Biodiesel is known to be biodegradable, so it is considered to be much less damaging to the environment if divulge. The advantage about biodiesel is that it is made from plants and animals resources which are not depleted when used. The non renewable of world petroleum and increased environmental impact has reviving interest in another possible sources for petroleum based fuels. Biodiesel extracted from vegetable oil or animal fats by transesterification ( with alcohol like methanol and ethanol) is advised for use in place of petroleum-based diesel, because biodiesel has more oxygen , not depleted when used, biodegradable and environmental amiable. The used cooking oil is considered as waste, while it has potential as a liquid fuel by physical and chemical conversion remains same.
In this Investigation N. Kapilan  suggested Mahua Oil Biodiesel (MOB) and its Blend with Diesel as they were used as fuel in a Single Cylinder, Direct Injection and Compression Ignition Engine. The Mahua Oil Biodiesel was prepared from Mahua Oil by Transesterification using Methanol and Potassium Hydroxide. The fuel properties of MOB are close to the Diesel and confirm to the ASTM standards. From the Engine Test Analysis, it was observed that the MOB, B5 and B20 Blend results in lower CO, HC and Smoke Emissions as compared to Diesel. But the B5 and B20 Blends results in Higher Efficiency as compared to MOB. Hence MOB or Blends of MOB and Diesel (B5 or B20) can be used as a substitute for diesel in Diesel Engines used in Transportation as well as in the Agriculture Sector.
Figure 9 shows the heat release rate for biodiesel blends in comparison of standard diesel at different engine operating conditions. After burning of fuel, fluctuation of heat release rate occurs. However, at B100 shows highest rate of heat release compare to diesel and other biodiesel blends, because of the higher cetane number and higher oxygen capacity of biodiesel that improves the burning quality of fuel and helps in firing at higher charge per units. Moreover B10, B20 and B50 have been established a corresponding rate of heat release with diesel. This is because, in low blends the concentration of biodiesel is low, that is way fuel does not cause a significant force on certain number, but it touches the air fuel mixture formation due to changes in viscosity and evaporation properties of the fuel. That is way lower blends showed a less charge per unit of heat release than B100.
The graph (Figure 13) shows the variation of NOx emissions with various EGR rate for the entire load range. The NOx emission increased with increase in biodiesel amount in the blended fuels and also found that NOx emission from the biodiesel fuel was higher than that of diesel. Probable reasons for increase in NOx concentration by about 2 to 10 per cent from biodiesel fuelled engine was due to higher oxygen level in the fuel. When EGR rate is increased the NOx level is decreases as shown in Figure 12. AT B20(15% EGR) is the minimum value of the full load ranges. Even though 20% EGR were able to reduce NOx by a large amount, reduction in BTE and large increase of CO and HC emissions were observed.
The fig 3.1 The variation of brake thermal efficiency with brake power for diesel and blends of kusum seed biodiesel are shown in fig.3.1. As the load on the engine increases, brake thermal efficiency increases because brake thermal efficiency is the function of brake power and brake power increases as the load on the engine increases. The maximum value of brake thermal efficiency for diesel & pure diesel is at 27.5 % and 32 %. The brake thermal efficiency is almost constant between range of 25 % to 30 %, brake thermal efficiency of all the blends are lower than that of diesel, this is attributed to more amount of fuel consumption for blends as compare to diesel. And pure biodiesel is 25.7% and against 27.5% for that of diesel on normal engine. At full load conditions, the brake thermal efficiency of diesel is more than all blends. Brake thermal efficiency of M5K45D50 blend is very close to diesel for entire range of operation.
Many researchers have conducted the experiments in dieselengine to improve the performance and reduce the emissions. One of the useful methods to reduce the NOx is by adding oxygenated additives with diesel fuel. Oxygen available in the additive helps to burn the hydrocarbon available in the fuel leads to the reduction of emission from the exhaust. D.K.Ramesh Rajiv et al., have studied the combustion and emissioncharacteristics of CIengine using fish oil biodiesel blends. The results showed 20 % fish oil biodiesel with diesel blend has improved the performance and exhaust emission. Can cinar et al studied the effect of adding DEE to the bio diesel and compared with neat diesel. They found that the NO x emission decreased up to 19.4 %for adding DEE.
