47 | P a g e The South African Government mandated the National Electricity Regulator of South Africa (NERSA) with ensuring that there is sufficient installed generation capacity to meet the needs of future electricity demand. With the reserve margins of Eskom’s electricity supply capacity getting smaller, NERSA “determined that to maintain a safe supply-demand situation, provide energy services to customers at the least possible cost, and enforce the government’s stated objective of improving the efficiency of the electricity supply sector, there was a need to scale up EE/DSM programs” (ESMAP, 2011:4). It is for this reason that NERSA promulgated the Regulatory Policy on EnergyEfficiency and Demand Side Management for the South African Electricity Industry in 2004. Making EE/DSM planning and implementation one of the license conditions of all major electricity distributors, the policy also defined their responsibilities and obligations. The policy defined the potential roles of Energy Service Companies (ESCOs), in addition to creating an independent Monitoring and Verification (M&V) body that conducted all of the M&V functions related to EE/DSM implementation. Another mandate was for NERSA to establish the EE/DSM Fund administered by Eskom and define the rules and procedures for its implementation. (ESMAP, 2011). The fund is considered consistent with international best practice.
A second major difference from earlier work is the model’s ability to capture distributional effects. First, the economy-wide model distinguishes larger states and U.S. regions capturing inter-regional differences in carbon intensity of energy production, consumption, and trade. Second, within each region the model considers nine households differentiated by income levels. Households across income classes differ in terms of how income is derived from different sources and how income is spend across different commodities. This enables us to capture consumer impacts both on the uses and sources side of income. 3 Sources side effects have been shown to be critical for assessing the incidence of environmental policies (Fullerton and Heutel, 2007; Rausch et al., 2011a), but the scope of a partial equilibrium electric-sector analysis implies that that those effects cannot be captured. Our integrated general equilibrium approach thus enables us to trace distributional impacts in several important dimensions.
The limited budget makes governments prioritise their spending for their basic needs including health, education, and basic infrastructure where the private sector is not interested in developing these. Private sector solutions become a reasonable means to develop infrastructures, particularly for the energysector (Granoff, Hogarth & Miller 2016). This crowding-in private finance scheme has been succeeding around the globe. For example, the UK government has been reorienting its financing strategy for a large- scale investment in energyefficiency from government spending to private finance (Bergman & Foxon 2018). In the developing world, several countries also have been attracting private sector participation such as Egypt and Myanmar for power projects, Columbia for road projects, and Turkey for healthcare projects (Committee 2017). In Indonesia, this scheme has also been implemented for several projects such as development of the Central Java Power Plant, the most massive power plant in Southeast Asia (Safitri 2015), toll road developments (Wibowo & Kochendoerfer 2011), the
Received: 3 May 2020; Accepted: 10 June 2020; Published: 22 June 2020 Abstract: Meeting the rising energy demand and limiting its environmental impact are the two intertwined issues faced in the 21st century. Governments in different countries have been engaged in developing regulations and related policies to encourage environment friendly renewableenergy generation along with conservation strategies and technological innovations. It is important to develop sustainable energypolicies and provide relevant and suitable policy recommendations for end-users. This study presents a review on sustainable energy policy for promotion of renewableenergy by introducing the development history of energy policy in five countries, i.e., the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Denmark and China. A survey of the articles aimed at promoting the development of sustainable energypolicies and their modelling is carried out. It is observed that energy-efficiency standard is one of the most popular strategy for building energy saving, which is dynamic and renewed based on the current available technologies. Feed-in-tariff has been widely applied to encourage the application of renewableenergy, which is demonstrated successfully in different countries. Building energy performance certification schemes should be enhanced in terms of reliable database system and information transparency to pave the way for future net-zero energy building and smart cities.
