35 ppm) were used. Thermal efficiency was improved by about 6% as compared with that of neat dieselfuel for 35 ppm dose higher loads. Fire point, flash point and viscosity of fuel were increased with the increasing of the dose of nano particles. examined the addition of ZnO nanoparticles effect on the performance of single cylinder, four stroke vertical and cool water dieselengine. The size of the nanoparticles was (1-100) nm with two doses of 250ppm and 500ppm. ZnO additive shortened the ignition delay, The peak pressure increased from 69 bar for dieselfuel to 76.6 and 78 bar for (DF+250ppm ZnO) and (DF+500PPM ZnO) respectively. The brake thermal efficiency was increased from 35.82% for dieselfuel to 36.8% and 37.35% for (DF+250PPMZnO) and (DF+500ppm ZnO) respectively.  studied experimentally the effect of addition of cerium oxide to the neat dieselfuel on the performance and emission in a four stroke, cool water, constant speed 1700 rpm and four cylinder compression ignition engine whose rate power is 15HP. The dosages of nanoparticles were 10, 20, 30 and 40ppm. The specific fuel consumption decreased to 0.5(kg/kW.hr) for (DF+30ppmCeO 2 ).  studied the effect of Nano additive on the performance of a
The variation of ignition delay with brake power for different configurations is shown in Figure 3. It is inferred that ignition delay, decreases with an increase in brake power for almost all configurations. With an increase in brake power, the amount of fuel being burnt inside the cylinder is increased and subsequently the temperature of in-cylinder gases is increased. This may lead to reduced ignition delay in all configurations. However, the ignition delay for dieselfuel was lower under GP1, GP2 and GP3 configurations than the normal engine. It is observed that the ignition delay of GP1, GP2 and GP3are 10.2 o CA, 10.7 o CA and 10.8 o CA at 3/4 of rated load respectively. The reduction in the ignition delay of GP2 is about 7.3% at 3/4 of rated load when compared to normal engine. This is due to the fast and complete burn of the charge because of the flow of high velocity flames through the grooves in the piston of the combustion chamber.
Abstract: Fossil fuels have given us utility and continued their role in a variety of areas, but rapid depletion of these fossil fuels directs the researchers to find alternative fuels for the present energy crisis. In this perspective a Bio-diesel came in to existence which meets the present energy demand and emission norms. Biodiesel is a non–toxic, biodegradable and renewable alternative fuel that can be used with little or no engine modifications. In this study Transesterification of soybean oil (TSO) with methanol to methyl esters (biodiesel) was carried out in the presence of NaOH as catalyst and the effect of the biodiesel was investigated on four stroke single cylinder slow speed dieselengine for both performance and emission characteristics in the range of no load to full load. The experimental results have showed that increase in brake thermal efficiency by 2.6 % and mechanical efficiency by 8.8 % with soybean Bio- diesel. Smoke is reduced by 75 % at part load and NO x
The brake specific fuel consumption of various types of fuels at differentengine speeds is presented in Figure-3. Brake specific fuel consumption is considered to be a very useful parameter that can be used to compare the efficiency of energy consumption of fuels. As shown in the figure, when using gasoline, LPG and ethanol, the BSFC decreased when the engine speed increased. In addition, the brake specific fuel consumption increased when using ethanol at all engine speeds when compared to LPG and gasoline. This reduction can be explained by the fact that ethanol has a lower heating value, which leads to more fuel being consumed in order to produce the same effective power as the other fuels. Arroyo et al.  performed a similar series of experiments to show the effect of LPG fuel on engineperformance and they reached the same conclusions as the current study regarding BSFC.
that for diesel. The maximum heat release rate of standard diesel, B25, B50, B75 and B100 is 86.58, 95.96, 94.24, 92.89 and 90.26 respectively. This is because, increased accumulation of fuel during the relatively longer delay period resulted in higher rate of heat release. For B25, B50, B75 blends, the heat release peak was higher than that of B100 due to reduced viscosity and better spray formation. The less intense premixed combustion phase was due to the shorter ignition delay of biodiesel compared with that of diesel. This was probably the result of the chemical reactions during the injection of vegetable oil at high temperature. The similar conclusions were drawn by other authors in the literature, there were at different conclusions. Ozsezen et al.  explained that the crude sunflower-oil exhibited, in average, 2.08 0 longer ignition delay due to its lower cetane number when compared with dieselfuel.
