Top PDF An Exploratory Study on Perceptual Spaces of the Singing Voice

An Exploratory Study on Perceptual Spaces of the Singing Voice

An Exploratory Study on Perceptual Spaces of the Singing Voice

2 Related Work 2.1 Voice Production There is much literature describing how the mechanics of the voice organs com- bined with individual morphological differences affect vocal sounds (Garc´ıa- L´ opez & Gavil´ an Bouzas, 2010; Kayes, 2015; Sundberg, 1987; Zhang, 2016), providing detailed insight into how vocal production techniques influence per- ception of a singer’s voice. A survey of voice transformation techniques by Stylianou (2009) discusses interdependence between vocal mechanisms and how it is a vital consideration when building a model of the voice. Garc´ıa-L´ opez and Gavil´ an Bouzas (2010) compare values and perspectives between artistic and sci- entific professions specialising in the voice and observe that differences between these two communities lead to a convoluted and inconsistent tapestry of technical terminology often leading to mislabelling or misunderstanding vocal production processes - an observation shared by many others (Gerratt & Kreiman, 2001; Proutskova, 2019; Sundberg, 1981, 1987). The term ‘phonation modes’ classifies specific configurations of the voice organs that lead to a particular timbre qual- ity in the voice (Sundberg, 1987). Proutskova, Rhodes, Crawford, and Wiggins (2013) assert that phonation modes are not linked to singing registers, introduc- ing the question of how changes in pitch affect the timbre while this subset of vocal techniques remains constant.
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An Exploratory Study on Perceptual Spaces of the Singing Voice

An Exploratory Study on Perceptual Spaces of the Singing Voice

There is much literature describing how the mechanics of the voice organs com- bined with individual morphological differences affect vocal sounds (Garc´ıa- L´ opez & Gavil´ an Bouzas, 2010; Kayes, 2015; Sundberg, 1987; Zhang, 2016), providing detailed insight into how vocal production techniques influence per- ception of a singer’s voice. A survey of voice transformation techniques by Stylianou (2009) discusses interdependence between vocal mechanisms and how it is a vital consideration when building a model of the voice. Garc´ıa-L´ opez and Gavil´ an Bouzas (2010) compare values and perspectives between artistic and sci- entific professions specialising in the voice and observe that differences between these two communities lead to a convoluted and inconsistent tapestry of technical terminology often leading to mislabelling or misunderstanding vocal production processes - an observation shared by many others (Gerratt & Kreiman, 2001; Proutskova, 2019; Sundberg, 1981, 1987). The term ‘phonation modes’ classifies specific configurations of the voice organs that lead to a particular timbre qual- ity in the voice (Sundberg, 1987). Proutskova, Rhodes, Crawford, and Wiggins (2013) assert that phonation modes are not linked to singing registers, introduc- ing the question of how changes in pitch affect the timbre while this subset of vocal techniques remains constant.
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Can genre be “heard” in scale as well as song tasks? An exploratory study of female singing in Western Lyric and Musical Theater Styles

Can genre be “heard” in scale as well as song tasks? An exploratory study of female singing in Western Lyric and Musical Theater Styles

Acoustic analyses of sung vocal products From the perceptual tests of genre, mean scores were calculated for each participant, first for song and scales together, then for songs and scales separately. Singers’ products that were rated as clearly agreed cases of genre were selected for acoustic analysis. After removal of silences and pauses from the sound files, long term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis was performed via the Soundswell Signal Workstation (Soundswell Music Acoustics HB, Stockholm, Sweden(. 55 LTAS computes the mean sound energy in different frequency bands of relatively long sound samples, averaging phonemes and frequency across the sample 56, 57 and is thus suitable for assessment of timbre and long-term settings such as singer voice quality. To take into account the different frequency distributions and different musical keys used by singers across the data set, a relatively wide bandwidth of 300Hz was used for the spectrographic analysis, with a cut-off point of 8kHz for the upper end. Because the pitch range of the song tasks was between G 3 and G 5 , the bandwidth was ample to allow for the behavior of interest, that is, from the first to the seventh partial. Amplitude values of the spectral peaks were normalized to allow for different loudness levels between the singers by assigning a zero decibel value to the highest partial in each case. Using this procedure, it was possible to assess spectral similarities between song and scales intra-singer, and between singers inter- genre. Spectral differences between the genres were then calculated from mean frequency and sound pressure values of LTAS for all clear cases of WL and MT songs and scales respectively.
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Characterisation of Voice Quality in Western Lyrical Singing