We use a panel dataset for the period 1990–2007 with annual observations on 34 provinces of Southern Italian regions. 6 We make use of a data set compiled by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT, ‘‘Statistiche Giudiziarie Penali’’) to measure criminal activity in the country. To compute the extent of corruption we use two measures: (a) criminal association activity (CrimAssoc), representing the number of ‘‘Criminal Association’’ offenses brought to justice by the five sectors of the police force, and (b) total criminal association (TCrimAssoc), the sum of offenses related to ‘‘Criminal Association’’ and ‘‘Mafia-related Criminal Association’’. Values are reported in terms of incidence per 100,000 inhabitants. Criminal association activity represents a very good measure of the level of corruption in the wind energysector since, according to the Italian penal code, ‘‘it implies a sufficiently stable organization of two or more individuals who agree on committing illegal activities’’. This is exactly the case of the local bureaucrat which systematically exchanges authorizations for building wind farms for bribes from entrepreneurs. Actually most of the persons involved in corruption activity in the wind energysector have been charged with this type of offense. 7 The set of controls includes the log of real GDP per capita and the secondary school enrollment at the provincial level as provided by ISTAT. These controls are widely used in the crime literature and represent potential determinants of criminal behavior measuring the expected earning and cost opportunities. We also control for the population density in the province which is considered a key driver of the level of criminal activity (Glaeser and Sacerdote 1999 ). Finally we include the index of violent crime as a control to account for criminal attitudes in a given province. This is computed on the basis of the offenses
Financing Initiative Energiewende – this scheme provides with low-interest loans for investments in installations of RES-E in accordance with EEG. The loan can cover up to 50% of the project and can be between EUR 25 million and EUR 100 million. The loan is long-term and interest period is up to 20 years, in addition, first 3 years can be repayment-free. Interest rates depend on the situation on capital markets but are fixed for 10 years, for loans exceeding 10 years interest rates are redefined. Energy supply companies cannot get loans under this programme. Only companies with annual turnover between EUR 500 million and EUR 4 billion are eligible for this programme. The KfW Programme Geothermal Exploration Risk – this programme is eligible only for geothermal energy. It covers investments costs of drilling activities, the loan can cover maximum 80% of the costs. There is a cap of EUR 16 million per drilling. The loan is given for 10 years with first 2 repayment-free years.
The five key areas in conserving energy are the building envelope, passive solar design, ventilation, lighting and power, and water conservation. The building envelope, or the outer protection of the building, should have increased insulation, and sealed gaps to prevent unnecessary heat loss or gain (CMHC, 2005). Passive solar design relies on the orientation and positioning of the structure and the materials used in construction. The building should be positioned facing north, with an overhang over the windows so sunlight does not come directly in (Mumford, 2004). While constructing the structure, heavy materials, such as concrete and brick, should be used since they absorb heat during the day then slowly release it at night (CMHC, 2005). Ventilation can be achieved simply and cheaply through window placement, where there are windows on both sides of the house, so when the windows are open, there is a cross breeze (Mumma, 2002). The need for lighting during the day can be greatly reduced by window positioning. Large windows strategically placed in a building can ensure that a house can operate with minimal
Rules are set as prescriptive values for building parts, heating and cooling systems, ventilation and lightning. Insulation requirements are set as R-values or U-factor where U = 1/R for each climatic zone separately. These values have to be fulfilled for each building part in the prescriptive model. Some specific regulations are given for pipe and duct insulation, air tightness, sealing, hot water systems, mechanical ventilation and circulation of hot water. Rules for heating and cooling equipment are only given as sizing requirements. IEEC also includes a trade-off model where some parts can be made with less energyefficiency as long as the total building still fulfils the same overall requirements which would be the result of fulfilling each single demand. In this model the same values are used for the trade off model as reference values for the model building. The trade-off model is based on energy costs which take into account the different energy costs for gas, oil or electricity. Specific and more detailed values are set for some steel solutions. Finally it contains a frame with an overall assessment where total values have to be obtained. The energyefficiency requirements for residential buildings and those for new commercial buildings are indicated in two separate chapters.