Abstract—An effort has been taken to studyperformance and emission characteristics of a dieselenginefueled with biodiesel and dieselfuel using EGR. All the experiments were conducted on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, water cooled, indirect injection (Lister 8-1) dieselengine at the engine full load operation and constant engine speed of 730 rpm. The results obtained with biodiesel (canola oil ethyl ester) were compared with the dieselfuel as reference fuel. The engineperformance and efficiency obtained in biodiesel case were less, which could be attributed to lower calorific value of biodiesel. CO and UHC emissions for biodiesel were lower than that of dieselfuel. However, it was observed that NOx emissions for biodiesel were higher than that of dieselfuel. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a very effective technique to reduce NOx emissions from a dieselengine. In this study the venturi type EGR system was used. When similar percentages (%by volume) of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were used in the cases of diesel and canola oil ethyl ester, NOx emissions were considerably reduced to lower values.
This study is about the effect of bio additives; Di Methyl Poly Siloxane Power (DMPS Power) and Palm Oil Methyl Ester (D20 Booster) performances and emissions in dieselenginefueled with Bio DieselFuel (BDF) i.e., Crude Palm oil, Jatropha Curcas oil and Waste Cooking oil. Furthermore, due to alternative fuels for dieselengine are becoming increasingly important because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum-fueled engines. Several developed countries have introduced policies encouraging the use of BDF made from grains, vegetable oil or biomass to replace part of their fossil fuel use in industries in order to prevent environmental degradation by using cleaner fuel and to reduce dependence on imported, finite fossil supplies by partially replacing them with renewable, domestic sources. The DMPS and D20 Bio-additives can remarkably improve the fuel economy of Compression Ignition (CI) engine while operating on all kinds of BDF. The power output of BDF depends on its, blend, quality, and load conditions under which the fuel consumed. Hence, the performance, combustion characteristics and emissions of dieselengine learnt under different speed and load conditions.
In the present investigation, tests were carried out to determine engineperformance, combustion and emissions of a naturally aspirated direct injection dieselenginefueled with diesel and Jatropha Methyl ester and their blends (JME10, JME20 and JME30). Comparison of performance and emission was done for different values of compression ratio, injection pressure and injection timing to find best possible combination for operating engine with JME. It is found that the combined compression ratio of 19:1, injection pressure of 240bar and injection timing of 27°bTDC increases the BTHE and reduces BSFC while having lower emissions.From the investigation, it is concluded that the both performance and emissions can considerably improved for Methyl ester of jatropha oil blended fuel JME20 compared to diesel.
The operating parameters such as loads exerted during engine operation and engine speeds are controlled manually by user while the overall operation of engine will automatically monitored by set of SCADA unit. The DEWESOFTv7.11 software is used to monitor the input parameters and measure the performance of the engine while the DYNO-MAX 2010 software is used to analyse the combustion characteristics. For this research, all biodiesel fuels (BDF) types and standard diesel (STD) are used for running under similar manner of engine operation under dynamometer loads at 0%, 50% and 90% loads condition. The maximum load i.e. 100% will not be considered in the test operation to avoid the exhausted and failure of the engine as the precaution. The other parameter in this experiment is the various running speeds of the engine which will be simulated at 800, 1200, 1600 and 2000 rpm. To enhance the accuracy of results, the data measurement and recording process was repeated for 3 cycles per each test condition.
Most diesohol mixtures gave higher torque compared with the pure Diesel over the lower range of running speeds (less than 1200). It was found also that the diesohol mixtures showed higher thermal efficiency than pure Diesel. This attributed to the higher calorific values (high Cetan number) of the mixtures compared with pure diesel. The best results were found at diesohol percentages between 25 % to 20 %, having an increase of the thermal efficiency of about 55 % compared to pure Diesel. The specific fuel consumption results showed significant variations between the different Diesohol mixtures and pure diesel. The pure diesel result showed higher values than diesohol mixtures for all speed ranges, this due to the homogenous viscosity of pure diesel compared to diesohol. For the diesohol mixtures the better results of SFC was noticed at higher percentages of (E25) and (M25). The volumetric efficiency results showed no significant difference between the Diesohol mixtures, with better results for pure diesel, this attributed to the homogeneity of dieselfuel, and its viscosity stabilization.