Characterisation of Voice Quality in Western Lyrical Singing

a necessary come back to the expert listeners’ point of view, so as to determine what are the relevant criteria and lexical forms for singing teachers to perceive and describe the voice quality of the specific category of lyrical voices. In that goal, we have developed a semantic and cognitive approach, which has allowed us to confirm the results of previous study about sound quality perception (identification of sound source preliminary to other verbal description, use of onomatopoeia and imitation, value judgments mainly negative), to validate scientifically the relevance of some criteria and verbal descriptors for studying voice quality, and to identify new semiotic properties related to the experts’ specific cognitive processing which were not taken into account by the physical description alone (expert’s listening aim for which analytical listening of sound provides only cues, articulatory representation preliminary to acoustic one for some given voice qualities, in particular those related to vocal placement, technical and esthetical expectations, field-specific terminology). In other words, whereas some physical parameters enable to describe voice quality adequately, others are only cues pointing to listeners’ representations in memory of what voice quality is for them. These results imply that voice quality, considered as a cognitive object, has to be scientifically explored and described along the cooperation of different research fields and not exclusively restricted to physics. In particular, we wish to convince the reader that the analysis of cognitive representations given in discourse as shared representations may be a relevant and productive issue. Indeed, if one considers that the lexical forms are not labels which would take their meaning from their reference to one thing, the analysis of their meaning can be interpreted as a negotiated consensus in reference to cognitive representations which have been built on acoustic stimulations. Such representations diversely establish and configure what is referred to, ranging from an individual effect of the world to a collective shared representation of an object of the world. The verbal criteria should be carefully used, not because of their linguistic or “subjective” status, but because of the precision of their semantic contours and the variations in consensus on their meaning(s). This study has shed further light on this issue by many methodological considerations on the set-up of experimental protocols, notably the precautions to be taken when deciding semantic scales for a perceptual test.
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Singing while female:  A narrative study on gender, identity & experience  of female voice in cis, transmasculine & non-binary singers

Singing while female: A narrative study on gender, identity & experience of female voice in cis, transmasculine & non-binary singers

This natural association of the voice with women, however, leads to specific challenges in dealing with gendered expectations and bias in singing. For instance, while certain measures, including blind auditions, have addressed many of the issues of gender for instrumentalists, de-gendering as a way of insuring equity does not work with female singers. Aside from the visual element that is often invoked in singing performance (i.e., physical type, presentation, etc.), humans are capable of making unconscious, sophisticated aural judgments and distinctions about other human voices – not the least of which is determining sex based on acoustic and harmonic characteristics of an individual’s voice (Batstone & Tuomi, 1981; Mitchell & MacDonald, 2012; Skuk & Schweinberger, 2014). Forrest (2015) points out that there is a long history of “androcentric bias against the female-sounding voice,” which can disadvantage the female speaker or singer, depending on context and “how aware of personal biases each listener is” (p. 593). Recently, however, there has been dialogue on how much perceptual differences of tone quality, median speaking pitch and phrasing between male and female voices are related to socially- constructed expectations for voice and gender, rather discrete sex characteristics (Jacobs, 2017).
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Design Spaces in Visual Analytics Based on Goals: Analytical Behaviour, Exploratory Investigation, Information Design & Perceptual Tasks

Design Spaces in Visual Analytics Based on Goals: Analytical Behaviour, Exploratory Investigation, Information Design & Perceptual Tasks

