From the present numerical investigation, it can be con- clouded that the addition of methanol as a supplementary fuel to diesel-biodiesel blends has a significant effect on the engineperformanceemission and combustion characteristics, an increase in brake thermal efficiency by 5% with methanolblendeddiesel-biodiesel blend has been observed. From the environmental point of view, emissions are greatly reduced with MKD blend. It is observed that blended fuels give significant reductions in the harmful emissions of CO2,CO, NOx, specific PM and smoke by an amount of CO Emission like 0.32%, 0.41%,. The fuel properties of neat kusum seed biodiesel and its blends, density, viscosity, flash point and fire point were found to be higher than that of diesel and calorific value is lower than that of diesel. Conclusions are as follows:
Abstract: Need for alternate fuel in CIengine for which a lot of experimental research is being done worldwide. Intense research is already done with biodieselblended in diesel. And Dual biodieselblended in diesel research is underway, which gain importance because feasibility to materialize locally available feed stock. In this contest the experimental research is being carried out to examine the performance and combustion of Waste Cooking Oil biodiesel (WCOBD) and Palm Stearin biodiesel (PSBD) blended in diesel. Result shows that B20 mixture stand close to pure diesel without much engine modification. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption differ by 12.99percent and 23.5percent. CO differs by 16.5% and HC differ by 3.09% that of pure diesel mode. Whereas NOx increased by 8.9% for optimal load and blend ratio. Peak in-cylinder pressure and net heat release rate differ by 2.05% and 3.1% respectively. Properties for pure diesel and dual biodiesel blends of diesel are also enclosed.
Smoke arrangement happens at the outrageous air lack. Air or oxygen insufficiency is locally present inside the diesel motors. It increments as the air to fuel proportion diminishes. Test comes about show that smoke discharges are expanded with increment in the part stack as the arrangement of smoke is unequivocally subject to the heap. Shows variety of smoke outflows with biodiesel and diesel with the part stack. Since at higher part stacks better burning may occur inside the motor chamber attempting to lessen the smoke emanations. Demonstrates the smoke estimations of diesel and biodiesel at part stack operation. For diesel operation the smoke esteems diminished as a result of the nuclear limited oxygen which helps in better ignition, in this manner lessening the smoke.
fuels in general [8,11,14]. In the present study, neat rapeseed oil was considered as a potential alternative fuel for an unmodified dieselengine because it has high oil content (around 40%) for biodiesel production. Main aim of this study is to investigate the engineperformance, emission and combustion characteristics of a dieselengine fuelled with Java plum seed and custard apple seed biodiesels and its diesel blends compared to those of standard diesel. It is also hoped that the new data presented here will assist in developing new prognostic methods or procedures for this actual problem.
Percent of CO2 in exhaust is the direct indication of complete combustion of fuel in combustion chamber. Figure 7 shows the variation of CO2 under varying load for different biodiesel blends. All test fuels show increasing trends, CO2 emission with increase in shipment due to increase in accumulation of fuel. Blends B10, B20, B30, B50, B100 and diesel shows 3.6%, 4%, 3.7%, 4,2%, 3.7% and 4.5% of CO2 respectively at full load condition. Only B50 has been shown higher CO2 emission compare to diesel due to the significant issue of higher cetane number compare to other test fuel. Other blends have been presented the lower value of CO2 than diesel. It can also be cleared from exhaust gas temperature vs. load curves in which B50 has been shown higher temperature than other blends.
Energy consumption plays very important role in the economy of any country. Oil is the major source of the energy for the entire world as it convenient to store and handle. During the 21 st century, an alarming scarcity is supposed to come in the production of crude petroleum oil and they will be costly to produce and at the same time there will likely be an increase in the number of automobile and other internal combustionengine. Although, the fuel economy of engine has been greatly improved through continued researches across the world and will probably continue to be improved but there will be a great demand for fuel in coming decades due to the rapid pace of industrialization world over. At present, India is the sixth biggest country in the world in terms of energy demands which is 3.5 percent of world commercial energy demand and is expected to grow at the rate of 4.8 percent per annum of its present demand (Kumar, 2003). The petroleum import bill is currently about 30 percent of total import bill and yearly consumption of diesel oil in India is about 40 million tones forming about 40 percent of the total petroleum product consumption.
