(1) Condition 1. Under normal conditions, a bridge is a stable structure. In bridge demolitions, the goal is to destroy the appropriate parts of a bridge so that it becomes unstable and collapses under its own weight. In other words, you form a collapse mechanism. This may involve either cutting completely through all structural members or creating points of weakness in certain parts of the bridge. Figure 4-3 shows an improper collapse mechanism and the hinges that have not been formed. At times, making bridges unstable by attacking their piers rather than their superstructures is easier, but it is still possible for bridges not to collapse, even though they lost the support provided by one or more of their piers. To avoid this type of demolition failure, place the charges on the structural members of the superstructure, immediately above the piers being attacked.
b. Engineer Support. The tactical commander is responsible for providing combat engineer support for the tactical clearing operation. In terrain that is interlaced with streams, canals, or steep-sided gullies it is necessary to provide bridging to cross the land clearing tractors or security force vehicles. Supporting engineer troops are necessary to install bridging across these obstacles. The armored vehicle launched bridge (AVLB) is extremely effective for this purpose. It can be used several times in a cut area with little expenditure of manpower and time. It may also be necessary to install rafts, floats, or more extensive bridging to complete the cut area. Combat engineers may also be required to conduct daily mine sweeps of the cut area and routes to and from the cut area. If the clearing plan or specifications indicate larger vegetation or that on steep slopes, vegetation is to be felled using chain saws or explosives, combat engineers and demolitions specialists would have to be used to accomplish this work. These engineers will also detonate any mines, boobytraps, or dud rounds found in the cut area. Another piece of engineer equipment that can add support to land clearing operations is the combat engineer vehicle (CEV). The versatility of the CEV makes it useful in that it has light dozing capabilities, lifting capabilities with its hydraulic boom, and can provide additional security with its armament of a 165-mm demolition cannon, M73-7.62-mm coaxial machinegun, and M85 0.50-caliber machinegun. In addition, a mine roller can be mounted on the front of the vehicle to facilitate detonation of pressure sensitive mines in its path.
A USA standard test procedure for explosives of military interest. The weight of each empty projectile and the weight of water displaced by the explosive charge is determined, from which the density of the charge is calculated. All 3-inch and 90-mm projectiles are initiated by M20 Booster pellets, and those used with 3-inch HE, M42AI, Lot KC-5 and 90-mm HE, I1II71, Lot WC-91 projectiles are controlled in weight and height as follows: 22.50 + 0.10 gm, and 0.480 to 0.485 inch. The projectile assembled with fuze, actuated by a blasting cap, Spe- cial, Type II (Spec 49-20) and booster, is placed in boxes constructed of half-inch pine. The 90-mm projectiles are fragmented in boxes 21V 10-1/2 V 10-1/2 inches and the 3-inch projectiles in boxes 15V 9V 9 inches external dimensions. The box with projectile is placed on about 4 feet of sand in a steel fragmentation tub, the detonator wires are connected, and the box is covered with approximately 4 feet more of sand. The projectile is fired and the sand runs onto a gyrating 4-mesh screen on which the fragments are recovered.
The purpose of this document is to set forth guidelines for the forensic identification of intact (unconsumed) explosives. It is recognized that the correct characterization and/or identification of an explosive depends on the use of scientifically acceptable analytical methods and the expertise of the analyst. Unique requirements in different jurisdictions may dictate practices followed by a particular laboratory. This document does not discourage the use of any particular method within an analytical scheme and recommends the use of multiple techniques based on different principles and methodologies. Analytical chemistry is an advancing science and there are other analytical techniques which are not listed in the document but which may be employed in the identification of explosives. These may be new techniques or established techniques (i.e. NMR), which are not routinely used in forensic laboratories.
