Examined experimentally the effect of addition of energetic nanoparticles such as aluminum, iron and boron to diesel fuel in a single cylinder of compression ignition engine. Pollutants emission like carbon monoxide concentration was reduced by 25- 40% when additives are added to neat diesel fuel. UHC concentration was also reduced by 8% and 4% for engine fueled with energetic nonfuel such as aluminum and iron when compared with engine fueled with neat diesel fuel. examined experimentally the effect of mixing of nanoparticle zine oxide (ZnO) with biodiesel fuel (Pomolion stearin wax) on the combustion characteristics and emission. Their study was carried out on a single cylinder, air cooled, and stationary DI engine at constant speed 1500 rpm. The UHC(unburnt hydrocarbons), CO and smoke emission were reduced. Not much difference with value of NOx was observed  investigated experimentally the effect of addition of nanoparticles to the diesel fuel on the emission of NO x . Four
The advantages of using vegetable oils as fuel for diesel engines include better self ignition characteristics, better compatibility with fuel injection system used in existing CI engine, high energy content and self processing and handling. Above all, these fuels can be readily incorporated into energy pool, should the need arise due to sudden shortage or disruption in the existing petroleum system. Moreover, vegetable oil fuels produce greater thermal efficiency than diesel fuel (Goering et al., 1981). However, the use of vegetable oil in direct injection type diesel fuel engine is limited by at least an important physical property i.e. viscosity. Viscosities of vegetable oils are reported to be 10 to 20 times more than that of diesel fuel and are considered to be lower in total energy and higher in density, carbon residue, and particular matter (Ali, 1994)
in the engine and it is also environment friendly by the emission standards. The present research is aimed to investigate experimentally the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a direct injection (DI) dieselengine when fuelled with conventional diesel fuel, rice bran oil biodiesel, a blend of diesel and rice bran oil biodiesel and three blends of diesel-biodiesel-ethanol over the entire range of load on the engine. The experimental results showed that the highest brake thermal efficiency was observed with 15% ethanol in diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends. The exhaust gas temperature and the sound intensity from the engine reduced with the increase of ethanol percentage in diesel-biodiesel- ethanol blends. The Carbon monoxide and smoke emissions reduced significantly with higher percentage of ethanol in diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends. The unused oxygen with 5% ethanol in diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blend was lower than that of diesel fuel . .From the literature it is concluded that alternate fuels can be used as substitute for diesel by evaluating its properties and blending them with diesel in small proportions can improved performance parameters and reduce emissions without modifying the engine design.
Abstract— The development of alternative fuels such as natural gases has become very essential because of the continuously decrease in the petroleum reserves and also their contribution for pollutants. CNG is now emerging as an alternative energy source for the automobile sector and gaining the interest of much research work nowadays. In the proposed work, experimentalinvestigation of the performance as well as emissions had been carried out on a single cylinder four stroke 257cc VCR spark ignition engine also its comparison with the LPG as well as gasoline at the same operating conditions is done.
Rahimi et al.  used diesterol: a mixture of fossil fuel diesel (D) sun flower oil methyl ester called biodiesel (B) and bioethanol produced from potato waste (E). They observed that adding oxygenated compounds to the new blend seems to slightly reduce the torque and engine power and increased the average specific fuel consumption for different speeds. Their experimental measurement and observation of smoke concentration, CO, NOx and HC concentration indicated that both of these pollutants reduced. Senthil Kumar et al.  has work on different methods to improve the performance of a Jatropha oil fueled dieselengine tried neat Jatropha oil and methyl ester of Jatropha oil, dual fuel operation with Jatropha oil as the injected fuel and methanol, orange oil, and hydrogen as the inducted fuel, blends of Jatropha oil with methanol and orange oil, and use of oxygenates like diethyl ether and di- methyl carbonate as additives to Jatropha oil.
The ongoing economic expansion, robust GDP growth, urbanization, agriculture mechanization and increase in vehicular population would increase the demand for transportation fuel in short and medium term at high rates. The crude oil import bill has gone to Rs. 450,000 crore in the year 2011 and this has already depleted foreign exchange reserves and made dent in Indian economy. Thus, alternate fuel technology availability and use will become more common for both automobile application and for stationary motive power in coming decades. Another reason motivating the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion engine is concern over the emission problems of gasoline and diesel engines.