There are two agent types we are concerned with - the human and computer. Their specific roles, autonomy and relationships may vary across solutions both across or within design spaces. Behaviour and functionality for solutions may be limited by a range of constraints such as the value and type of output. The specific technologies and techniques used in analytic processes of all four design spaces will vary according to the type of device (i.e. mobile, desktop) which will limit the inputs available (i.e. touch, mouse, voice). Our analysis of three design spaces in the next section reveals the design spaces to be well-defined with considerable variation between solutions within the same design space. This is also the case in the later survey of real-world applications in the analytical behaviour design space.
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Emotion in the singing voice—a deeperlook at acoustic features in the light ofautomatic classification

Emotion in the singing voice—a deeperlook at acoustic features in the light ofautomatic classification

play a major role and singers must be able to easily express a wide range of emotions. There are a few existing stud- ies that deal with enthusiasm in karaoke singing [15, 16], which is close to the emotional dimension of arousal, or target vocal tutoring systems [17]. Previous findings in [18] suggest that the expression of emotions in speaking and singing voice are related. Further, [12] concludes that similar methods and acoustic features can be used to auto- matically classify emotions in speech, polyphonic music, as well as emotions perceived by listeners in or associ- ated by them with other, general sounds. This suggests that the methods for speech emotion recognition can be transferred to singing emotion recognition. Therefore, this paper investigates the performance of state-of-the- art speech emotion recognition methods on a data set of singing voice recordings and compares this to the perfor- mance of a newly designed acoustic feature set, which is based on findings in [18].
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Vibrato in Singing Voice: The Link between Source Filter and Sinusoidal Models

Vibrato in Singing Voice: The Link between Source Filter and Sinusoidal Models

For this comparative study three inverse filtering ap- proaches have been selected. The first one is the analysis by synthesis (AbS) procedure presented in [9], the second one is the one proposed by the authors in [13], Glottal Spectrum Based (GSB) inverse filtering. In this way, both groups of al- gorithms mentioned above are represented. In addition, the Closed Phase Covariance (CPC) [10] has been added to the comparison. This approach is difficult to classify because it only obtains the VTR, as it is the case in the second group, but it is a time domain implementation as in the first one. The most interesting feature of this algorithm is that it is less a ff ected by the formant ripple due to the source-tract inter- action, because it only takes into account the time interval when the vocal folds are closed. In what follows, the three approaches will be shortly described, and finally compared. 2.1. Analysis by synthesis
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Learn How To Sing, Free Professional Singing and Voice Lesson Ebook.pdf

Learn How To Sing, Free Professional Singing and Voice Lesson Ebook.pdf

he got down on his knees right in front of us, and placed his free hand over his chest while singing. It was great! He showed feeling and emotion in his singing through the use of body language. That is an example of great stage presence. You don’t want to over do it by dancing around too much and compromising your voice, but you definitely want to do a little acting. The idea is to get your audience to feel what the song intends the audience to feel. You do this by getting the feeling of the music yourself, and portraying it with your own body language and voice to them.
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Attitudinal and perceptual factors in body image distortion: an exploratory study in patients with anorexia nervosa

Attitudinal and perceptual factors in body image distortion: an exploratory study in patients with anorexia nervosa

The strengths of this study are that, compared to pre- vious work in the field, the two components of body image were measured separately, rather than treating them as a unitary concept. Confounding body dissatis- faction and body distortion has been argued to be a rea- son for mixed findings in the literature [49]. The haptic perception task provided a ‘neutral’ measure of funda- mental somatosensory perception, divorced as far as possible from body attitudes. The BSE task, whilst not free from attitudinal biases, was intended to give as clear a picture of body image distortion as possible, including re-evaluation of the completed gestalt silhouette, and avoiding the use of distressing images of the individual.
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Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing

Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing

Is has been shown that the lower part of the VT is important for voice timbre particularly for the creation of the singers formant cluster [ 5 ]. More specifically, the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharyngeal area should be decisive. Acoustically the epilaryngeal tube can be regarded as a Helmholtz-resonator, which ends in the pharynx. Its resonance frequency will be almost entirely determined by the epilaryngeal tube if the area ratio between the outlet and the phar- ynx at the level of the outlet will be smaller than 1:6 [ 6 ]. In two independent model experi- ments, the resonance frequency of the epilaryngeal tube has been found to lie in the vicinity of 2.8 kHz [ 5 , 7 ]. This would place it between the frequencies of formants 3 (2.2–3.0 kHz) and 4 (3.2 –3.5 kHz) in adult male speech [ 5 ], thus creating a formant cluster that boosts the spectrum level in this frequency region. A small area ratio between the laryngeal outlet and the pharynx should keep the larynx tube resonance independent of the remaining part of the VT. Greater area ratios will have the consequence of making the larynx tube resonance more sensitive to the rest of the VT.
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The tertiary singing audition: Perceptual and acoustic differences between successful and unsuccessful candidates