Rising petroleum prices, increasing threat to the environment depleting stock of fossil fuels have generated an intense international interest in developing alternative renewable fuels for IC engines. Bio fuel is an oxygenated fuel which increases the combustion and makes reduce exhaust emission. It can be produced from crops with high sugar or starch content. Some of these crops include inseedplants, sugar Numerical Investigation and Fatigue Life estimation Hiregoudaru et al., ExperimentalInvestigation of Twin Cylinder DieselEngineUsingMethanol Piston (Dr Hiregoudaru Performance & emission of Twin Cylinder DieselEngineUsing Ethanol Piston (Dr 2014), ExperimentalInvestigation of Twin Cylinder DieselEngineUsingDiesel & Yerrannagoudaru et al., 2014),
At higher compression ratio (19.5:1), break thermal efficiency (BTE) for E10 decreases and for E20, E30 and E40 increases. Increasing the ethanol percentage leads to unstable operation. At high compression ratio, ethanol also meets same pressure as compared to diesel. While increasing compression ratio upto 19.5 and higher loads, peak pressure increase upto E10, E20, E30 and then decreases for E40. At high compression ratio, due to early starting of combustion and complete burning of the fuel ethanol almost reaches the peak pressure of biodiesel though it is having low caloriﬁc value. By increasing the compression ratio to 19.5:1, auto ignition occurs due to lower CN of ethanol and higher vaporization of ethanol resulting in better fuel conversion efficiency upto E40 compared to diesel. At compression ratios of 19.5 with the various ethanol blends, heat release rate (HRR) increases gradually upto E30 but suddenly drops for E40.The heat release is also due to low CN and high volatility. Enhanced oxygen reaction kinetics in ethanol leads to increased heat release & formation of CO 2 . Increased ethanol proportion
Available Online at www.ijpret.com 249 thermal efficiency for test fuel. Also with the addition of alumina and cerium oxide nanoparticle to neat diesel, lower NOx emission. Prabhu L et al  carried out investigation on performance and emission analysis of tio2 nanoparticle as an additive for bio-diesel blends. The carbon monoxide and smoke emission decreases with biodiesel blends when comparing with the neat diesel. The addition of titanium oxide further decreases the CO emission, HC emission and smoke emission when comparing with neat diesel. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of SBME blended with diesel along with Aluminium nanoparticle on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of dieselengine. For investigation various blends of Soya bean biodiesel with diesel were taken. The Aluminium nanoparticle was added with various proportions.
Owing to the depletion of the conventional fuels in recent days, it is essential to discover an alternative resolution to satisfy the energy demand required by the world. Many research works are going on to replace the diesel with a suitable alternate fuel such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is the best alternate fuel to satisfy the energy demand required by the world . Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable, and biodegradable fuel, can either be used in diesel engines in pure or the form of blend without requiring any modifications to the engine. In general, biodiesel tends to increase the performance and reduces emission characteristics of CI engines [2, 3]. However, such usage of biofuels in diesel engines has met various practical problems; e.g. high viscosity, polymerization during storage and combustion, gum formation due to oxidation, acid composition, free fatty acid content, lubricating oil thickening and carbon deposits which are amongst the various problems reported by researcher. The performance characteristics of engine with biodiesels are little less compared to the base fuel diesel. Many researchers are experimentally investigated by adding additives like metal and metal oxides nanoparticles, liquids (methanol, ethanol) to the biodiesels. Recent advance in materials science have directed to exciting possibilities in the
Figure 6 portrays the variation of BTE with Load for different fuel blends and diesel. The thermal efficiency indicates how efficiently energy in the fuel is converted into mechanical output .The BTE for diesel is 23.2% at full load, which is highest among all fuels tested. For B20 HOME, B20 HOME-10 WPO, B20 ROME, B20 ROME–10 WPO, it is 21.4%, 21.41%, 19.1%, 19.12% respectively at full load .The Thermal Efficiency of plastic blends is lower than that of diesel and slightly higher than B20 bio diesel at full load, due to higher density and poor volatility. Hence the performance of engine with biodiesel and plastic oil blend is comparable to that of diesel in terms of BTE.