Experimental data from several performance and sensitivity tests have been combined after normalization to de®ne a single performance and a security characteristic term, respectively. This allows to evaluate pure compounds and special formulations with regard to a well balanced ratio of performance and sensitivity. A graph shows an imaginary border line what has to be interpreted in the sense that ± in the praxis of explosive charges ± high performance is accompanied by an enhanced sensitivity and that an insensitive explosive will not exhibit a top performance. As this result cannot be proved by theory one should imagine that there are also exceptions, i.e. explosives which approach the ideal high explosive (with high performance and high security) what is exempli®ed.
set, and 2) ongoing efforts by the U.S. Congress to pass legislation that will criminalize the distribution of information on explosives under certain circumstances--Paladin has bee forced to carefully evaluate some of the books and videos we sell. In light of the current political and legal
An explosive is any material that, when ignited by heat, shock, or chemical reaction, undergoes rapid decomposition or oxidation. This process releases energy that is stored in the material. The energy, in the form of heat and light, is released when the material breaks down into gaseous compounds that occupy a much larger volume that the explosive did originally. Because this expansion is very rapid, the expanding gasses displace large volumes of air. This expansion often occurs at a speed greater than the speed of sound, creating a shockwave similar to the sonic boom produced by high-speed jet planes. Explosives occur in several forms: high order explosives (detonating explosives),low order explosives (deflagrating explosives), primers, and some explosives which can progress from deflagrating to detonation. All high order explosives are capable of detonation. Some high order explosives may start out burning (deflagration) and progress to detonation. A detonation can only occur in a high order explosive.
b. Fires which may occur in buildings or magazines containing ammunition or explosives will vary in intensity and effect, depending on the material involved in the fire. Certain explosives will ignite immediately on contact with a spark or flame or when subjected to frictional heat or concussion. Some explosive substances may burn freely while others will be subject to explosion while burning or will develop such intense heat, as in the case of solid and liquid propellants, that firefighting efforts will be practically impossible. Firefighting forces will be well acquainted with the hazards involved in each fire hazard group and the best methods of fighting fires of all kinds of materials under their protection. They should also know how to use personnel protective devices required for the various types of fires. c. Each installation involved in explosives operations will develop prefire plans in accordance with AR 420–90. Plans will cover all explosives areas and possible exposures of explosives to fire. In addition to the requirements of AR 420–90, the overall plan will specify responsible individuals and alternates, their organizations and training, and include a description of the emergency function of each department or outside agency. Duties of personnel spelled out in the plan will include the following:
landmines (1). The sense of smell, or olfaction, is an important sense for both humans and animals, because it allows them to identify food, provides sensual pleasure (e.g., the scent of flow- ers or perfume), and warns them of dangers (e.g., spoiled meat). The olfactory epithelium, situated under a dog’s forehead, is a membrane covered with receptors that has a large, convoluted sur- face area. For example, in the German shepherd, the surface area is ~100 cm 2 compared with 3 cm 2 for a human (2). Each receptor is connected by its own nerve fiber to the olfactory bulb, where the signals are processed before being sent to the brain. A good search dog can recognize at least 14 different types of odors, including drugs, human odors, and explosives. Moreover, because the dog’s nares (or nostrils) are completely separated by a septum, it has an essentially bilateral separation of olfactory stimuli, which allows it to determine the direction or location of an odor’s source (3). However, there are several problems associated with using dogs to detect explosives. They require rigorous training, test- ing, and validation exercises in various operational scenarios with different types of explosives. Dogs are trained to identify specific explosive ingredients rather than specific products; for example, a dog is trained to detect nitroglycerin instead of dy- namite, so the explosive’s exact formulation is not important. Dogs learn to discriminate between the vapor of that substance and other odors in the environment.
Step 5. Determine bypass conditions. The standard topographic map will supply all the necessary information to determine bypass conditions for each bridge and LOC structure. However, you must use aerial photography to continuously update the map, particularly under combat conditions. To determine bypass conditions from aerial photography, study the area adjacent to the structure under stereo conditions and note any indications of shallow water, such as sandbars or rocks, that are visible through the water surface. In addition, look for vehicle tracks along the river bank that indicate the location of an existing ford. When the structure is a dam used as a bridge, examine the downstream side of the dam, where the water is often shallow enough to be used as a bypass. Because dams are almost always situated where bedrock is close to the surface, stream bottom conditions are usually firm enough to support most vehicle types.
