from Waste Plastic Oil (WPO). The Alumina Nanoparticles are characterized by X- ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Zeta Potential Analysis. The alumina Nanoparticles are blended with Waste Plastic Oil in the mass fractions of 10 and 20 ppm using an Ultrasonicator. The experiments are carried out in single cylinder four stroke Variable Compression Ratio dieselengine by varying the load using eddy current dynamometer. The experimental results reveal that there is a significant improvement in the performance characteristics like Brake Thermal Efficiency and Brake Specific Fuel Consumption and considerable reduction in the emission constituents like carbon Monoxide (CO) and Unburned Hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke but in turn increase in Nitric oxide (NOx) emissions were observed.
Mozhi et al. , had investigated the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a variable compression ratio engineusing cerium oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes as fuel-borne nanoparticles additives in diesterol (diesel–biodiesel–ethanol) blends. The Cerium Oxide nanoparticles were an oxygen donating catalyst which provides oxygen for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and absorbs oxygen for the reduction of nitrogen oxides. The activation energy of Cerium Oxide was to burn off carbon deposits and helps to prevent the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall resulted in significant reduction of hydrocarbon and smoke emissions. Lenin et al. , performed the experiments on a single cylinder dieselengine for evaluation of diesel doped with metal additives MnO. Brake thermal efficiency was increased and the exhaust emission measurements for the fuel with manganese additive showed that CO is reduced by 37% due to higher carbon activation.
Available Online at www.ijpret.com 249 thermal efficiency for test fuel. Also with the addition of alumina and cerium oxide nanoparticle to neat diesel, lower NOx emission. Prabhu L et al  carried out investigation on performance and emission analysis of tio2 nanoparticle as an additive for bio-diesel blends. The carbon monoxide and smoke emission decreases with biodiesel blends when comparing with the neat diesel. The addition of titanium oxide further decreases the CO emission, HC emission and smoke emission when comparing with neat diesel. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of SBME blended with diesel along with Aluminium nanoparticle on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of dieselengine. For investigation various blends of Soya bean biodiesel with diesel were taken. The Aluminium nanoparticle was added with various proportions.
Abstract. This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a dieselengine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the dieselengine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nano- structure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke dieselengine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nanoparticles to diesel fuel, increased dieselengine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nanoparticles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO 2
Biofuel is the better alternative for the increased number of pollution and the decrease in fossil fuels. It has more oxygen content which leads to more emissions. And also, it has less calorific value with increased fuel consumption. So trans esterification process was done to obtain biofuel from the oil which has the specified properties as per the diesel engines. The biofuel obtained was used as a blend with diesel fuels in order to increase the performances of the fuel. But also, the nitrous oxide emissions and the soot particle emissions were increased when biodiesel was used in the diesel engines. To avoid this copper oxide additives were used in the blends. It was mixed with the biodiesel with the help of a magnetic stirrer. This improved the efficiency of the additives. It reduced the specific fuel consumption, increased brake thermal efficiency and leads to complete combustion. And also, the brake power increases with the increase in load when additive is added with the biodiesel. These additives increased the thermal efficiency and also increased the heat transfer capacity of the fuel. This is due to the main properties of the additives such as higher specific surface area, thermal conductivity, catalytic activity and chemical properties. And also, it increases the surface area to volume ratio that enables oxidation capacity.
An experimental investigation was conducted in a six-cylinder, four-stroke dieselengine to establish the effects of Multi Wall Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNT) with the dosing levels from 2.5 to 30 ppm with the waste vegetable oil (WVO) methyl esters fuel that was produced using the transestrification process, and subsequently, the WVO methyl ester was blended with diesel fuel in the proportion of 80% of diesel and 20% biodiesel by volume (B20). The Carbon nanotubes (with nano-structure (1/3) Chiral Metal and (2/3) semiconductor zigzag particles with the length of 10 μm and diameter of 5 nm with purity rate of 95%) were blended with the biodiesel fuel. The CNTs were blended with the biodiesel with the aid of ultrasonicator. The whole investigation was conducted in the dieselengineusing the following fuels: neat diesel fuel (D100), 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume (B20), as well as B20 and CNT blended fuels accordingly. The experimental results revealed a considerable enhancement in the performance parameters for the CNT blended biodiesel fuels compared to the neat biodiesel and neat diesel fuel (power increased up to 17%, torque increased 18%, bsfc decreased 38.5%). Emission parameters for the CNT blended decreased compared to neat diesel and neat biodiesel fuels (HC decreased up to 22%, CO emission decreased 14%). CNT nano-additives are considered as a propitious fuel-borne catalyst to improve the fuel properties, owing to their enhanced surface area/volume ratio, quick evaporation and shorter ignition delay characteristics that help to improve the performance parameters of engine and decrease emissions.