Experiments are conducted when the engine is fuelled with pure diesel. The experiment covered a range of loads. The emission characteristics of the engine are observed in terms of concentration of CO, HC, O2, NOx and CO2. The results obtained for with DPF+TWC converter +DEF system connected at the end of exhaust tail pipe are compared with DPF+TWC converter connected at the end of exhaust tail pipe and without connecting exhaust after treatment system at the end of exhaust tail pipe. The results obtained are represented in the graphical form as follows:
The test engine used for the present investigation is a single cylinder, 4-stroke, water cooled and naturally aspirated direct injection compression ignition engine. The loading of the engine is done by eddy current Dynamometer. The technical specifications of the engine are shown. The engine is of constant speed (1500 rpm) type with a fluctuation of ± 25 rpm. Time taken for 50 cc of fuel consumption was measured with the aid of burette and stop watch arrangement. Krypton 290 EN2 gas analyzer was used to measure the concentration of Carbon monoxide, Hydrocarbon, and Oxides of nitrogen. Smoke levels were measured using a standard smoke meter in Bosch Smoke unit. The combustion pressure was measured using pressure sensor in the cylinder head and the crank angle is obtained to a minimum scale reading of 1° for crank angle. Three readings are taken at each stage to ensure accuracy and the average value is recorded. All the measurements were recoded for 6% blending level of three oxygenated compounds. Fig.1 shows the schematic outline of experimental setup. Initially engine tests were performed using diesel fuel for all engine loads followed by oxygenated blends to measure the combustion, perfor mance and pollutant emissions.
The addition of the antioxidants PPD produced mean increase in CO emission of 28.81% compared to B20. This can be explained by the fact that the antioxidants hindered the conversion of CO. Treating biodiesel with antioxidants reduced the concentration of peroxyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals, which affected the CO conversion process greatly. It is found that B20 with 0.15% m-concentration reduces CO by 23.81% compared with diesel at full load though it was slightly higher as compared to that of B20 without antioxidant.
POME was produced by palm oil plant which has been grown in entire Malaysia. Palm oil methyl ester (POME) was supplied by a local commercial company from a processing plant located in Selangor, Malaysia. Diesel fuel was provided by a commercial company.By using the method utilized by previous study ,Tween 80 and Span 80 will be used as surfactants with 1% each by volume. The amount of surfactant is acceptable for the stability of the emulsion fuels as the proportion increase further, the stability will be drop due to rapid coalescence . The objective of adding the surfactant is remove the tension between POME and water . The external force is used to prepare emulsions fuel. Water with three different levels of concentration is prepared (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). The water then will be mixed in B20 biodiesel-diesel blends. A digital overhead stirrer IKA RW20 at a speed of 800 rpm is used to stir the blend for 15 minutes. A total of six types of fuel were prepared namely B0, B20, B20E5, B20E10, B20E20 and B20E30. The formulation of emulsion fuels is shown in Table 1.
Biodiesel, being renewable in nature and offering a hope of some measure of independence, has been highlighted and researched during the last decade as one of the feasible alternative fuels for diesel engines.Production of biodiesel is usually obtained from vegetable oils, used cooking oils, or animal fats by transesterification . Biofuels, which are used as alternative fuels, can be very effective in reducing engineemissions along with other benefits including energy security, lower toxicity, higher lubrication, local availability, and sustainability .Biodiesel can be used with some precautions in diesel engines in many sectors including on-road vehicles, off-road mobile equipment, and vehicles and stationary equipment such as transportation . The main pollutants emitted from diesel engines that contribute to environmental pollution include HC, CO, NO x , and particulate matter(PM) or smoke from the combustion process [4-6]. However, the
Due to the increasing interest in the use of biodiesel, the Environmental Protection Agency (USA) has conducted a comprehensive analysis of the emission impacts of biodiesel using publicly available data . This investigation made use of statistical regression analysis to correlate the concentration of biodiesel in conventional diesel fuel with changes in regulated and unregulated pollutants. Since the majority of available data was collected on heavy-duty highway engines, this data formed the basis of the analysis. The average effects are shown in Figure 8. One may observe that due to higher content of oxygen in biodiesel, CO, PM and HC emission are reduced, but the NO x emission is higher than
best available reliable source of power for all domestic, large scale industrial and transportation applications. The major issue arises at the efficiency of these engines. The major pollutants are Un Burned Hydro Carbons (UBHC), and Oxides of Nitrogen (Nox) .These are formed due to incomplete combustion of the fuel in combustion chamber of dieselengine. One of the important factors which influence the performance and emission of dieselengine is fuel injection pressure. A numerical study was performed on a light duty direct injection dieselengine at 150 bar, 180 bar, 210 bar, 250bar and 300bar injection pressure to study its effect on performance and emission for both fuels that is diesel and heptane The performance and emission characteristics were presented graphically and concluded that they were found better at the fuel injection pressure 210 bar for the light duty engine.