Sabourin et al. , Roos et al.  and Roger  have reported that adding nano-size particles to the fuel act as a liquid fuel catalyst and thereby enhance the ignition and combustion characteristics of the engine. Arianna et al.  have utilized cerium oxide nano-particles as a combustion improver in water/diesel emulsion fuel and there was a significant reduction in exhaust emissions such as CO and HC. Moy et al.  reported that CNT could act as a potential nano-additive for the fuels to enhance the burning rate of the fuel, improve the cetane number, act as an anti-knock additive, promote clean burning and suppress the smoke formation. Sadhik Basha and Anand [47–50] have conducted a series of experiments in a single cylinder dieselengine using CNTs and Alumina nanoparticles as additive with diesel, biodiesel, water–diesel emulsion fuels. They observed an appreciable increase in the brake thermal efficiency and reduced harmful emissions compared to neat diesel and biodiesel. On such basis, the other way to introduce catalysts as investigated in the present study would be to dissolve them in fuel so that they could be added on a continuous basis. More importantly, soluble catalyst particles do not settle out during the injection stage and neither interferes with the engine operation [50–52].
tends to be slower. This may be explained by the reduction of maximum pressure rise rate shown in figure 3-a. Also shown in the same two figures that the dual fuelengine that uses LPG produces the highest combustion rate as its curve lies in the bottom of others in figures 3-c and d. The reason can be the higher pressure rise rate shown in figure 3-a as it has the highest tendency of self-ignition compared to natural gas or dieselfuel. As the combustion becomes faster for LPG dual fuelengine, as shown in the two figures, the angle of maximum pressure rise rate and maximum pressure becomes far away from the top dead centre in the compression stroke. For LPG case, it is noticed from figure 3-d that the maximum pressure occurs before the top dead centre i.e. during the compression stroke. This is especially true for lower engine speeds which tend to reduce the indicated mean effective pressure. This would give less output and lower efficiency at low speeds and part loads. Increasing the engine speed improves the indicated mean effective pressure as the occurrence of maximum pressure becomes at or after the top dead centre.
4.10 Thermal efficiency with differentengine speed at 0W load 44 4.11 Thermal efficiency with differentengine speed at 2kW load 45 4.12 Indicated power at different speed with 0W load 46 4.13 Indicated power at different speed with 2kW load 46 4.14 Indicated specific fuel consumption with differentengine speed
The present invigilated was the rapeseed oil methyl ester and the soybean oil methyl ester blended with the dieselfuel in four-cylinder dieselengine for tree different injection pressures such as 250, 300 and 350 bar with each of biodiesel fuels. Evaluation of three different fuels showed that, rapeseed and soybean biodiesels have lesser CO and smoke level than dieselfuel but have higher NOx emission for all injection pressures. It concluded that using 300 bar injection pressure of biodiesel given performance and emission valves are same for the dieselfuel Ismet Çelikten . Three different fuels cetane numbers and injection pressures used and analysis the performance and emission characteristics of the engine. In this experimental work 46, 51, 54.5 and 61.5 of cetane numbers (CNs) and 100, 150, 200 and 250 bar of injection pressures were used. It was found 15% to 5% of NOx, SO2 and CO
for automotive applications have acceptable cetane numbers (60-65), high viscosity (50 Cst), high flash points (220-285 0C) and high pour points (-6 to 12 0C) and appreciable heating values (about 90 % of diesel) and low sulfur content (< 0.02%).The first known report of using esters of vegetable oils as a motor fuel was described in a Belgian patent granted to G. Chavanne of the University of Brussels on 31 August 1937. The first report on use of esters in the U.S. was evidently by Fort et al. (1982), reported in an SAE paper titled, “Evaluation of Cottonseed Oils as DieselFuel.” This study was closely followed by two other important studies on using ester fuels, Geyer et al. (1984) and Wagner. These early studies concluded that a significant factor that slowed development of vegetable oil esters was cost. In the 1980s vegetable oils were considerably more expensive than diesel and it was mentioned that the additional processing would only drive the cost higher. The overall theme and outcome of the 1982 ASME conference was that raw vegetable oils, while showed promise had a issues related to injector coking, polymerization in the piston ring belt area resulting in stuck or broken piston rings, and a tendency to thicken of lubricating oil leading to sudden and catastrophic failure of the rod or crankshaft bearings. It was learnt that transertification process helps in reducing the viscosity of vegetable oil and also its tendency of polymerization. In 1984, Ziejwski fueledengine with sunflower derived biodiesel. In 1984, Shrinivasan and Gopal Krishnan used Karanja based bio-diesel. Schumacher was the first of the many researchers to report the ability of Biodiesel to reduce smoke density, in the year 1992. During 1977, Christopher Daniel of Chicago conducted two tests using biodiesel as fuel. The test results proved that the biodiesel could be used as a feasible alternative fuel.In the works carried out by the researchers, M. Senthil Kumar, T. Ganapathy and P.Ravi Kumar has proved that methyl ester of Jatropha oil could be considered as fuel and showed that transesterfication reaction improved the properties of the ester. In the experiments conducted by Masjuki and Prasad using esterifed Palm oil to conduct experiments on dieselengine has proved that Torque, Brake Power, Specific Fuel Consumption and Brake Thermal Efficiency were found comparable to that of dieselfueledengine.
