Top PDF Exploring Tacit Knowledge in Organizations

Exploring Tacit Knowledge in Organizations

Exploring Tacit Knowledge in Organizations

Using this training development program when important leaders who retain important knowledge need to be replaced can help preserve institutional memory, as well as the transfer of tac[r]

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Tacit knowledge management at universities in Kenya

Tacit knowledge management at universities in Kenya

Human capital was found to be a key asset in TKM. This is because in all the four universities the respondents appreciated the role played by TK in improving performance. Even though this was noted, universities had problems of explicitly categorising this kind of knowledge asset. This therefore means, taking care of such resources was a problem. Lack of structures in place demonstrated the inability of TK asset management. According to Sharkie (2005), “tacit knowledge is the most important strategic resource that enables organizations to exploit and develop resources that enhances their fundamental ability to compete, meet the challenge of change and allows them to develop sustainable competitive advantage” (p. 37). Employees who are equipped with knowledge can guide an organisation to achieve its goals. Lack of TK results in stagnation in the growth of an organisation. TK is considered the most important asset in universities in Kenya. This is backed up by Hau et al. (2013) who asserted that explicit knowledge sharing requires less effort to share than tacit knowledge from employees. There was a significant association between TK assets and TKM since the p-value for the chi-square test was less than 0.001. Further, from the mosaic or association plot below it is clear that TK creation, sharing and use is heavily done by human capital and relational capital. TK storage is a problem and is heavily facilitated by innovation capital. There are no structures to support TK application and use. This leaves universities with no choice other than embracing TKM. This view simply emphasises the uniqueness of human skills and abilities in creating knowledge. Level of education, skills and qualifications, creativity, work experience and abilities of the employees add economic value to universities and the economy as a whole. Skills and qualification without social and communication skills is problematic. It means knowledge cannot to be shared due to poor communication skills. “Social interactions between and among people may be the route through which we acquire tacit knowledge, in that new knowledge is thought to be created through iterative social interaction (Nonaka & Tackeuchi, 1995), but not as first advocated, by making tacit knowledge explicit” (Ryan & Lero, 2012, p. 2). Polanyi (1966) established that TK transfer can only take place through close interaction. Employees with bad habits and poor personality - negative energy, poor team players, poor time managers are unproductive hence pool down the performance scale. The best employees are brands – iconic figures who are productive hence generate income to the institutions. Such individuals should be well taken care of because of the expert knowledge.
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Journeys to the Edge: Exploring the Dimensions of Tacit Knowledge Sharing in Communities of Practice

Journeys to the Edge: Exploring the Dimensions of Tacit Knowledge Sharing in Communities of Practice

‘As I said some of the CoPs that I've been involved with being in Northern Ireland meant I was going to a lot of the meetings, that hasn’t actually proved that successful. So it's been one of the situations where it’s been emails, it's been email lists, it's been communications, it's picking up on things at the conferences but it's also a range of dedicated meetings. The meetings themselves - some of them actually died away a bit after the initial ones and things were picked up by email mailing lists and so on but the main communication mechanisms to me probably have to be more face-to- face, especially in the early days of being involved in a CoP so we can actually get people round a table workshopping ideas, trying to pick up on – OK what is the aspect and scope coming from this institution or that institution. Why have you gone that way? Trying to bring those nuances of information out via email or even via Skype at times, is not necessarily the best way to do it. A number of face-to-face interactions, especially in the early days of it has to be the best way forward. The face to face meetings are the ones that are harder to get to given where I live and work but for me the effort is worth it. And then it’s about the dissemination like I said earlier. It's being brave and putting out there the activities you are doing and in some ways people don’t always like saying what it is you are doing. Being able to do that in a free and open environment where you can say - oh we did that and it didn’t work, or we did that and yes if you take it to that level or do it that way – then that sharing of knowledge is invaluable. It also offers good return to the sector as well, the last conference we did was amazing. We had a fully booked event and the workshops where the CoP shared its best practice on development methodologies, security and xxxxx software implementation were really well received. What was really good was the ‘lightening strikes’ and end of session discussions. I will admit to spending a lot of time in the bar…laughter… but to be honest I learned more their
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Strategies to Retain Tacit Knowledge From Baby Boomers