The guidelines in TC 25-1 and TC 25-2 describe the planning for training land and ranges. A large number of newly activated installations such as semiactive, state-owned, and new acquisitions will be necessary to support total mobilization. Thus, it may not be possible to provide all areas with the training land and ranges that ideally are needed. Those new ranges that are constructed should be multipurpose and adaptable for at least low-level collective training. Maximum use should also be made of existing ranges and training areas. Low-cost upgrading or adaptation of ranges and training areas may be necessary to maximize training options.
The US Army is doctrine-based doctrinally capable of handling large campaigns as well as combat in a variety of scenarios. FM 100-5 is the Army’s keystone warfighting doctrine. It is a guide for Army commanders. It describes how to think about the conduct of campaigns, major operations, battles, engagements, and operations other than war. It addresses fundamentals of a force-projection army with forward-deployed forces. It applies to the Total Army, active and reserve components as well as Army civilians. Finally, FM 100-5 furnishes the authoritative foundation for subordinate doctrine, force design, materiel acquisition, professional education, and individual and unit training. Army operations doctrine builds on the collective knowledge and wisdom gained through recent conduct of operations combat as well as operations other than war numerous exercises, and the deliberate process of informed reasoning throughout the Army. It is rooted in time-tested principles and fundamentals, while accommodating new technologies and diverse threats to national security. This keystone manual links Army roles and missions to the National Military Strategy, of which power projection is a fundamental principle. Thus, force projection the military’s ability to respond quickly and decisively to global requirements is fundamental to Army operations doctrine. The Army recognizes that it will normally operate in combination with air, naval, and space assets to achieve the overall strategic aim of decisive land combat. It also recognizes that operations outside the United States will usually be in conjunction with allies.
Shelters are primarily constructed to protect soldiers, equipment, and supplies from enemy action and the weather. Shelters differ from fighting positions because there are usually no provisions for firing weapons from them. However, they are usually constructed near-or to supplement- fighting positions. When available, natural shelters such as caves, mines, or tunnels are used instead of constructing shelters. Engineers are consulted to determine suitability of caves and tunnels. The best shelter is usually one that provides the most protection but requires the least amount of effort to construct. Shelters are frequently prepared by support troops, troops making a temporary halt due to inclement weather, and units in bivouacs, assembly areas, and rest areas. Shelters are constructed with as much overhead cover as possible. They are dispersed and limited to a maximum capacity of about 25 soldiers. Supply shelters are of any size, depending on
Helicopter losses are the total losses for an engagement (5-minute period). OPFOR controllers use line 8 for any ADA assets when OPFOR tactics and organizations are used. Controllers use this card when the OPFOR ground unit is attacked by helicopters or when an OPFOR ground unit occupies the landing zone used for an insertion. OPFOR ground unit controllers keep track of the cumulative number of insertions and engagements that have been conducted against their units. For example, four engagements (20 minutes total time) have been conducted against an OPFOR ground unit since the start of the exercise. When the helicopter controller again makes contact with the OPFOR controller, the OPFOR controller sends the helicopter controller line 8, column 5, because this engagement is the fifth conducted against the unit. The helicopter controller consults the ADA-helicopter assessment card and follows line 8 across to column 5 and finds the number 1 under column 5. This means that one helicopter is lost during the first 5 minutes. If the engagement lasts longer than 5 minutes, the helicopter controller uses line 8, column 6. The number 1 under column 6 means that another helicopter is assessed during the second 5- minute period. The helicopter controller keeps going across the line for each additional 5-minute period. After reaching column 10, he returns to column 1.