micromanipulator, an experienced operator and emptied ZPs, providing an easy and efficient method overall to obtain more than 100 % of progeny from the starting number of embryos (Seike et al., 1989; Williams and Moore, 1988). This simplification opened the door for breeding and research advances, and the evolving techniques became more and more optimized. For example, the first freezing and thawing protocols for bovine embryos provided the opportunity to store embryos before or after bisection for analysis at a later time point, or to postpone the embryo transfer to a better time when sufficient recipients would become available (Niemann, 1985; Suzuki et al., 1991). Among other techniques, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), bisection of embryos is numbered among the few techniques that can improve livestock breeding practices (Ushijima, 2005). Research groups try to improve bisection pro- cedures and culture conditions, as exemplified by the “Well of the Well” (WOW) culture system, in which embryos are cultured individually in conical microwells that have been punched into the bottom of a plastic culture dish and are covered by a microdroplet of medium (Hashiyada et al., 2018; Tagawa et al., 2008; Vajta et al., 2000). Irrespective of technical improvements, previous findings have been confirmed. For example, as researchers succeeded in achieving comparable developmental rates after bisection of earlier (2-cell) and later (8–cell) embryos, the production rate of MZ twins remained low when embryos were bisected in the earlier 2-cell stage (Tagawa et al., 2008).
The vast use of concentric solar collectors leads to significant amount of research over the years in the field of water worming and steam production. The idea behind the setup is to minimize the heat losses associated with solar collection. It is fascinating to provide energy at better temperatures than those possible with flat plate solar collectors. In this Model, a “parabolic mirror” concentrates incident solar beam radiation onto a much smaller receiver area, greatly decreasing heat loses and maximizing the
The in vitro production of porcine embryos aims to potentiate oocytes, maximize the use of breeders, create high value and viable embryos for transfer to receivers. This biotechnology involves different steps related to the manipulation of female gametes such ovarian harvesting, follicular puncture, oocyte maturation, oocyte fertilization and embryo culture. Difficulties such as reaching cytoplasmic maturation in the oocytes, high polyspermy ratio as well as the low capacity in embryonic development until the blastocyst stage, and further transfer to synchronized sows are the main reasons why this technique is not yet very popular. However, there has been an effort by the scientific community to improve this technique to move from an experimental level to a field tool.
Only grade I COCs (homogenous cytoplasm with a compact, and more than four complete layers of the cu- mulus oophorus cells) were used in this study. Moreover, special attention was given to the oocyte diameter. Only oocytes with similar size (approximately 120 - 125 μm excluding zonapellucida) were selected under a stereomicroscope for maturation. To calculate the recovery rate of oocytes per ovary, 320 ovaries were used in 5 replicates, divided equally between the experimental groups: slicing or aspiration. The oocyte recovery rate of each technique was determined by the ratio between number of selected COCs and used ovaries.
The left panel of Fig. 2 shows transverse momentum distributions of charged pseudoscalar D ± mesons measured by the ATLAS experiment. Overall situation is very similar as for the ALICE case except of the agreement with the experimental data points, which is somewhat worse here. Only the very upper limit of the KMR result is consistent with the ATLAS data. This is also true for the other standard collinear NLO pQCD approaches. The worse description of the ATLAS data may be caused by much broader range of pseudorapidities than in the case of the ALICE detector. Potentially, this can be related to double-parton scattering (DPS) eﬀects .
Bovine embryos were produced by adapting previously described routine in vitro methods . Briefly, ovaries were collected per slaughtered cow in separate plastic bags in a local slaughterhouse and processed within 2 h. Follicles between 2 and 8 mm diameter were punctured. Subsequently, COCs and embryos were strictly kept per donor cow during the complete procedure. From each donor, the first 8–10 COCs visible in the Petri dish were collected, without selection based on the quality of these COCs, only denuded oocytes were discarded. If fewer than eight COCs were available, the donor was excluded from the experiments. The COCs were transferred to maturation medium, which consisted of modified bicar- bonate-buffered TCM-199 supplemented with 50 µg/
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on the bone formation and resorption markers in ovariectomized rats (experimental study), and to study its effect on the bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women (clinical study). Materials and methods: The study involved experimental and clinical aspects. In the experi- mental aspect, 42 female Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group I (n=6; sham-operated), Group II (n=6; 1 mL of carboxymethyl cellulose [CMC] was administered orally), Group III (n=6; 20 mg/kg orally of atorvastatin was administered), Group IV (n=12; untreated ovariectomized [OVX] rats and served as a model of osteoporosis [OP]) and Group V (n=12; 20 mg/kg orally of atorvastatin was administered to ovariectomized rats). After 4 weeks, serum acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, total calcium and inorganic phosphorus were assessed. Then, 3 µm thickness lumbar and femur sections were examined using a light microscope to assess cortical thickness, trabecular area, numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In the clinical aspect, 85 post-menopausal osteoporotic females with recently detected hyperlipidemia participated in the study. Atorvastatin 40 mg/day, calcium carbonate 500 mg/day and vitamin D 800 international units were given to all patients for a period of 18 months. BMD was measured at the start and at the end of the study by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).
