IJEDR1404078 International Journal of Engineering Development and Research ( www.ijedr.org ) 3881 conditions and ignited by the injection of an amount of liquid diesel fuel around top dead centre position. Natural gas is fumigated into the intake air and premixed with it during the induction stroke. At constant engine speed, the fumigated gaseous fuel replaces an equal amount of the inducted combustion air (on a volume basis) since the total amount of the inducted mixture has to be kept constant. Furthermore, under fumigated dualfuel operating mode, the desired engine power output (i.e. brake mean effective pressure) is controlled by changing the amounts of the fuels used. Thus, at a given combination of engine speed and load, the change of the liquid fuel „„supplementary ratio” leads to a change of the inhaled combustion air, thus resulting to the alteration of the total relative air–fuel ratio .
Abstract- Depletion of fossils fuels and environmental degradation have prompted researchers throughout the world to search for a suitable alternative fuel for internal combustion engine. In this study, acetylene gas has been considered as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine, which has excellent combustion properties. The experimentalinvestigation has been carried out on a single cylinder, spark ignition and air- cooled engine run in dualfuel mode with acetylene as primary fuel and petrol inducted as secondary fuel. Engine being run at various speeds and the perfect volumetric blending mixture ratio of acetylene and petrol for smooth functioning of a S park ignition petrol engine, problems like knocking and pre - ignition eliminated.
M.P.Poonia experimental investigations, a direct injection Dual-fuelengine fuelled with LPG and diesel were tested to Determine its performance and exhaust emission Characteristics with the objectives of improving engine Efficiency and exhaust emissions at part loads. The Parameters considered to achieve these objectives were Gaseous fuel quantity, pilot fuel quantity, pilot fuel injection Rate, intake air throttling, EGR and the intake air temperature. First engine operation was optimised at different operating Conditions and then percent gas substitution was varied at Optimum conditions. The main conclusions of the present Study are summarized as follows:
HCCI refers as homogeneous charge compression ignition. Homogeneous charge compression ignition is new combustion concept, which is an alternative to conventional spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engine combustion concepts . HCCI engine incorporates the basic features of SI engines (premixed charge preparation) and CI engines (auto -ignition of the fuel at a certain pressure and temperature) hence, can be referred as hybrid of SI and CI engines. The fuel/air mixture does not rely on the use of a spark plug or direct injection near Top Dead Centre (TDC) to be ignited, overall lean mixtures can be used resulting to high fuel economy. Fuel vaporizer is required to vaporize the fuel. Mixing of fuel and air is taking place outsi de the cylinder in the intake manifold. From the conceptual point of view HCCI would allow drastic reduction of particulate ma tters (PM) and NO X emissions by two processes.
Biosolids is a term applied to treated sludge that meets requirements for beneficial reuse through application to agricultural land and use by the public . The treatment and distribution of biosolids is governed by federal regulations contained in 40 CFR 503. These regulations set criteria and process requirements pertaining to various classifications of biosolids. The District has prepared and submitted to the State Division of Water Quality a written Biosolids Management Plan. The Biosolids Management Plan sets forth the District‟s methods for complying with the 503 regulations and declares the specific processes for achieving compliance.
Vegetable oils are renewable by nature and the non-edible category of these oils can be used as an alternate fuel to C.I. engines. In our project we have tried Rapeseed oil its ethyl ester and various blends of ethyl ester of rapeseed oil with methanol as the alternate fuel. The oil was procured and its properties was esterified by transesterifiction process in laboratory private limited, Hyderabad to minimize the problems of volatility, viscosity and polyunsaturated characters which are unfavourable to engine operation. The engine was tested for its performance using rapeseed oil with various blends of the esterified oil with Methanol. Also, the emission characteristics of these blends were determined using an exhaust gas analyser. Finally, its performance and emission characteristics were evaluated and compared with that of pure diesel and it was found to be an effective alternate fuel with better emission characteristics.