For feedstock diversification and utilization of currently available local resources like neem, karanja, mahua, sal etc. should be scientifically investigated for efficient biodiesel production. Keeping this background in consideration, production of neem oil methyl ester (NOME) and its utilization as a potential alternative fuel for CIengine has been investigated. A 3.5 kW, constant speed dieselengine was tested on diesel, NOME-diesel blends in 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50 ratio. The performance of the engine was found to be satisfactory on the blends. The engine was able to develop power similar to diesel on all the NOME- diesel blends. The Exhaust emission of dieselengine was tested at all the neem biodiesel and diesel blends.CO emissions increases with increase in load. Engine emits more CO using diesel as compared to that of biodiesel blend under all loading conditions. With increasing biodiesel, CO emission decreases.Biodiesel itself has 11% oxygen, which help for complete combustion. Hence CO emissions decreases with increasing biodiesel percentage in fuel. Carbon di oxide emissions increases with increase in load .As load is increasing NOME gives lower carbon di oxide emissions. At all loads, NOME increased with diesel fuels and levels of oxygen for blends slightly increased as blend ratio increased, may be because fuels were oxygenated. Higher oxygen levels in fuel blends are always preferred. Variation of unburnt hydrocarbon with respect to load indicates that NOME is not shows decreasing trend at all loads.
 B.K.Venkanna, C.Venkataramana Reddy. Performance, emission and combustioncharacteristics of direct injection dieselengine running on calophyllum inophyllum linn oil (honne oil) Int J Agric & Biol Eng Vol. 4 March, 2011.  M. C. Navindgi et.al . Influence of injection pressure, injection timing and compression ratio on performance, combustion and emission of dieselengine using castor methyl ester blends. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST).
emission slightly increased in case of D80SBD15E4S1+alumina fuel blend compare to diesel and B20 fuel. Syed Aalam et al.  conducted experimentalinvestigation to evaluate performance, emission and combustioncharacteristics of single cylinder CRDI system assisted dieselengine using blend of diesel and zizipus jujube methyl ester blended fuel (ZJME25) along with aluminium oxide nanoparticles (AONP) in mass fraction of 25 ppm and 50 ppm. There was reduction in BSFC with AONP added ZJME25 fuel compare to diesel and ZJME fuel with maximum reduction of 6% observed with 50 ppm AONP concentration ZJME fuel. The brake thermal efficiency increased in comparison with diesel fuel with maximum improvement of 2.5% with 50 ppm AONP concentrated ZJME fuel. Smoke emission reduced by about 15-20% with AONP added ZJME fuel. The HC and CO emission significantly reduced, while NO X emission slightly increased. The heat release rate and cylinder
ation, revealing the effect of DF combustion on engineperformance and exhaust emissions. Hydrogen enriched engine operation produced the same brake power and higher BTE than CI engines . With a lesser pilot quan- tity of diesel, hydrogen-enriched engines give higher BTE with smoother combustion than a CIengine. Increas- ing hydrogen flow rate beyond a certain quantity resulted in knocking; at the highest diesel flow rate, BTE was found to be the same as that of CI engines. BTE obtained by intake port injection method was higher than in-cylinder injection for all equivalence ratios used . Hydrogen combustion provides higher cooling loss to the cylinder wall than fossil fuel combustion because of its higher burning velocity and very less quenching dis- tance . Highest BTE of 30% was achieved at a compression ratio of 24.5 when hydrogen was used in the DF mode with diesel . In dual injection, the stability and maximum power could be obtained by direct injection of hydrogen and the maximum BTE could be obtained by the external mixture formation in hydrogen fuelled engine . The hydrogen intake port injection operated engine showed improved performance by 9% com- pared with normal CI operation . The BTE of H 2 -diesel DF engine depends upon the amount of H 2 added
Abstract:-Increase in energy demand, stringent emission norms and depletion of oil resources have led there searches to find alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. On the other hand Palm oil can be used as biodiesel because of it contains more fatty acids. Also in India it is available in large amount. By transesterification process Palm oil can be used as biodiesel. Hence it was planned to increase the combustion efficiency, Performance and to reduce the exhaust emission by adding biodiesel 20%, n-propanol 10% volume with Diesel. The Performance observed while using blended fuels were analyzed and compared with that of Diesel as fuel without any additives. This experimentalinvestigation aimed at to enhance the performance of the dieselengine with the blend of n-propane at different proportions like 10% by volume is attainable. To this, within the scope of the blending of n-propanol with diesel shows almost same brake thermal efficiency at low and medium loads, and higher percentage addition of n-propanol augments the brake thermal efficiency at high loads. The blending of n- propanol with diesel reduces the brake specific energy consumption at medium and high loads. But specific fuel consumption is increased when compare with Diesel.