(1) The Government shall establish and implement policies, such as a grading system for green buildings and other systems, in order to expand buildings with high efficiency in the use of energy, a high ratio of new and renewableenergy, and minimum emission of greenhouse gases (hereinafter referred to as “green buildings”). (2) The Government shall set and manage medium and long-term and periodic goals for buildings that meet or excel the standards prescribed by Presidential Decree in order to reduce the consumption of energy and the emission of greenhouse gases in buildings. (3) The Government shall prepare and implement measures and standards for each stage of design, construction, maintenance, dismantling, etc., such as enhancing design standards and the procedures for permits and reviews, in order to minimize consumption of energy and resources and reduce emission of greenhouse gases in the entire process of design, construction, maintenance dismantling, etc. of buildings. (4) The Government shall implement energy inspections, energy saving programs under Article 25 of the Energy Use Rationalization Act, and activities for reducing greenhouse gases through such programs so that existing buildings can be converted into green buildings. (5) The Government may require the installation and management of intelligent meters for controlling and reducing consumption of energy such as power consumption, etc. in newly constructed or renovated buildings. (6) The Government shall apply the measures under paragraphs (1) through (5) to buildings of central administrative agencies, local governments, public institutions, educational institutions, etc. specified by Presidential Decree so that they can play the role of leaders toward green buildings and shall inspect and control their implementation. (7) The Government shall endeavor to increase or supply green buildings when developing a new city or re-developing cities on a scale not smaller than that prescribed by Presidential Decree. (8) The Government may, if necessary for expanding green buildings, provide support, such as financial support, tax abatement or exemption, and other measures as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
The political process in the energysector is well described by a lobbying game. Damania and Fredriksson (2000) show that the incentive to form lobbies to influence environmental policies is stronger in highly polluting sectors such as the energysector. Fredriksson et al. (2004) provide empirical support for this prediction by showing that the effect of corruption on energy intensity is greater in more energy-intensive sectors. The influence of lobbies on REPs has also been documented by a growing strand of empirical literature. The opposition of energy utilities to REPs is documented both in single-country case studies (e.g., Neuhoff, 2005; Jacobsson and Bergek, 2004; Nilsson et al., 2004; Lauber and Mez, 2004) and in some recent econometric analyses for the US states (Chandler, 2009; Lyon and Yin, 2010) and for EU countries (Jenner et al., 2012). This opposition is primarily related to the intrinsic comparative advantage of large utilities in centralized energy production. Whereas the production of energy from renewable sources is decentralized in small to medium-sized units, the competencies of utilities are tied to large-scale plants using coal, nuclear power or gas as the primary energy inputs. The high sunk costs of large-scale generation further exacerbate
Mobile solar electronic generator. This is a device which is reliable, tested and verified in the field by the Institute Mihajlo Pupin, Belgrade and Institute of Agricultural Economics, Belgrade. It provides, besides other things, the use of single-phase vacuum pumps for irrigation (power up to 2.5 КW), as well as more powerful three-phase pumps (up to 4КW). The device recharges by energy onsite, based on solar panels in the device or by night from the power grid at a reduced rate. It belongs to the group of extremely economic and noiseless devices, which satisfy high economic and ecological criteria for application in agriculture. This technical solution has great potential in the application of environmental and clean energy technologies in crop and livestock production. One of the most effective applications is in crops irrigation (on fields, orchards, etc.). One of more significant optimisations in Mobile Solar Generator is dual axis drive and tracking of sun trajectory.
affected as operations largely depend on electricity. Since then, the drive by mining companies (and government) has been towards decreasing and managing energy utilization. However, recent concerns about climate change have shifted the focus to sustainable energy sources. Coupled with these concerns, is the ongoing challenge of rural electrification. According to White and Koopman (2011), about 30 per cent of the country is without access to electricity. This translates to more than 10 million people with the majority residing in rural parts of the country. Grid electrification has been ruled out as a possible option because of the high costs associated with extending grid lines to isolated rural areas. Access to electricity in South Africa is a constitutional right. It is therefore acknowledged that rural electrification is a concern that needs to be addressed. Renewableenergy options have been identified as possible solutions for rural electrification (Borhanazad, 2013; Shaaban and Petinrin, 2014). Renewableenergy use, particularly in rural areas, continues to grow in many parts of the world. This is because RE technologies are becoming attractive and comparable to traditional energy sources. More so, there is an increase in investments opportunities from both private and public sectors.
5.1.3. The Office shall assess the merit of the expected benefits of the RenewableEnergy Project or EnergyEfficiency Project by reviewing the technical eligibility and merit of the Applicant’s project. The Office shall provide a written report, make a recommendation to the State Treasurer as to whether to award the loan and the amount of the loan and notify the Applicants in writing that the Office’s recommendations have been sent to the State Treasurer no more than forty-five (45) days after the application deadline.
Fluorescent and solid state lighting (LEDs) involve DC stages and hence it is more efficient to supply them directly with DC rather than complete a conversion at each lighting fixture (Elsayed et al. 2015; Hammerstrom 2007). Variable Speed Drives for pumps, heating, ventilation, A/C, fans, elevators, mills and traction systems also operate on a DC voltage (Elsayed et al. 2015; Hammerstrom 2007). Lotfi and Khodaei (2015) support the expected outcome of this dissertation highlighting that higher efficiency and reduced losses may be possible through the use of DC microgrids in place of AC. These DC grids will allow for easier connection to DC generation sources and reduce the losses resulting from single or multiple conversions. Rotating generation sources in DC do not require synchronising allowing them to operate at their optimum output (Lotfi & Khodaei 2015). During research on this topic it was found that a wealth of information is available on AC microgrids however hybrid and DC microgrid operation is only now starting to become topical. To date the information available on domestic DC microgrids in Australia has been limited.