Strategies to Retain Tacit Knowledge From Baby Boomers

Pankowski, 1997). Transformational leaders create value and positive change in followers with the end goal of developing followers into leaders (Burns, 1978). Manu (2010) considered leadership styles in various sized organizations and determined how administrators used transformational leaders within best-in-class companies. Exploring leadership styles remained vital in crisis-response organizations, and federal, state, and local municipalities (Kochanowski, 2011). Leaders who implemented succession- planning procedures advanced the continuation of the organization by identifying and developing prospective successors for critical leadership positions (McAlearney, 2010). Leaders used the process of identifying and organizing knowledge management systems to determine how organizational leaders used intelligence assets (Andreeva & Kianto, 2012). Organizational leaders faced challenges linking knowledge management theory to practice, and lacked understanding with respect to the association between knowledge management and strategy. Organizational knowledge is created through a continuous dialog between tacit and explicit knowledge (Nonaka, 1994). Leaders used knowledge management systems and tacit knowledge to contribute to the organizations’ strategic performance (Venkitachalam & Busch, 2012).
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Tacit to Tacit Knowledge Sharing using ICT In  Higher Education

Tacit to Tacit Knowledge Sharing using ICT In Higher Education

The creation and transfer of tacit to tacit knowledge is very important in higher education. Tacit knowledge is non- linguistic, non-numerical form of knowledge that is highly personal and context specific and deeply rooted in individual experiences, ideas, values and emotions. Since tacit knowledge cannot be specified in detail and is revealed through practice, it cannot be transmitted by prescription but can be transferred only by example or observation. Nonaka‟s SECI model emphasizes on tacit to tacit knowledge called as socialization. Higher education institutions are main knowledge intensive organizations. The existing research focuses on importance and sharing of tacit knowledge in higher education using different ICT tools and techniques . In order to promote lifelong learning using tacit knowledge , use of informal environment is recommended.
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Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

The objectives of this paper are to elaborate the nature and attributes of the tacit knowledge. For the first objective, literature reviews from various scholars writing are analyzed to determine the nature and types of tacit knowledge. Twelve scholars’ writings are studied, representing various perspectives, such as organizational theorist, Nonaka, Baumard and Choo, philosophical views such as Polanyi and Collins, and behaviorist views such as Sternberg and Wagner, Aadne and Van Krogh. Besides the different perspective, these literature reviews are chosen based on the author’s contribution on the scholarly work on tacit knowledge. Polanyi is the first person who coined the word tacit knowledge. Collins and Wagner and Sternberg started the empirical research in tacit knowledge, Nonaka did an extensive research in knowledge creation, and popularized the SECI model. Baumard researched on knowledge in an organization context and introduce the concept of implicit knowledge. Choo, extends the work of Nonaka. Aadne started the research on social tacit knowledge, where as Van Krogh researched on tacit knowledge in relationship but maintains tacit knowledge is embedded in individual. Davenport and Prusak discusses knowledge in organizations.
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TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

nowledge management (KM) has become an important success factor for organizations. Knowledge which is new to an organization has to either be invented internally, or acquired from external sources. There are two types of knowledge: explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge (Nonaka et al.2000) and other authors such as Hall and Andriani (2002) describe explicit knowledge as what can be embodied in a code or a language and as a consequence it can be communicated, processed, transmitted and stored relatively easily. It can be shared in the form of data, scientific formulae, manuals and such like. In contrast, tacit knowledge is personal and hard to formalise – it is rooted in action, procedures, commitment, values and emotions etc. Tacit knowledge is not codified, it is not communicated in a ‘language’, and it is acquired by sharing experiences, by observation and imitation (Hall & Andriani 2002). Knowledge is created through interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge and not from either tacit or explicit knowledge alone (Nonaka et al. 2000). Compared to the work on explicit knowledge, the management of tacit knowledge is relatively unexplored. Knowledge sharing between employees requires communicating tacit knowledge. Un- fortunately, it is difficult to be communicated in a formalized way like, for instance, through language. In well functioning teams sharing of tacit knowledge occurs through “the establishment of shared understanding” (Becerra-Fernandez & Sabherwal, 2001) and through practice itself (Brown & Duguid, 1999). Nonaka and Konno (1998) distinguish two dimensions of tacit knowledge: the technical dimension, i.e. the “know-how”, and the cognitive dimension, i.e. beliefs, ideals, values, mental models, schemata. “While difficult to articulate, this cognitive dimension of tacit knowledge shapes the way we perceive the world” (Nonaka & Konno, 1998). The cognitive dimension is termed mental models by Senge (1996). Knowledge creation and conversion lie between the tacit and explicit forms. Tacit knowledge is actionable, and therefore most valuable, and much recent attention has focused on the importance of tacit knowledge for sustaining competitiveness (Lam, 2000). It is also the most important basis for the generation of new knowledge. In their often-referenced work on innovation and knowledge creation, Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) posit that organizational knowledge is created through a continuous and dynamic interpersonal interaction between tacit and explicit knowledge (Stenmark, 2000). They also emphasize in their work that there are four modes in which organizational knowledge is created through the interaction and conversion between tacit and explicit. These are socialization, externalization, combination, internalization (Weichoo, 1998).
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Tacit Knowledge in a Software Development Project