ever increasing diesel vehicle population, use of renewable fuels like vegetable oils has become more pertinent. Crude oil and petroleum products are going to become very scarce and costly to search and production. Although fuel economy of engines is greatly improved, increase in the number of automobiles alone dictates that there will be a great demand for fuel in the near future. The need of the development of alternative fuels for the IC-engine is concerned over the emission problems of gasoline engines. Combined with other air polluting systems, the large number of automobiles is a major contributor to the air quality problem of the world. A third reason for alternative fuel development is the fact that a large percentage of crude oil must be imported from other countries which control the larger oil fields. Bio-diesel is the essential fuel which have completed the health effects testing requirements of the US Clear Air Act. Bio-diesel provides reduction of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter used in a conventional dieselengine. It eliminates the sulphate fraction (as there is no sulphur in the fuel). There is no requirement engine modifications up to 20 percent blend. Bio-diesel could be made from crude/natural vegetable oils, crude/refined fats, high acidity oil/fats, recovered fried oils, animal fats and waste oils. Bio-diesel is a renewable fuel, biodegradable and non-toxic. Bio-diesel is produced by a simple chemical reaction between vegetable oil and alcohol in the presence of an acid or base as catalyst. It contains around 10% built-in oxygen by weight and has no sulphur and has excellent lubricity properties. Due to built-in- oxygen It is more efficient fuel than petro-diesel hence It contains higher cetane number than that of petro-dieselIt is defined as mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Bio Diesel confirm to ASTM D6751 specifications for use in diesel engines. The combustion behaviour of traditional liquid fuels with the addition of Nano scale energetic materials as fuel additives to enhance the performance and emissions in a dieselengine is an interesting concept. The addition of aluminium nanoparticles to diesel provides a large contact surface area with water and high activity for the decomposition of hydrogen from water during the combustion process. During combustion, alumina serves as a catalyst and the aluminium nanoparticles are denuded and decomposed the water to yield the hydrogen.The combustion of the diesel fuel mixed with aqueous aluminium . Nano metal oxide additives are reported to be successful in reducing diesel emissions. The metal based additives reduce dieselengine pollution emissions and fuel consumption values.
In this project, we have studied and experimented about the synthesis of Cerium oxide (Ceo2) nanoparticles from GloriossoSuperba Leaf, extraction of Bio Diesel from algae and effects of adding Cerium oxide nanoparticles in the conventional fuel and Biodiesel and comparison of results between conventional fuel and biodiesel with and without the fuel additives. We have involved in nanoscience, organic chemistry and environmental science for this experimentalstudies.
C. Syed Aalam et al, (2015)Effect of fuel injection pressure on the combustion, performance and emission characters of a common-rail dieselengineusing mahua methyl ester blend (MME20) specific fuel consumption (SFC) and NOx emission increases, and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) decreased due to combustion characteristics and fuel properties of MME20. For better utilization of mahua methyl ester blend, fuel injection pressureincreasedfrom 22Mpa to 88Mpa. Exhibit higher BTE and better combustion character when compare that of other injection pressure. HC,CO and Smoke level gradually falls with
One can observe that the HC emitted by the diesel fuel was lower than it was for the corresponding biodiesel -diesel blended fuels, at all engine load conditions and all compression ratios. This is due to the higher cetane number of diesel fuel, which reduced the combustion delay; such a reduction was main reason to decreases the HC emissions in diesel fuel. Moreover, biodiesel blends too show HC emissions results slightly closer to diesel fuel due to the oxygen content in the biodiesel molecule, which leads to a complete and cleaner combustion. When the results of E -10 blended fuel was compared with E-6 blends, no such large variations were seen with HC emissions but for E-6 blends the HC emissions were slightly lesser than those for E-10 blends.
determined by using the Scherer's equation D=K λ/β cos θ. Where K, is usually taken as 0.89, D is the crystal size, λ is the wavelength of the X-ray radiation, β is the line width at maximum height, and θ is the diffraction angle. The mean size of the alumina nanoparticle was approximately 46 nm by using the above equation. SEM was used to measure the morphology and average particle size of nanoparticles. SEM image of ZrO 2 nanoparticles
Bio-fuels have the potential to meet their growing energy demand in sustainable manner. Bio diesel is produced from plants, algae and animal fats. These have almost similar energy density, cetane number, heat of vaporization and stoichiometric air fuel ratio compared to mineral diesel fuel. Bio diesel has almost eliminates lifecycle of CO2 emissions. It has high cetane number which is a measure of fuel’s ignition quality. The high cetane number of biodiesel contributes to easy starting and low idle noise. Not only this, biodiesel has reduced emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Using pure biodiesel fuel in dieselengine sustains various problems like poor fuel atomization, piston ring sticking, injector choking and lubricating dilution. These problems are because of high viscosity, low volatility and low calorific value. Hence blending of biodiesel is done to reduce viscosity and improving other performances. It has been reported that transestrification is an effective process to overcome all these problems. But use of biodiesel in dieselengine has led to a great problem of increased NOx emission. So in order to reduce NOx emission various techniques have been developed like SCR, EGR etc. among this EGR is the best technique to reduce NOx emission.
