction through the wall and solid-liquid phase change of the phase change material, based on the enthalpy formulation (Al-AbidiSohif Mat K 2013). The heat transfer process during melting (charge) and solidification (discharge) of five small heat exchangers working as latent heat thermal storage systems. Commercial Paraffin RT35 is used as PCM filling one side of the heat transfer and water circulates through the other side as heat transfer fluid. Average thermal power values are evaluated for various operating conditions and compared among the heat exchangers studied. When the comparison is done for average power per unit area and per average temperature gradient, results show that the double pipe heat exchanger is the one with higher values in the range of 700-800 W/m 2 K (Atul Sharma 2009).( BinGao 2015) was presented the Experimental
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Experimental Study on Phase Change Material based Thermal Energy Storage System

Experimental Study on Phase Change Material based Thermal Energy Storage System

Due to time-dependent and unpredictable characteristics of sun exposure, utilization of solar thermal energy storage tanks with phase change materials can be done to enhance the performance of available solar water thermal systems. Phase change material absorbs heat during its phase change cycle from solid to liquid during the daytime solar cycle. The amount of heat that a tank of water can absorb is much higher with the presence of phase change material.

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Effect of Using Nano Encapsulated Phase Change Material on Thermal Performance of Micro Heat Sink

Effect of Using Nano Encapsulated Phase Change Material on Thermal Performance of Micro Heat Sink

One of the effective approaches of advanced energy technologies to preserve available energy and improve its applications is the use of a latent heat storage system utilizing heat storage material or phase change materials (PCMs). The heat storage materials have the ability to alter the status with the small temperature range. The energy can be absorbed or released when the materials temperatures overpass the phase change temperature during melting and solidifying processes respectively [1-4]. It is necessary for the latent heat energy storage to have a PCM with high thermal conductivity because the rate of energy release and storage of the PCM can be hindered with low thermal conductivity. Progresses in nanotechnology field have resulted in developments of new methods for improving thermal conductivity of PCMs including dispersing high thermal conductive nanoparticles in PCM [5, 6] and nano-encapsulating PCM. Therefore, heat
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