transverse energy, pseudorapidity, and two-jet azimuthal angle difference were compared with corresponding single diffractive and nondiffractive distributions. Using measured jet kinematical variables, the ratio of double Pomeron exchange to single diffractive rates was deter- mined as a function of x p -Bjorken and compared with the
The main aim of the paper is to analyze theoretical aspects of development preconditions of original decision management in global currency market FOREX system and to analyze experimental results of decision manage- ment in currency market models, offered earlier by other authors. The greater attention is paid to so called double trump model of decision management in currency market (Rutkauskas, 2005), experimental implementation of which indicates the development possibilities of invest- ment strategies, allowing to make better investment deci- sions than those that are dictated by the market. Along with the examination of the selected model characteris- tics, which in authors opinion allowed to reveal the exis- tence of such strategies, principles of comparison of in- vestment decisions’ and strategy efficiency with the effi- ciency of the market were formulated. Furthermore, it is important to pay attention to one important factor of the implementation of the research, results of which are pre- sented in this work and other works of such direction published earlier by other authors. Wide-range experi- ment is carried out for the examination of expressed the- sis and for the verification of the developed original sys- tem of decision management in global currency and capi- tal markets. Hypothesis of market efficiency, formulated for the financial markets, and the random movement as- sumption of the price variation of financial assets con- tradict any possibility to create, using only historical data, such investment strategies, which allow to increase the investment effect, generated by the corresponding market, in a long-run period. However, the results, re- ceived by the authors, argue that such strategies are pos- sible. Twofold trump model of decision management in the global currency market FOREX, that was offered ear- lier by one of the authors and analysed in the paper, al- lows to form, leaning only on historical information, practically nonrisky investment strategies, allowing to gain higher investment effect than the effect, insured by the market investment instruments of the corresponding term. Single experiments to find the strategy of decision management in the currency market FOREX at any point of time were successful; however the authors carry out the long-term experiment to prove that in the currency market there are always “nonefficiency shoals”. The results of the experiment can be observed on the following web page: http://www.vgtu.lt/usr/rutkauskas/en/eksperimentas.html.
The process through which water enters the soil from the ground surface is known as infiltration. This process is caused by force of gravity and capillary action. Infiltration capacity may be defined as the maximum rate at which a given soil at a given time can absorb water and is expressed in cm/h or mm/h or inches/h. The infiltration capacity is dependent on a large number of factors; some of them are characteristics of the soil, vegetative cover, condition of the soil surface, soil temperature, water content of the soil, rainfall intensity, etc. If the intensity of rainfall exceeds the infiltration rate of a given soil it results in a runoff. Infiltration of water into the soil can be determined by a simple instrument called Double ring infiltrometer. The cylindrical ring made up of stainless steel are partially inserted into the soil and filled with water, after which the speed of infiltration is measured. Two types of cylinders are taken for this experiment of diameter 11cm and 22cm and height 40cm. The double ring limits the lateral spread of water after infiltration. Double ring infiltrometer is better than single ring infiltrometer because in single ring infiltrometer the water will spread both horizontally & vertically, but using double ring infiltrometer the water will penetrate in one direction that is towards the ground water without much wastage of water.
interior location where drinking water is the major problem, and they really facing the problem of usable water for human living .For the need of drinking water, water for irrigation and some industrial purposes, fresh water source must be explored .But demand for industry and large cultivation, cannot be meet out to solve this problem solar desalination could be an appropriate solution. Solar distillation is one of the simplest techniques used in water desalination. The present study is based on experimental investigation on double slope solar still. This alternative is best suited for the place which has cost free solar energy, for the plant installation and its less maintenance of the set up.The project is aimed to use renewable solar energy as a source for producing drinking water of local source. The conversion of raw water to purify water has been done by a solar still system. The purpose of solar still system designing and its fabrication is very simple to avail water free from impurities .In India impure water resources are available everywhere ,to make it useful a high energy potential is required. Potable water is the biggest problem in the coastal areas where salty water is abundant. To remove impurities and making water usable for drinking, this can be done by natural phenomenon of evaporation and condensation.
Today dates production is a business and also has high economic significance in the world. It's true that Pakistan is one of the foremost prod- ucers of dates but unfortunately date business is incapable to process real- istic production for export because of deprived management practices and lack of modern techniques. By impro- ving the management practices, adapting modern techniques and get better a group in date stuffing, stock up, and marketing progress towards the bright future of Pakistan is possible (Ismail et al., 2006).
Meanwhile, all the experimental work and simulation analysis have been done in second phase. The flat plate for experimental work have been designed base on the preliminary studies in the first phase. In experimental work, there are only one model (2D45) that have been considered and tested with three different value of blowing ratios. Then the thermal data gathered from both study, the experimental and simulation will be analysed and evaluated.
The phytohormone, ABA plays a vital role in the growth and development of plants. The hormone is d with seed dormancy and it is reported to be involved in desiccation tolerance in orthodox seeds. There is no conclusive information about the role of ABA in recalcitrant species. The present investigation was aimed at understanding the changes in ABA level during the desiccation of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. A significant positive correlation has been established between moisture content and ABA level in the local A comparatively high level of ABA Artocarpus heterophyllus. Vivipary has been observed in these cultivars even under elevated levels of ABA. The ABA level drastically decreased during desiccation of embryos. However, the embryos could tolerate mild desiccation even under low level of ABA. A different trend in ABA could be observed in Artocarpus hirsutus in which uld tolerate desiccation better than . No significant correlation has been established between moisture content and ABA level in this species. Vivipary could not be observed in Artocarpus hirsute seven under low ts suggest that vivipary cannot be attributed to the low level of ABA and it is not the sole factor in providing desiccation tolerance in orthodox seeds.