Baste S.Vetal et al.  analyzed the properties of esterified karanja oil and its mixture with diesel fuel for various proportions. The engine tests are conducted and were found that the karanja oil blend up to 25% with the petrodiesel meets the standard. T h e blending of petro diesel up to 20% (by volume) w i t h this oil can be used safely in a CIengine without any engine modification and aids in controlling air pollution.Gajendra Singh et al. investigated the prospect of making of biodiesel from Karanja oil and seen that 950ml biodiesel is Produced from 1 liter of Karanja oil. The seeds of Karanja contain 70-75% oil. In this study the oil has been converted to biodiesel by Transesterification process and used it to diesel engine for performance evaluation. K.Nanthagobal et al.  conducted the combustion analysis on biodiesel as a substitute for diesel, proves that delay period decreases. Raghavendra Prasada S.A et al.  concluded that the blends of Karanja with 40% and 60% with diesel, the combination of both mixtures of fuel can replace the emission without sacrificing the power output and will be controlling the exact air pollution for the engine.
Abstract—In a dualfuelengine, two fuels are used simultaneously. The primary fuel is usually gaseous forms the major content of the total energy supplied to the engine. The secondary fuel, i.e., pilot fuel, is injected after compression of the primary fuel air mixture. Much of the energy release comes from the combustion of the gaseous fuel and a small amount of diesel fuel provides ignition through timed cylinder injection. In the present work, single-cylinder, compression ignition, direct injection diesel engine has been used for the investigations of exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuelengine using diesel as pilot fuel and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as secondary fuel. The influence of major engine operating parameters, such as the pilot fuel quantity, intake air temperature, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), intake air throttling and rate of injection on the exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while LPG was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold. The experimental investigations showed that the poor exhaust emissions at light loads can be improved by employing larger pilot fuel quantity, using EGR, increasing intake temperature and well adjusted rate of injection.
In this study, a numerical simulation using the CFD software, FLUENT, has been conducted to examine the effect of various shapes of the venturi component sections in order to find the optimum venturi specifications to increase the EGR rate with minimum pressure loss at the part load operation range. The CFD results reveal that the venturi should be precisely optimized to introduce the required amount of EGR to the engine manifold. Then, the optimum venturi was manufactured, and it was installed on the engine intake system. By using the optimum Venturi EGR system instead of original system the 26% increase in EGR flow rate to the engine manifold is observed. In the second part of the paper, an experimentalinvestigation was carried out on a “Lister 8-1” dualfuel (diesel – natural gas) engine to examine the simultaneous effect of inlet air pre-heating and EGR on performance and emission characteristics of a dualfuelengine. The use of EGR at high levels seems to be unable to improve the engine performance at part loads, however, it is shown that EGR combined with pre-heating of inlet air can slightly increase thermal efficiency, resulting in reduced levels of both UHC and NOx emissions. CO and HC emissions were reduced by 24% and 31%, respectively. The NO x emissions were decreased by 21% because of the lower combustion temperature due to the much inert gas brought by EGR and decreased oxygen concentration in the cylinder.
Abstract: The aim of this investigation is to replace or reduce the fossil fuel by the alternative fuel which is easily and abundantly available nearby users. Present study shows, the performance and emission parameters of a compression ignition (CI) engine using Biogas and neat diesel in dualfuel mode. For this work, a Direct Injection Compression Ignition (DICI) diesel engine was modified into a dualfuelengine that used biogas as the primary fuel and diesel as secondary (pilot fuels), then performance parameters like, Brake Specific Energy Consumption (BSEC), Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ), Unburned Hydrocarbons (HC),
catalyst (KOH) is used during the transesterification process. The reason for this is the high percentage of the FFA content in the seed oils because if we directly use the base catalyst the reaction will not take place properly instead the formation of soap takes place and the catalyst is no longer available for the reaction. Mahua biodiesel and Jatropha biodiesel has better combustion and emissions properties than that of the conventional mineral diesel as it found out by various researchers in the past. Cold flow properties of Jatropha biodiesel are better than Mahua biodiesel as it has higher value for pour and cloud point. To improve the low temperature properties of the Mahua biodiesel, we blended the Mahua biodiesel with Jatropha biodiesel in different blending ratios, in order to find out optimum blending ratio for dualfuel. Studies have found that the thermal stability of biodiesel and vegetable oils is better than standard diesel fuel . In this experimental research, we have prepared the dual-fuel biodiesel with non- edible vegetable oil in order to achieve better cold flow properties of the biodiesel and which conforms to the ASTM standards.