The tertiary singing audition: Perceptual and acoustic differences between successful and unsuccessful candidates

It may be that verbal encoding is inappropriate for describing a holistic vocal quality and verbalizing descriptions of voices may reduce the ability to discriminate between voices or at least to recall the vocal characteristics of a particular voice. Davidson and Coimbra (2001) found that singing assessors used features of candidates’ visual appearance or dress in their notes which effectively served to identify or remind them of singers, although these comments would not appear in the final assessment. Those adjudicators did not address the core vocal quality of the voice and suggested that judges may have accepted the vocal quality as a ‘stable element’ and without it, candidates would not have been admitted to the course (Davidson & Da Costa Coimbra, 2001). This audition panel used an analytical approach to identify the technical flaws in voices within each category (Major, Minor, NA) after their judgments of intrinsic vocal qualities determined the candidate’s audition result. They described specific vocal flaws, areas for vocal improvement, and the techniques needed to address these (Mitchell & Kenny, 2006; Mitchell, Kenny, Ryan, & Davis, 2003).
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Perceptual Continuity and Naturalness of Expressive Strength in Singing Voices Based on Speech Morphing

Perceptual Continuity and Naturalness of Expressive Strength in Singing Voices Based on Speech Morphing

The results in Section 6 confirm that both types of grad- ual transformation, Linear and rec-Sigmoid, have an advan- tage over the binary discrete transformation (Switch) from the viewpoint of naturalness, which is our goal. Conse- quently, this work has demonstrated that singing voice syn- thesis achieved by morphing vocal timbre can make a strong contribution toward the production of natural expressions in a singing voice. Such positive effects will be applied to speech and singing voice synthesis along with unit concatenation based on a corpus. This method can also be adopted in real- time voice synthesis with natural expressions for application to robotics and personified interfaces [17].
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Singing Voice separation from Polyphonic Music Accompanient using Compositional Model

Singing Voice separation from Polyphonic Music Accompanient using Compositional Model

The challenges for singing voice separation from background music accompaniment are as follows. In general, the auditory scene created by a musical composition can be viewed as a multi-source background, where varied audio sources from several classes of instruments are momentarily active, some of them only sparsely. The music sources could be of different instrumental type (so exhibiting altered timbral perceptions), which is played at various pitches and loudness, and even the spatial location of a given sound source may differ with respect to time. Regularly individual sources repeat during a musical piece, one or the other way in a different musical environment. Therefore, the section can be considered as a time-varying schedule of source activity encompassing both novel and recurring patterns, representing changes in the spectral, temporal, and spatial complexity of the mixture. Moreover the singing voice has fluctuating pitch frequency for male and female singer which may at some instant overlap with background frequency arrangement of musical instruments. To solve these tasks a compositional model designed using a novel technique Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) is proposed using Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (ALM) as a optimization algorithm for better convergence. Robust Principal Component Analysis[2], which is a matrix factorization algorithm for solving low rank matrix and sparse matrix. Here in our proposed system we assume that the music accompaniment lie in low rank subspace while the singing voice is relatively sparse due to its more variability within the song.
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Relationships between phonetic perceptual
and auditory spaces for fricatives

Relationships between phonetic perceptual and auditory spaces for fricatives

The relationship between perceptual and auditory spaces is discussed on the basis of the results of Eucidean distance metric modelling. The results showed that the canonical correlations[r]

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Perceptual evaluation of voice disorder in children who have had laryngotracheal reconstruction surgery and the relationship between clinician perceptual rating of voice quality and parent proxy/child self-report of voice related quality of life