The engine tests were conducted with pongamia oil, rubber oil and plastic oil blends for no load to full condition and the corresponding performance and combustioncharacteristics were studied in comparison with diesel fuel. All the tests were conducted under the same conditions and repeated for three times to obtain consistent values. Pongamia oil blended with waste plastic oil is determined for suitable replacement of conventional diesel. In combustion analysis B20HOME-10WPO blend exhibits a higher cylinder peak pressure compared to B20 biodiesel blend and diesel because of evaporation of WPO inside the cylinder by absorbing heat from combustion chamber. The heat release rate with B20HOME-10WPO blend is higher compared toB20 biodiesel blend and diesel fuel due to better combustion as a result of presence of WPO. With the addition of WPO, NOx increases due to higher heat release and combustion temperature and the CO and HC emissions are considerably lower. Engine with B20HOME-10WPO blend results in better performance than B20 biodiesel blend and diesel.
The world today is in need of alternate fuel sources because of fuel depletion and increase of fuel demand. The yearly reports in pollutants of atmosphere are also in increasing trend, the need is to develop the eco- friendly fuel to meet the fossil fuel depletion.These reasons increase the attention towards vegetable oil as an alternate fuel source. Biodiesel is the name of clean burning fuel, produced from domestic renewable resources. It contains no petroleum but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to greater biodiesel blend. It can be used in CIengine with no major modifications. It is simple to use, bio degradable, non-toxic and essentially free of sulphur and aromatics. The choice of vegetable oil as engine fuel naturally depends upon the local conditions prevalent availability of a particular vegetable oil in excess amount. There are various oils which are being considered worldwide for use in the engines. But Mahua biodiesel is one of the most promising biodiesel options among these. Mahua (Madhuca Indica) is one of the forest-based tree- borne non-edible oils with large production potential of about 60 million tons per annum in India . Many researchers investigated the effects of diesel-biodiesel blends on performance and emissioncharacteristics in dieselengine and concluded that partial or full replacement of diesel with biodiesel is feasible [1-10].The major properties of Mahua biodiesel include calorific value, diesel index, flash point, fire point, cloud point, pour point, specific gravity, and kinematic viscosity. The various physicochemical properties of diesel and Mahua biodiesel are measured and listed in Table 1 for comparison.
fuels in general [8,11,14]. In the present study, neat rapeseed oil was considered as a potential alternative fuel for an unmodified dieselengine because it has high oil content (around 40%) for biodiesel production. Main aim of this study is to investigate the engineperformance, emission and combustioncharacteristics of a dieselengine fuelled with Java plum seed and custard apple seed biodiesels and its diesel blends compared to those of standard diesel. It is also hoped that the new data presented here will assist in developing new prognostic methods or procedures for this actual problem.
Unlike rest of the world, India’s demand for diesel fuels is roughly six times that of gasoline hence seeking alternative to mineral diesel is a natural choice. Biodiesel production is undergoing rapid technological reforms in industries and academia. This has become more obvious and relevant since the recent increase in the petroleum prices and the growing awareness relating to the environmental consequences of the fuel over dependency . In recent years several researches have been made to use vegetable oil, animal fats as a source of renewable energy known as bio diesel that can be used as fuel in CI engines. Vegetable oils are the most promising alternative fuels for CI engines as they are renewable, biodegradable, non toxic, environmental friendly, a lower emission profile compared to diesel fuel and most of the situation where conventional petroleum diesel is used.