The examined effects of Performance and emissions of CIengineusingdiesel and biodiesel blends with nano particles as additive The nano additives act as combustion catalyst which reduce delay period and promote complete combustion when added to base fuel and hence increase efficiency of engine and lower brake specific fuel consumption. The activation energy of nano particles burn off carbon deposits within combustion chamber which lower HC and smoke emission.
Conventional method of mechanical stirrer technique. Thus, as per this technique higher amount of yield could be possible . Test performed on the two types of catalysts such as homogeneous catalysts and heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts are conventional, whereas heterogeneous catalysts are recently invented.. The methanol and ethanol both are suitable for transesterification of biodiesel, but due to having more cost of ethanol compared to the methanol, there is not more use of the ethanol. Due to lower cost of methanol, it also reduced overall biodiesel cost. So, methanol is more preferably used. By taking the proportion of 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 0.6% of catalyst concentration at 550c reaction temperature for 60 minutes would yield 96% of biodiesel yield . Cottonseed used in as biodiesel by some process transesterification process use in methanol and KOH as catalyst. Some blends are uses (B5, B10, B15, and B20), combustion characteristics they follow- Delay in ignition, start of combustion, premixing, diffusion and after combustion, end of combustion. Ignition delay decrease in decreasing order . Natural additives increase the engineperformance on its addition into the diesel with biodiesel. Trans- esterification process can be carried out to reduce high viscosity; high flash point of cottonseed oil is treated with ortho- phosphoric acid and Sulphur acid to remove the gums and fatty acids from biodiesel blend. In second step, methanol and potassium hydroxide are added to the cottonseed oil to segregate biodiesel and glycerol . For improving efficiency of fuel various novel technologies including engine and fuel cells were used. First development in fuel that is the bio fuel is well approved process of transforming plant sugar into ethanol through fermentation. High octane fuel such as ethanol with majority of SI or fossil fuel IC engine in market today as well as it is blended with gasoline. Traditionally, methanol has been used during transesterification production of fatty acid methyl ester. Also, ethanol and propanol are nominated for cold performancebiodiesel fuels and implementation of bioethanol leads to improvement sustainability of existing biodiesel but these may lead to price increase. To obtain synthetic hydrocarbon fuels following methods are used. Fischer-troops synthesis, hydro treatment of triglycerides . Transesterification is carried out with ethanol in the existence of catalyst NaOH. Expeller method is employed to extract oil from the cotton seed and was subjected to single stage transesterification due to presence of 20% more free fatty acid content.
The world today is in need of alternate fuel sources because of fuel depletion and increase of fuel demand. The yearly reports in pollutants of atmosphere are also in increasing trend, the need is to develop the eco- friendly fuel to meet the fossil fuel depletion.These reasons increase the attention towards vegetable oil as an alternate fuel source. Biodiesel is the name of clean burning fuel, produced from domestic renewable resources. It contains no petroleum but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to greater biodiesel blend. It can be used in CIengine with no major modifications. It is simple to use, bio degradable, non-toxic and essentially free of sulphur and aromatics. The choice of vegetable oil as engine fuel naturally depends upon the local conditions prevalent availability of a particular vegetable oil in excess amount. There are various oils which are being considered worldwide for use in the engines. But Mahua biodiesel is one of the most promising biodiesel options among these. Mahua (Madhuca Indica) is one of the forest-based tree- borne non-edible oils with large production potential of about 60 million tons per annum in India . Many researchers investigated the effects of diesel-biodiesel blends on performance and emission characteristics in dieselengine and concluded that partial or full replacement of diesel with biodiesel is feasible [1-10].The major properties of Mahua biodiesel include calorific value, diesel index, flash point, fire point, cloud point, pour point, specific gravity, and kinematic viscosity. The various physicochemical properties of diesel and Mahua biodiesel are measured and listed in Table 1 for comparison.