Perceptual evaluation of voice disorder in children who have had laryngotracheal reconstruction surgery and the relationship between clinician perceptual rating of voice quality and parent proxy/child self-report of voice related quality of life

ensure a level of reliability of perceptual evaluation. It was encouraging to note that there was also a high degree of inter-rater reliability between the trained judges and the expert rater, though of course the expert rater was not blinded to the patient participants. A combination of factors in our listeners contributed to the high intra and interrater reliability. They had completed the same amount of training in voice theory; they participated as a group in the consensus listener training (12, 13) which led to them developing and agreeing the anchor stimuli, an approach which is also known to improve rater reliability (12-14). It is commonly that prospectively designed research studies involving subjective rater evaluation should ensure that raters are blinded to any diagnostic information that could affect their subjective rating. Perhaps the evidence from this small-scale study could open up some discussion of this given that there was a strong relationship between the expert listener’s unblinded ratings and those of the trained listeners.
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Perceptual and acoustic analysis of voice similarities between parents and young children

Perceptual and acoustic analysis of voice similarities between parents and young children

Human voice, a sound produced by a combination of human organs called vocal apparatus, is used by humans to generate speech and other forms of vocalizations. Each voice is unique due to the physiological factors (e.g., age, body size or hormones) and the manner in which the sounds are articulated (consciously or unconsciously). Due to the same factors, the voice of an individual is subject not only to major changes throughout the lifespan (Decoster and Debruyne, 2000; Stathopolous et al., 2011), but also in everyday communication. Thus, it is a source of biological, psychological and social (Bogdanova, 2001; Bolinger, 1989) information about the speaker. Both related and unrelated people can sound alike. In the blood members of the same family, the reasons for such similarities are both biological (genetic) and environmental. The former are reflected not only in the body parts but also in structural brain organization (Peper et al., 2007; Thompson et al., 2001). The latter include socialization and learning by imitation (Zuo and Mok, 2015; see also Hirvonen, 1970; Bolinger, 1989). Interestingly, the prosody of the native language is acquired earlier than the segmental phonology (Iivonen, 1977) and around two years of age, children are able to produce adult-like intonational contrasts (Bolinger, 1986).
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Muscle patterns in singing. A pilot study

Muscle patterns in singing. A pilot study

En las gráficas correspondientes al músculo transverso del abdomen, ve- mos que durante la emisión de la nota grave su actividad se mantiene con valores estables hacia la primera parte [r]

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VOICE QUALITY BEFORE AND AFTER RADIOTHERAPY: ACOUSTICAL, CLINICAL AND PERCEPTUAL PITCH MEASURES *

VOICE QUALITY BEFORE AND AFTER RADIOTHERAPY: ACOUSTICAL, CLINICAL AND PERCEPTUAL PITCH MEASURES *

Acoustical and EGG pitch analyses were taken into account as 'objective' pitch measures; the results were compared with perceptual pitch evaluations by trained and untrained raters, and with perceptual pitch evaluations by the speakers themselves and by their partners. The trained raters were used to provide an analytic description of voice quality. The role of the untrained raters was to find out how 'ordinary' people evaluate voice quality. In order to investigate if changes of voice quality also influence quality of life evaluations, the evaluations of the speakers themselves and their partners were taken into account. The untrained and trained raters were asked to evaluate voice quality of both read-aloud text and sustained /a/ produced by the speakers. Analyses of a sustained /a/ are common practice in clinical settings (for instance voice range profile, phonation flow) and are therefore included as speech material in our project. In order to assess the practical relevance of voice changes in the patients' home environment, running speech fragments were used as well, because these are more representative for conversational speech. Fragments of read­ aloud text were used, rather than spontaneous speech, in order to avoid variance between speakers caused by unequal texts.
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Objective and perceptual voice assessment in unilateral vocal fold paralysis

Objective and perceptual voice assessment in unilateral vocal fold paralysis

Rezultati Wilcoxonovog testa ekvivalentnih parova kojim se ispitivala statistički značajna razlika na varijablama perceptivne procjene glasa jednostrane paralize glasnice prije [r]

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