The Energy demand and its supply in recent world have too many consequences associated with it. Numerous green energy options are being explored in the interest of the saving the world environment. Improvement in efficiency of the residential properties is the one of the best and essential solutions of the energy crises. The domestic sector in UK and EU contribute almost half of the total energy consumption, out of which nearly half of the energy is utilised for the heating purposes. The efficiency of energy consumption of the residential property can be improved by introducing the energy efficient appliances, proper insulation and water and central heating advancement. This research incorporates the study of thermal property of existing dwelling in terms of the insulation, air-tightening and ventilation. The research involved the investigation of the selected property for the improvements in its energy demand both thermal and electrical. Inspection of electrical appliances and their energy demand and the suitability of the chosen property for installation of renewableenergy system were also focused in detail. After a thorough study of the property it was found that the no element of the house was up to the standards. The ene rgy performance of the dwelling was found to be band E and had opportunities to improve the performance up to band B. Heat loss calculations of the elements of the house suggested that there were possibilities to reduce the heat loss by almost 680 W/K i f refurbished to meet the standard minimum requirements. It was also found that in terms of economics the house had potential to save up to almost £500 per year in running cost by making the improvements in thermal property. Most of the appliances of the house were found to have fairly good efficiency except the electrical shower and microwave
Renewableenergy is becoming an integral part of the global energysector. During the decade from 2004 to 2013, the installed global capacity of solar power plants increased by 53 times. In 2015, 100 % newly commissioned capacity in the European Union came from renewableenergy sources (RES) . The current transformation of the global energysector is caused, in particular, by the fact that the new RES technology (primarily solar and wind energy) reached the level that enables it to compete with traditional energy production based on fossil fuels. The price instability of commodity markets makes a case for looking for alternative energy sources. The dependence on energy exporters prompts the states with no significant natural resources to adopt import substitution policies and try to reduce this dependence. The global warming, which is of anthropogenic nature, requires new approaches to energy supplies that would reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One of the most important features of this process is the change in the structure of energy production and consumption, with a higher share of carbon-free technologies, in particular, those based on renewableenergy sources (RES) . RES support policies are implemented in 173 countries, including Russia, where a new support mechanism with capacity charge in the wholesale market was adopted in 2013. Except for large hydro power plants, renewableenergy is very poorly represented in the Russian energy system— electricity generated from RES amounts just to 0.5 % of the total volume. Meanwhile, the development of RES in Russia is economically sound, and the objective of this study is to demonstrate it. To this end, we propose a methodical approach to assessing the economic, environmental, and social effects resulting from the implementation of support mechanism in the wholesale electricity and capacity market, which should ensure the commissioning of 5.9 GW of new RES capacity by 2024. The range of considered issues determines the relevance and timeliness of this study.
In Sweden, a small number of sectors account for the bulk of energy use in industry: see Erreur ! Source du renvoi introuvable.. The pulp and paper industry uses approximately 50 %, mainly electricity or black liquors5. The electricity is used mainly for grinders producing mechanical pulp, while the black liquors provide fuel for soda recovery boilers in sulphate mills. The iron and steel industry uses about 16 % of industry’s energy, primarily in the form of coal, coke and electricity. Coal and coke are used as reducing agents in blast furnaces, while the electricity is used chiefly for arc furnaces for melting steel scrap. The chemical industry is responsible for 9 % of industrial energy use: here, electricity is used mainly for electrolysis processes. Together, these three energy intensive sectors account for almost three-quarters of total energy use in industry.
Due to the perceived high risk and low return on investment for RE and EE projects, few success stories using a market-based model are available. However, international aid agencies have been developing several market-based business models, especially for rural electrification programmes. To become economically viable with less or ultimately no governmental or donor support, RE and EE projects should strive to get embedded in conventional economic activity, by integrating more private actors in the process, by gradually increasing income through the delivery of energy services and the differentiation of the client base. There is a need for innovative instruments for households with limited cash to overcome the high initial investment costs. These instruments aim to increase affordability for users by spreading the repayment of the capital costs over longer periods and by reducing the initial payment, and to provide a framework for private initiatives to design and offer their services.
H&H Solar and another company submitted a bid to the State of Wisconsin to provide hot water to state facilities using solar energy. Under the arrangement specified in the RFP, a third-party would own the solar hot water systems and sell therms to the state. The contract is still under negotiation. Assuming an agreement is reached, H&H would be responsible for installing as much as 1 million sq. ft. of solar water heating capacity.