Tacit Knowledge in a Software Development Project

Individuals see how skilled individuals perform specific tasks with which they have little expertise or experience and internalize some vital tacit knowledge along the way. Overall, relaxed and confident social interaction appears to be the great means through which people are able to receive and transmit tacit knowledge (Ryan and O’Connor, 2013; Edmondson et al., 2003). As Dyer (1987) stated years ago, teams are collections of people who have to come together to achieve a common goal. Software development teams face challenges that far surpass those of most teams in any endeavour. Project managers, taking their cue from senior management, need to set themselves as examples of how to work generously and collaboratively with colleagues. If this internal culture is not established within groups and teams, then failure seems inevitable. Project managers, in that sense, are like coaches who recognize that internal social dynamics drive progress. Organizations want to consistently produce better results in the realm of research and
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Social capital dimensions for tacit knowledge

sharing: exploring the indicators

Social capital dimensions for tacit knowledge sharing: exploring the indicators

The aim of this paper is to further define social capital dimensions and identify categories and items under each of the dimensions for tacit knowledge sharing. In this study, three dimensions of social capital, namely structural, cognitive, and relational capitals (Nahapiet & Ghoshal 1998) were adopted to provide a platform for this research in identifying the development of social capital among team members working in a project. This study has enriched the discussion in the current social capital literature. Using grounded theory approach, the study uses social capital theory as a platform to explore tacit knowledge sharing in project implementation. This approach was able to overcome complexity resulting from the ambiguous nature of social capital and tacit knowledge sharing, and the diversity of the projects. The main contribution of this study is the development of a comprehensive list of categories and items under social capital dimensions related to tacit knowledge sharing in organisational project. The findings revealed that attributes, such as obligation and identification should be positioned under structural and cognitive capitals respectively, within the project context, rather than under relational dimension and these findings extended Nahapiet and Ghoshal’s (1998) social capital framework.
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Filling the Kasteelgracht with a stream of tacit knowledge; Finding solutions for a complex water problem by using tacit knowledge of people in a Working place

Filling the Kasteelgracht with a stream of tacit knowledge; Finding solutions for a complex water problem by using tacit knowledge of people in a Working place

In Chapter 4, the effects of the Working place were determined by analyzing the process of the Working place. In addition, the actors were interviewed and completed a survey before and after two session of the Working place. This survey was based on the 22 factors of the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW). This is a tool, which can be used to determine the weak and strong point of persons, organizations and approaches. By comparing the results before and after two session of the Working place, the effect of the Working place became clear. Almost all scores of the factors increased due to the Working place. However, the residents, board members of the water board and a representative of the municipality were not being present in the Working place. This lead to lower scores of the factors ability to improve and multi actor, level & sector. The scores remained the same of the factors: Entrepreneurial (incite people to act), single loop learning (improving routine) and double loop learning (when social actors challenge norms and basic assumptions). Despite that some scores became lower or remained the same value, almost all scores increased. The actors were positive about the process. The problem was urgent enough for everyone and they were willing to find a solution together. The relationship between the actors improved and they were willing to share their tacit knowledge. Furthermore, due to the documentation (the growing narrative) and many
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Tacit Knowledge versus Explicit Knowledge. Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice

Tacit Knowledge versus Explicit Knowledge. Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice

An even more fundamental challenge arises when an individual is capable of articulating his or her knowledge, but resists requests by the organization to do so. At the heart of such resistance is usually a belief that an individual’s job security or position of influence in an organization depends on the tacit knowledge that he or she has and that the organization needs. Such beliefs result in fear that full revelation of an individual’s important knowledge would be followed by dismissal or loss of influence in an organization, because -- presumably -- the individual would no longer be as necessary or important to the organization. Overcoming such fears is likely to require a profound rethinking of the employment relationship in many organizations, especially with regard to key knowledge workers. New employment norms may have to be defined and institutionalized that both seek and reward ongoing learning by individuals and their continuing contributions of explicit knowledge to the organization. 7
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Examining SCRM approach and its role in facilitating tacit knowledge sharing & creation, and exploring its integration effects

Examining SCRM approach and its role in facilitating tacit knowledge sharing & creation, and exploring its integration effects

With the help of four papers, this research highlights the importance of social web and the level of interaction signifying the emerging aspect of SCRM approach. It revisits SCRM appro[r]

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The Impact of Tacit Knowledge Sharing on Job Performance

The Impact of Tacit Knowledge Sharing on Job Performance

According to Kridan and Goulding (2006), “knowledge management (KM) is seen as a significant component of a business strategy that has the ability to provide an organization with opportunities to manage new market challenges”. The number of firms allegedly working with KM has grown increasingly and this interest in managing “knowledge stems from several reasons”. Furthermore, the purpose and goal of utilizing knowledge management are numerous. For example, knowledge management can be perceived as a way to improve job performance, improved effective sharing and usage of information within organizations, and an overall better way for organizations to become more innovative (Kridan & Goulding, 2006). In essence, it is a process by which an organization creates, share, and control knowledge for specific business advantages. Therefore, understanding the various types of critical information can help businesses analyze and utilize that information most effectively. In addition, it can provide a more accurate evaluation of job performance (Forbes, 2017). Accurate and consistent data is essential to business success. If data is managed effectively, it can help organizations improve customer satisfaction and operations (Forbes, 2017).
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Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations

Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations

Knowledge is mainly divided into two types: tacit and explicit. The purpose of this study is to examine the concept of tacit knowledge and the application of it for the development of organizations. It is evident that tacit knowledge has a strong connection with the research area of knowledge management. The present global economy is tacit knowledge based for the sustainable development. Since it is very complex in its nature, therefore acquire and extract of tacit knowledge is not a very easy task. It is unwritten, unspoken and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge of a person. It stresses on the success and well-being of humankind. It is obtained as a result of the direct interaction between individuals and their environments. The paper analyzes the importance of tacit knowledge for the sustaining of the long-term capabilities and performance in organizations. An attempt has been taken here to discuss sharing of tacit knowledge in organizations. This paper also tries to explore the properties of tacit knowledge in some detailed.
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Knowledge ubiquity through the transfer of tacit knowledge in Australian universities

Knowledge ubiquity through the transfer of tacit knowledge in Australian universities

Creswell (2007) has stated that in an explanatory design, a follow-up of the same individuals should be included in both data collections. The approach to be used in this research to capture data from the interviews is that of structured interviews where a list of open-ended questions have been prepared in advance. This form of interview was well suited to covering the sequence of questions to be discussed (Kvale 1996). It was also appropriate for exploring the perceptions and opinions of the interviewees regarding issues pertaining to tacit knowledge transfer. It also enabled probing for more information and clarification of responses too. The interview questions were primarily open-ended questions, designed to expose a diversity of opinions (Jackson & Trochim 2002), and allow the subject to follow their own line of thought (Dick 2000). The open ended questions enabled concentrating on a more in-depth analysis of the practices and behaviours that were raised in the survey instrument. Probe questions were used to elicit more information and to keep the discussion focussed when necessary. The interviews helped in identifying techniques to capture tacit knowledge from people before they disappear with a focus on process and performance improvements.
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Tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning

Tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning

no research work. I come from a research background, having completed my Masters and later my PhD, research is my interest. I believe if you keep doing teaching, there is no progress. Academicians should do research to perform. I tried to ask for a transfer to the main campus, because I know research activities are quite active there. I tried many times but failed. Then I decided to find friends in the areas to do research. They are not only in the campus but also other organizations. I cannot really find people who want to do research. Most of them prefer teaching. The organizational environment also focus on teaching, your teaching load is like 18 hours to 23 hours. How do you squeeze in the research? I really wanted to do research, so I have to offset the time, find time after office hours to do research. I learned to surpass myself, and keep on working hard. In short, I have to prove myself that I can do it. Later, the research culture starts to come in. I managed to find some people from other organization who shared the same interest and started doing research. Meantime, I still applied for a transfer as I believe that I am better off in the main campus, in pursuing my research interest. Meantime, I don’t waste time, I write books, I utilize my time in trying to do research. I still want to pursue my interest and try various ways in doing it. I know I have the constraints but for me, I decide for myself but the environment surrounding me.
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THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT IN SHARING TACIT KNOWLEDGE

THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT IN SHARING TACIT KNOWLEDGE

Effective and efficient knowledge sharing brings the sustainable competitive advantage for organizations that are not easily imitated by competitors. But knowledge sharing itself is worthless for employees and the organization, unless the people, who need special knowledge, get it and apply it at the right time. One of the problems the majority of research in the field of knowledge management face it, is the absence of a theory and general guidelines for knowledge sharing that is applicable to all organizations, and there is no shortcuts that guarantees the success in the field of knowledge sharing and every organization has to identify key factors that will ensure their success in this field, with the investment and attention to these factors (Mac Derkot and O'Dell 2001 : 80).
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Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Organizations: A Review

Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Organizations: A Review

Knowledge is regarded as a strategic factor in knowledge management implementation. It is mainly divided into two types: tacit and explicit. Tacit knowledge is created in the human mind as individual know-how and can be expressed as innovation. It is unwritten, unspoken and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge of a person. It is obtained as a result of the direct interaction between individuals and their peers in the organization. For the sustainable development of the modern global economy tacit knowledge can play an important role. Acquire and extract of tacit knowledge is not a very easy task, since it is very complex in its nature. The success and well-being of humankind is an essential issue in the twenty first century and use of tacit knowledge makes the job easier. Management of tacit knowledge effectively and efficiently is a key success factor for the organizations. The paper tries to discuss sharing of tacit knowledge for the sustaining of the long-term capabilities and performance in organizations. It analyzes the importance and difficulties of sharing tacit knowledge. This paper also makes an effort to explore the properties and characteristic of tacit knowledge thinking for the new readers.
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Tacit Knowledge Transfer at Engineering Consulting Organizations

Tacit Knowledge Transfer at Engineering Consulting Organizations

In a previous research, the study focused on the processes of knowledge transfer in multinational corporations and the associated challenges in international settings (Perjanik, 2016). Research finding revealed that several barriers could exist during a knowledge transfer, which includes a lack of value for new knowledge, motivation to apply new knowledge, and combination of issues (Lievre & Tang, 2015). As suggested by Garrick and Chan (2017), leaders should be the facilitators for fostering motivation and trust. In the studies of Neukam (2017), and Badara, Johari, and Yean (2015) on knowledge sharing through collaboration, the authors identified culture as the controller of behavior. Therefore, Neukam (2017), and Badara et al. (2015) proposed that leaders must promote a favorable culture that favors knowledge transfer. Hence, leaders are essential pieces in the process of knowledge transfer and must continuously motivate their employees to embrace the new way of thinking (Garrick & Chan, 2017).
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Exploring Knowledge Entropy in Organizations

Exploring Knowledge Entropy in Organizations

Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to explore the knowledge entropy processes within organizations and how they are reflected in the knowledge management and organizational intellectual capital. Entropy is a very powerful concept, which can be found today in almost any branch of science and technology. It was introduced by Rudolf Clausius in 1865 in Thermodynamics, then used in the communication theory by Claude Shannon, and expanded by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen in economics. However, dues to its extensive use in so many different research domains, the concept of entropy became fuzzy and sometimes misleading in applications. Also, its statistical formulations based on the Boltzmann theory made the entropy understanding rather difficult and its interpretations on the edge of coherence. Knowledge entropy is an extension of information entropy and used within the framework of knowledge management. Our conceptual analysis aims to shed light on the appropriate use of knowledge entropy and its potential in knowledge management research and practice. Since knowledge entropy is associated to all transformational processes in knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge loss, we may say that knowledge management can be interpreted as the process of managing knowledge entropy within organizations.
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