Abstract:-Increase in energy demand, stringent emission norms and depletion of oil resources have led there searches to find alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. On the other hand Palm oil can be used as biodiesel because of it contains more fatty acids. Also in India it is available in large amount. By transesterification process Palm oil can be used as biodiesel. Hence it was planned to increase the combustion efficiency, Performance and to reduce the exhaust emission by adding biodiesel 20%, n-propanol 10% volume with Diesel. The Performance observed while usingblended fuels were analyzed and compared with that of Diesel as fuel without any additives. This experimentalinvestigation aimed at to enhance the performance of the dieselengine with the blend of n-propane at different proportions like 10% by volume is attainable. To this, within the scope of the blending of n-propanol with diesel shows almost same brake thermal efficiency at low and medium loads, and higher percentage addition of n-propanol augments the brake thermal efficiency at high loads. The blending of n- propanol with diesel reduces the brake specific energy consumption at medium and high loads. But specific fuel consumption is increased when compare with Diesel.
emission slightly increased in case of D80SBD15E4S1+alumina fuel blend compare to diesel and B20 fuel. Syed Aalam et al.  conducted experimentalinvestigation to evaluate performance, emission and combustion characteristics of single cylinder CRDI system assisted dieselengineusing blend of diesel and zizipus jujube methyl ester blended fuel (ZJME25) along with aluminium oxide nanoparticles (AONP) in mass fraction of 25 ppm and 50 ppm. There was reduction in BSFC with AONP added ZJME25 fuel compare to diesel and ZJME fuel with maximum reduction of 6% observed with 50 ppm AONP concentration ZJME fuel. The brake thermal efficiency increased in comparison with diesel fuel with maximum improvement of 2.5% with 50 ppm AONP concentrated ZJME fuel. Smoke emission reduced by about 15-20% with AONP added ZJME fuel. The HC and CO emission significantly reduced, while NO X emission slightly increased. The heat release rate and cylinder
In this Investigation N. Kapilan  suggested Mahua Oil Biodiesel (MOB) and its Blend with Diesel as they were used as fuel in a Single Cylinder, Direct Injection and Compression Ignition Engine. The Mahua Oil Biodiesel was prepared from Mahua Oil by Transesterification usingMethanol and Potassium Hydroxide. The fuel properties of MOB are close to the Diesel and confirm to the ASTM standards. From the Engine Test Analysis, it was observed that the MOB, B5 and B20 Blend results in lower CO, HC and Smoke Emissions as compared to Diesel. But the B5 and B20 Blends results in Higher Efficiency as compared to MOB. Hence MOB or Blends of MOB and Diesel (B5 or B20) can be used as a substitute for diesel in Diesel Engines used in Transportation as well as in the Agriculture Sector.
Modernization and increase in the number of automobiles worldwide, the consumption of diesel and gasoline has enormously increased. As petroleum is non renewable source of energy and the petroleum reserves are scarce now days, there is a need to search for alternative fuels for automobiles. The intensive search for alternative fuels for compression ignition engines has been focused attention on fuels which can be derived from bio mass in this regard karanja and jatropha seed oil is found to be a potential fuel for C.I Engines. The properties of karanja oil and jatropha oil are determined by using standard methods. The experiment is to be conduct when the engine fuelled with mixing of karanja oil(50%) and jatropha oil(50%) blend by volume and then investigate the performance and emission characteristics of Multi Cylinder Four Stroke Compressed Ignition Engine at different brake power outputs, and then compared with that of diesel.
In order to investigate the combustion characteristics, the fuel injection timing measurement, the combustion pressure measurement and the crank angle detection were carried out. Fuel injection timings were detected by lift amount of a needle valve of the fuel injection nozzle. To detect the lift amount of needle valve, a needle lift sensor was installed in the fuel injector nozzle. The needle lift sensor detects the lift amount. The output signal of the needle lift sensor was recorded by the digital scope recorder. The calculation of timing for fuel ignition was made by the basis of the wave in accordance with the crank angle or driving condition of the engine. The needle lift sensor was used in this study and the position of sensor in the jet nozzle of the fuel injector is shown in Figure 2.
Abstract :The depletion of world petroleum reserves and increased environmental concern has stimulated the search of alternative fuel which is to be environment friendly. Bio-fuels have the potential to become alternative fuel for fossil fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, reliable, biodegradable and regarded as a clean alternative fuel to reduce exhaust emissions. In recent years, much research has been carried to find suitable alternative fuel to petroleum products. In the present investigationexperimental work has been carried out to analyze the performance and emissions characteristics of a single cylinder compression ignition DI engine fuelled with the blends of mineral diesel and biodiesel. The simarouba biodiesel is considered as alternative fuel to diesel. A large amount of tree borne oils and fats are available for biodiesel production in developing and under develop countries. Simarouba glauca oil is one of these oils.