Now day’s diesel engine is widely used in India for transportation and agricultural machines due to its higher fuel economy. As we see the cost of petrol increases, so people are largely depend on diesel engine. As the higher cost of petroleum based fuel researcher looking for alternative sources of fuel which is comparatively gives same results as diesel fuel. There are number of biodiesel having different properties and compatibility for biodiesel blend. List from them byproduct of vegetable Soybean Oil is one of the considerable alternative fuel source which have similar properties and combustion characteristics to the petroleum diesel. Many researchers report their study on vegetable oil, properties and the effect on engine performance and exhaust emission . The biodiesel results reduction in unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. But according to analysis of heavy- duty engines only oxides of nitrogen are slightly increases . The biodiesel thus produced in different blend with pure diesel at different percentage and tested in diesel engine.
simarouba blends than diesel. For all blends, brake specific fuel consumption decreases with increase in load. The brake specific fuel consumption of S20 blend was best among all blends. At normal injection timing 23˚bTDC, the S20 blend was having higher brake specific fuel consumption compared to S40 and S100 at rated load. At advanced injection timing 26˚bTDC, the S40 blend was having higher brake specific fuel consumption compared to S20 and S100 at rated load. The CO emissions of simarouba blends were higher than that of diesel at rated load. The CO emissions were least for diesel and S100 at full load. At 20˚bTDC and 26˚bTDC the CO emissions were more than 23˚bTDC injection timing. The HC emissions were least for S40 and S100 at full load. At 20˚bTDC and 26˚bTDC injection timing, the HC emissions were less than 23˚bTDC injection timing. For diesel and S20 blend at 23˚bTDC injection timing HC emissions were high. For S20 blend at 26˚bTDC HC emissions were minimum. For S100 blend 20˚bTDC HC emissions were minimum. For rated load NOx emissions were higher for S100 than diesel at 23˚bTDC injection timing. For S20 and S40 blends at 23˚bTDC injection timing NOx emissions were low when compared to diesel. At 20˚bTDC and 26˚bTDC NOx emissions were less than 23˚bTDC injection timing for all blends. The exhaust gas temperature increases with increase in engine loading for all blends at 20˚bTDC was higher compared to 23˚bTDC and 26˚bTDC. At 23˚bTDC S40 and S100 blends were having minimum exhaust gas temperature. The smoke density increases with increase in blending. At rated load, 23˚bTDC smoke density for S20 was higher than that of diesel.
In this research, a Direct Injection Compression Ignition (DICI) engine was modified into a dual- fuelengine that used biogas as the primary fuel and diesel as pilot fuel, with the focus on reduction of harmful exhaust emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine performance and emission characteristics was studied. The EGR system was developed and tested with different EGR percentages, i.e. 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The effect of EGR on exhaust gas temperature and performance parameters like brake specific fuel consumption, brake power and brake thermal efficiency was studied. The performance and emis- sion characteristics of the modified engine were compared with those of the conventional diesel engine. The results showed that EGR led to a decrease in specific fuel consumption and an increase in brake thermal efficiency. With increase in percent (%) of EGR, the percentage increase in brake thermal efficiency was up to 10.3% at quarter load and up to 14.5% at full load for single fuel op- eration while for dual-fuel operation an increase up to 9.5% at quarter load and up to 11.2% at full load was observed. The results also showed that EGR caused a decrease in exhaust gas tem- perature; hence it’s potential to reduce NO X emission. However, emissions of HC and CO increased
Current CNG engines are predominantly bi-fuel (Petrol + CNG) and are run at compression ratio around 9:1. But now CNG is easily available in cities and hence dedicated CNG engines can be thought of more aggressively. CNG has higher octane rating and so it can run at higher compression ratios compared to petrol. A high compression ratio is desirable because it allows an engine to extract more mechanical energy from a given mass of air-fuel mixture due to its higher thermal efficiency. High ratios place the available oxygen and fuel molecules into a reduced space along with the adiabatic heat of compression, causing better mixing and evaporation of the fuel droplets. Thus, they allow increased power at the moment of ignition and the extraction of more useful work from that power by expanding the hot gas to a greater degree.