The Table 1 summarizes some of the important properties of three selected oxygenated additives. It shows that, the comparison of boiling point, distillation range of all selected additives are within the distillation range of the base diesel fuel. The major properties that affect performance of the engine like vapour density, Cetane number; oxygen content and density are compared among these three additives in Fig. 1. High cetane number improves the cylinder pressure by decreasing and completing total combustion of fuel in shorter period. This is possible only with oxygenate additives due to higher quantity of oxygen availability that helps in proper mixing of fuel in the process of combustion. Addition of these additives also lowers the viscosity improves vaporization of diesel fuel that decreases delay in ignition.
nanoparticle to diesel fuel in a compression ignition engine. The experiments were conducted at constant speed of 1500 rpm and for compression ratio 17.5. The size of nanoparticles was 10-20nm and the dosing level was 80mg/L. They noticed an increase in the brake thermal efficiency by 0.9% at full load when titanium oxide nanoparticles were added. They also found that the addition of titanium oxide diesel fuel reduced the brake specific fuel consumption by 22%.  examined the effect of addition of Nano fuel on the performance and emission of dieselengineusing stationary, single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed 1500 rpm and water cooled (CI) engine. Aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) was used as nanoparticles with size between (5-150 nm). They found that
based fuels has led to oil crises in the recent times. The research regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of three different biodiesel blends with diesel. The present study brings out an experiment of three biodiesels from custard apple seed oil and mahua oils are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of two biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, variable compression ratio (15 and 17), direct injection, water cooled and high speed dieselengine at various engine loads with constant engine speed. To analyze the performance and emissions of a dieselengineusing blend (B20). The results obtained that BTE of C10M10 at CR17 with nano possess higher efficiency than other mixing blends. Compare to other blends BSFC of C10M10 at CR15 has more fuel consumption.
Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to its transport and properties. Particles are further classified according to diameter Ultrafine particles are the same as nanoparticles and between 1 and 100 nanometers in size, fine particles are sized between 100 and 2,500 nanometers, and coarse particles cover a range between 2,500 and 10,000 nanometers. Scientific research on nanoparticles is intense as they have many potential applications in medicine, physics, optics, and electronics.
The influence of load on brake power for different fuels is presented in Figure-2. It can be observed from the figure that as the load increases, brake power increases to the maximum at 70% load and then decreases for all the fuel samples. When the brake power produced by the engine at different loads for different mixtures of dual fuel is compared, it is found that the brake power increases up to B40 and then it decreases. When the brake power at different loads is compared for diesel and different combinations of dual fuel, it is noted that the brake power is higher for the dual fuel combinations from B5 to B30 than diesel. In the case of B40 the brake power is more or less equal to that of diesel. For the dual fuel combinations from B50 to B100, the brake power is less than that of diesel. Hence it can be concluded that the dual fuel combination of B40 can be recommended for use in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications. At the same time the cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel.
Evaluation of performance & emission of neem oil methyl ester in a DI dieselengine. They observed that indicated lower brake thermal efficiency for B30, mainly due to its high viscosity compared to diesel. Higher brake thermal efficiency for NOME & B20 due to improved lubricity, reduced friction. Brake specific energy consumption of B30 is higher than diesel because of its lower calorific value, higher viscosity, density and boiling point. NOx emissions at full load for NOME, B20 & B30 were higher than diesel. Higher values of NOx are due to higher bulk modules of NOME (Bio-diesel) resulting in dynamic injection advance, changes in the composition, viscosity, density, oxygen content, calorific value of the fuel and combustion temperature ..
In this modern world of industries and technology the dieselengine plays a major role in various fields. It may be transportation (or) production e.t.c., with the increase of various applications to the diesel resources effects on the environment leading to effect like green house(3). Higher fuel efficiency in the dieselengine is achieved due to the high compression ratios along with relatively high oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. However, these same factors results in high emission in dieselengine. The stringent emission norms have been an important driving force to develop the internal combustion engines more environment friendly (12). The main pollutants from diesel engines are Carbon Monoxide and Hydro Carbons. The use of fish oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is a new concept. In fact early engines were demonstrated with vegetable oils. In a developing country such as India where mass transportation plays a key role, the suitability of alternate fuels for a dieselengine likes cetane number and calorific value similar to diesel(7). They have heat contents approximately 80-90% of diesel fuel.
Lubricant can be defined as a substance introduced between two surfaces in relative motion in order to reduce the friction between them. A lubricant is a substance that can reduce the friction, heat and wear between two moving surfaces. It also includes cleaning, improve sealing, reducing corrosion and cools up the engine. Besides, there are three type of lubricant which are liquid, solid and semi-liquid. Lubricating oils also known as liquid lubricants and further classified into three categories which are animal and vegetables oils, mineral based or petroleum oils and blended oils or Polyalpha-olefin (PAO).