(BSFC) compared to diesel fuel and the measured CO emissions of B5 and B100 fuels were found to be 9% and 32% lower than that of the diesel fuel, respectively. Jiafeng et al.  showed that lower heating value, lower volatility, higher viscosity, generally higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and high production cost, are some of biodiesel’s negative attributes. Rao et al.  studied the effects of the percentage of used cooking oil methyl ester (UCOME) on combustion characteristics (ignition delay, peak cylinder pressure, heat release rate). It was observed that the ignition delay periods of UCOME and its blends are significantly lower than that of diesel and decrease with increase in the percentage of UCOME. Also, the results show that the peak cylinder pressure is slightly higher for UCOME-diesel blends compared to diesel. This shows that the peak pressure is not very much affected using UCOME and its blends compared to diesel. The maximum heat release rate decreases with increase in percentage of UCOME in the blend. It can also be observed that maximum heat release rate occurs earlier with the increase in the percentage of UCOME in the blend. Tsolakis et al.  studied the combustion characterizes of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) pure or blended with ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) at 20% and 50% by volume (B20 and B50) in a single-cylinder direct injection dieselengine with pump–line–nozzle injection system. The combustion of RME, B20 and B50 resulted in advanced combustion compared to ULSD. The advanced RME combustion resulted in the reduction of smoke, HC and CO while both NOx emissions and fuel consumption were increased. The combustion of different fuel blends did not affect significantly the engine efficiency. The increased amount of oxygen in the RME molecule and hence in the locally fuel-rich combustion zones is believed to be an additional reason for the reduced smoke. The increase of the fuel consumption is mainly due to the lower calorific value (LCV) of RME compared to ULSD. The use of EGR was more effective in the case of biodiesel blends combustion compared to ULSD combustion. The NOx emissions were reduced at levels similar to those of ULSD with the use of similar volumetric percentages of EGR while the smoke was kept low. Manufacturing and application engineering always wants to know the emissions and performance parameters of a dieselenginefuelled with the various mixtures of diesel and biodiesel fuels. These requirements can be realized by performing various experimental tests or modeling the engine operations. Testing the engine at all operating conditions and various fuel mixtures are time consuming and
The engine tests were conducted with pongamia oil, rubber oil and plastic oil blends for no load to full condition and the corresponding performance and combustion characteristics were studied in comparison with diesel fuel. All the tests were conducted under the same conditions and repeated for three times to obtain consistent values. Pongamia oil blended with waste plastic oil is determined for suitable replacement of conventional diesel. In combustion analysis B20HOME-10WPO blend exhibits a higher cylinder peak pressure compared to B20 biodiesel blend and diesel because of evaporation of WPO inside the cylinder by absorbing heat from combustion chamber. The heat release rate with B20HOME-10WPO blend is higher compared toB20 biodiesel blend and diesel fuel due to better combustion as a result of presence of WPO. With the addition of WPO, NOx increases due to higher heat release and combustion temperature and the CO and HC emissions are considerably lower. Engine with B20HOME-10WPO blend results in better performance than B20 biodiesel blend and diesel.