From the above properties, one can observe the viscosity of the Plastic HC fuel is less than the Petro-diesel. Hence the flow ability in the fuel lines and injection quality very near to the petro- diesel. It supports the less modification of the existed engine. The cetane number of the Plastic HC and Petro-diesel also very near. Hence the knocking tendency is also very less. The calorific value is slightly less than the petro-diesel, which causes for more fuel consumption. By observing above physical and chemical properties the extracted plastic HC is suitable for implementing as fuel for the CIengine, in the blended form as well as in neat form.
Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion due to insufficient amount of air in the air– fuel mixture or insufficient time in the cycle for completion of combustion. CO emission is toxic and must be controlled. Generally CI engines operate with lean mixtures and hence CO emission will be low. The variation of CO emissions with load is shown in Figure-5. The CO emission is increased throughout the engine operation in dualfuel mode compared to neat fuel mode. CO emission greatly depends on the air fuel ratio. The Biogas was inducted through the inlet manifold; the oxygen availability in the intake mixture was less, which results in higher emission. The CO emission is 0.17% at low load condition and 0.05% at higher load condition. As increased in load the difference of CO emission is decreased and which almost same as neat fuel value.
Over the past few decades, diesel engines have been explored and studied on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics by many researchers. They investigated that the effect of operating parameters like injection timing and injection pressure on the engine combustion characteristic is quite significant. Injection timing and injection pressure influences major impacts on the performance characteristics of diesel fuelled engines. Injection timing plays an important role in the emission characteristics of diesel engine. Variation in fuel injection timing and fuel injection pressure leads to the divergence in combustion distinctiveness that concerns deviation in the emission characteristics of diesel engine, which have been evaluated in our previous review paper. No previous authors have done the survey on the consequences of variation of both injection timing and injection pressure on powered engines. A substantial number of research studies from highly rated journals in the scientific indexes were selected and surveyed preferentially since the year 1999–2017, on the basis of effects of operating parameters variation on diesel engine combustion characteristics literatures.
At the early stage of the Internal Co mbustion Engines (ICE) development, many fuels were used to feed the engines. Nowadays, two main fue ls are norma lly us ed for transport systems, gasoline and Diesel, wh ile natural gas is the main fuel in firing power plants. Several research activities were developed in order to study the possibility to feed Internal Combustion Engines with a lternative fuels. Acetylene is one of the tested fuels. This fuel has a wide fla mmability limits and a lower Oct ane Nu mber in co mparison with commerc ial liquid fuels. Thus, it is necessary to control detonation phenomenon using
Results showed that, the brake thermal efficiency decreases with substituting biodiesel. The brake thermal efficiency increases at low EGR ratios for four fuels. Increasing EGR flow rates to high levels resulted in decrease in brake thermal efficiency for both net diesel fuel and COEE blends. The NOx emissions tend to decrease significantly with increase in EGR ratio for all load condition. NOx emissions reduce with increase in EGR flow percentage for both net diesel fuel and COEE blends. UHC emissions decrease as the diesel-COEE blends were used. Increasing EGR flow rate to low level resulted in a slight decrease in UHC emissions. The CO variation follows a close trend with increase in COEE substitution percentage resulting in slight decrease in CO emission. Increasing EGR flow rates to high levels resulted in considerable rise in CO emission for both net diesel fuel and COEE blends. 2.7 S. Ghosh, D. Dutta