Abstract. This paper studies the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a dieselengine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For ANFIS modelling, Gaussian curve membership function (gaussmf) and 200 training epochs (iteration) were found to be optimum choices for training process. The results demonstrate that ANFIS is capable of predicting the dieselengineperformance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nano- structure were prepared and added as additive to the dieselfuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke dieselengine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at differentengine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to dieselfuel, increased dieselengine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net dieselfuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in dieselfuel, CO 2
In this study, production of biodiesel from castor oil was performed based on trance esterification methodusing an ultrasonic device. The ultrasonic device was utilized in a pre-treatment stage to increase the rate of biodiesel production. Differentfuel mixtures of diesel and biodiesel (with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mix percentages) were evaluated. An air-cooled single-cylinder four-cycle dieselengine, which is widely used in agricultural operations, was selected for conducting the experiments. The performance of the engine in terms of fuel consumption, specific fuel consumption and power was investigated under differentengine loads and engine speed of 1950 rpm,using a four-stroke engine dynamometer.Fuel consumption was measured according to ASTM D7589 standard.
In this work biodiesel refers to the fuel produced from renewable sources that meetsNASTM International D6751, the standard for biodiesel.NA number following the “B” indicates the percentage of biodiesel in a gallon of fuel. Pure biodiesel is also known as B100.LBiodiesel is most commonly used as a blend with petroleum diesel. B Biodiesel, a renewable fuel, is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats by a process called transesterification. And the properties of the fuels are noted in following Table-1.
Experiments are conducted on four stroke single cylinder water cooled dieselengine at different speeds ranging from 1200 to 2000 rpm with interval of 200 rpm. Eddy current dynamometer is used to load the engine. Schematic representation of the experimental set up is as shown in figure1. The tests are conducted using four test fuel blends namely B20D80, B25E5D70, B30E5D65 and B40E5D55 as well as pure dieselfuel at zero and 80% load of the engine. Emission parameters like carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and NO x are measured using exhaust
used commonly in the US due to its material compatibility to changing weather conditions, emission benefits and costs. Currently, Canada is planning to use 5% of biodiesel by 2015. The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of biodiesel in cold climates such as Canada. The biodiesel used is made of canola oil obtained from a local supermarket and winter diesel is used as a reference fuel. Three different series were used. The first series was biodiesel/diesel with six blends (B0, B5, B10, B20, B50 and B100). The second series was biodiesel/diesel plus 2% of a chemical additive (B0, B5A, B10A, B20A, B50A and B100A). The final was kerosene/biodiesel series (K0, K5, K10, K20, K50 and K100). Chemical additive (Wintron XC30) is used to lower the cloud point of the blends and this is the first attempt to investigate its effect on engine emissions. On the other hand, there are limited studies on kerosene being treated as a blending fuel, where it is mainly used to lower the cloud point of the blends to investigate the feasibility of biodiesel in a cold climate such as the winter season in Canada and suggest an appropriate solution for the future of biofuel. Engineperformance and emission concentrations are investigated by determining the break specific fuel consumption (bsfc), fuel conversion efficiency and measuring emission