The variation of BSEC with respect to brake power is shown in Figure 5.39. It can be observed from the figure that as the load increases the BSEC decreases for all the fuels tested in this study. This may be due to the increase in the cylinder gas temperature as expected. The BSEC for diesel is the lowest among all the fuels tested in this study in the entire range of engine operation, because of its higher heating value, lower density and more complete combustion. The BSEC of all the 40LFPO-DMC blends are higher than that of diesel operation at all loads, because of the lower heating value, higher density and poor combustion attributes of the blends . The BSEC of the 40LFPO-DMC10 (Y5) blend is lower compared to that of all other fuels at 25% load, and lower compared to those of the other 40LFPO-DMC blends at full load. The reason may be improved combustion by providing more oxygen to the combustion. Zhang and Balasubramanian  have got similar results by investigation of effects of oxygenated fuel blends on carbonaceous particulate composition and particle size distributions from a stationary dieselengine.
ABSTRACT: In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel substitute for internal combustion engines. An experimentalinvestigation was performed to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of dieselenginefuelled with blends of Jatropha methyl ester and diesel. In the present work three different fuel blends of Jatropha methyl ester (B10, B20, B40 and B100) were used. The increments in load on the engine increase the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific fuel consumption. The biodiesel blends produce lower carbon monoxide & unburned hydrocarbon emission and higher carbon dioxide & oxides of nitrogen than neat diesel fuel. From the results it was observed that the ignition delays decreased with increase in concentration of biodiesel in biodiesel blends with diesel. The combustion characteristics of single-fuel for biodiesel and diesel have similar combustion pressure and HRR patterns at different engine loads but it was observed that the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were lower for biodiesel blends compared to those of diesel fuel combustion.
of the blend was also reduced by increasing the amount of bioethanol. Their experimental measurement and observation of smoke concentration, NOx, CO and HC concentration indicated that both of these pollutants reduced by increasing the biofuel composition of diesterol throughout the engine operating range. Ozener et al  compared the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel produced from soybean oil and its blends (B10, B20, B50). Their tests were performed at steady-state conditions in a single-cylinder direct injection dieselengine over the entire rpm range (1200–3000 rpm). Their experimental results, showed that, relative to diesel, biodiesel had a 1–4% decrease in the torque and an approximately 2–9% increase in the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) due to the lower heating value (LHV) of the biodiesel. However, biodiesel significantly reduced carbon monoxide (CO) (28–46%) and unburned total hydrocarbons (THCs), while the nitric oxides (NOx) (6.95–17.62%) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions increased slightly 1.46–5.03%. Their combustion analyses showed that the addition of biodiesel to conventional diesel fuel decreased the ignition delay and reduced the premixed peak. Their results indicated that biodiesel could be used without any engine modifications as an alternative and environmentally friendly fuel. Torres-Jimenez et al  proved that, for all operating regimens tested, the addition of bioethanol to biodiesel reduces fuelling, injection timing, injection duration, mean injection rate and maximum injection pressure and increases injection delay compared to pure biodiesel. Meanwhile, increasing bioethanol in diesel fuel shows no significant variations or a slightly increase in fuelling, injection timing, injection duration
The unburnt HC emissions for diesel, WCOME, and WCOME- GRAPHENE blended fuels are shown in Figure 4.6. The HC emission for WCOME operation is higher compared to neat diesel due to its lower thermal efficiency resulting in abnormal combustion . The HC emissions gradually decreases with the addition of GRAPHENE nanoparticles to WCOME due to catalytic activity and better combustion characteristics of GRAPHENE nanoparticles which leads to enhanced combustion. A GRAPHENE nanoparticle increases the catalytic activity and chemical activity which leads to complete combustion of fuel. WCOME+60ppm gives better performance as compared to WCOME+20ppm due to the increased dosing level of GRAPHENE nanoparticles. That provides higher surface area which leads to greater combustion characteristics . It was observe that 4.47% for (WCOME+20ppm), 7.69% for (WCOME+40ppm) and 9.30% for (WCOME+60ppm) reduction in HC emission as compared to neat WCOME.
The tests were conducted at different injection pressures as mentioned, at constant engine speed and different loads. The experimental results showed that the fuels exhibit different combustion and performance characteristics for different engine loads and injection pressures. Examination of the fuel injection characteristics of the mixed fuels favors the usage of UCME as a fuel in a dieselengine. The maximum cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are slightly lower for UCME blends due to its lower heating value. The brake speciﬁc fuel consumption and brake speciﬁc energy consumption for UCME blends are higher than those for diesel fuel, while the brake thermal efﬁciency of UCME blends is usually lower than that of diesel fuel [31-36].