Conventional method of mechanical stirrer technique. Thus, as per this technique higher amount of yield could be possible . Test performed on the two types of catalysts such as homogeneous catalysts and heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts are conventional, whereas heterogeneous catalysts are recently invented.. The methanol and ethanol both are suitable for transesterification of biodiesel, but due to having more cost of ethanol compared to the methanol, there is not more use of the ethanol. Due to lower cost of methanol, it also reduced overall biodiesel cost. So, methanol is more preferably used. By taking the proportion of 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 0.6% of catalyst concentration at 550c reaction temperature for 60 minutes would yield 96% of biodiesel yield . Cottonseed used in as biodiesel by some process transesterification process use in methanol and KOH as catalyst. Some blends are uses (B5, B10, B15, and B20), combustioncharacteristics they follow- Delay in ignition, start of combustion, premixing, diffusion and after combustion, end of combustion. Ignition delay decrease in decreasing order . Natural additives increase the engineperformance on its addition into the diesel with biodiesel. Trans- esterification process can be carried out to reduce high viscosity; high flash point of cottonseed oil is treated with ortho- phosphoric acid and Sulphur acid to remove the gums and fatty acids from biodiesel blend. In second step, methanol and potassium hydroxide are added to the cottonseed oil to segregate biodiesel and glycerol . For improving efficiency of fuel various novel technologies including engine and fuel cells were used. First development in fuel that is the bio fuel is well approved process of transforming plant sugar into ethanol through fermentation. High octane fuel such as ethanol with majority of SI or fossil fuel IC engine in market today as well as it is blended with gasoline. Traditionally, methanol has been used during transesterification production of fatty acid methyl ester. Also, ethanol and propanol are nominated for cold performancebiodiesel fuels and implementation of bioethanol leads to improvement sustainability of existing biodiesel but these may lead to price increase. To obtain synthetic hydrocarbon fuels following methods are used. Fischer-troops synthesis, hydro treatment of triglycerides . Transesterification is carried out with ethanol in the existence of catalyst NaOH. Expeller method is employed to extract oil from the cotton seed and was subjected to single stage transesterification due to presence of 20% more free fatty acid content.
Fig-6 shows the variation of BTE with BP for diesel, DSME and Nano blends. The DSME shows poor performance due to its higher viscosity and lower calorific value than diesel, and high density causes poor atomization of fuel. However the BTE of Nano-blended fuels enhanced as compared to the neat biodiesel. DSME + 60 ppm MWCNT has higher BTE as compared to DSME + 20ppm MWCNT and neat biodiesel. This may be due to increased concentration of MWCNT nanoparticles and superior combustioncharacteristics of Nano-blended fuels. Since nanoparticles possess high surface to volume ratio resulting in good atomization and evaporation of fuel which improves the brake thermal efficiency. There is an increase in BTE of 21.24% (for DSME + 20 MWCNT), 22.6% (for DSME + 40MWCNT) and 24.94% (for DSME + 60 MWCNT) blended fuel as compared to base biodiesel at full load was observed.
Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels which is renewable and environmentally friendly and can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. In the present study, experimental investigations were carried out on the effects of biodiesel types, biodiesel fraction and physical properties on the combustion and performancecharacteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine. The experimental work was conducted on a four-cylinder, four -stroke, direct injection (DI) and turbocharged dieselengine by using biodiesel of waste oil, rapeseed oil and corn oil and normal diesel. Based on the measured parameters, detailed analyses were carried out on cylinder pressure, heat release rate and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). It has been seen that the biodiesel types do not result in any significant differences in peak cylinder pressure and BSFC. The results also clearly indicate that the engine running with biodiesel have slightly higher in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate than the engine running with normal diesel. The BSFC for the engine running with neat biodiesel was higher than the engine running with normal diesel by up to 15%. It is also noticed that the physical properties of the biodiesel affects significantly the performance of the engine.
M.P.Poonia experimental investigations, a direct injection Dual-fuel engine fuelled with LPG and diesel were tested to Determine its performance and exhaust emissionCharacteristics with the objectives of improving engine Efficiency and exhaust emissions at part loads. The Parameters considered to achieve these objectives were Gaseous fuel quantity, pilot fuel quantity, pilot fuel injection Rate, intake air throttling, EGR and the intake air temperature. First engine operation was optimised at different operating Conditions and then percent gas substitution was varied at Optimum conditions. The main conclusions of the present Study are summarized as follows:
diesel fuel with 18% concentrations of Ethyl Ester of Nahar biodieselblended with various compression ratios. The experiment was carried out with three different compression ratios. ExperimentalBiodiesel was extracted from Nahar oil, 18% (B18) concentrations of oil in diesel was found to be best blend ratios from the earlier experimental study. The engine was maintained at various compression ratios i.e., 16, 17 and 18 respectively. It is found that, at compression ratios of 18:1 for B18 blended fuel (Pure Diesel 82% + Nahar Biodiesel 18%) shows better performance and lower emission level which is very close to neat diesel fuel. It is also found that the increase of compression ratios increases the Brake Thermal Efficiency and reduces Brake Specific Fuel Consumption and having lower emission without any engine in design modifications.