미국의 경우, 다문화와 관련된 실무 ․ 교육 ․ 연구 분야에서 문화적 역량을 높이기 위한 정책과 문화 역량 요구도 및 문화와 관련된 연구들이 다수 진행되어 왔다[11-13]. 간호학계에서도 문화 간호에 대한 중요성이 인식되면서 Jeffreys 는 간호 학 생과 간호사들의 문화적 역량을 높이기 위한 범문화 간호의 문 화 역량 자신감 모델(Cultural Competence and Confidence) 을 제안하였다. 이는 Bandura 의 Self-Efficacy 이론을 적 용한 모델로, 세 가지 영역인 인지, 실무, 정서적 영역으로 구성 되어 있다. 범문화 효능감은 문화적 역량을 향상 시키는 중요 한 매개 요인으로 과거 다문화 경험과 수행, 교육 과정을 통해 문화 자신감을 획득하고 실무자들의 범문화 효능감을 높여, 문화적 역량을 효과적으로 증가 시킬 수 있는 요인으로 보았다 . Shin 의 연구에서 범문화 효능감이 문화적 역량에 미 치는 효과를 탐구한 연구가 수행되었지만, 여전히 그 효과를 검증하는 연구는 부족한 실정이다. 따라서 초등학교 보건교사 의 범문화 효능감이 문화적 역량과의 관계를 파악하는 것은 중 요한 의미를 가진다.
Interview questions were: What factors cause students to drop out of high school? What are the most important in-schoolfactors that cause students to drop out of school? What are the individual and social factors that cause students to drop out of school? Which of the factors listed above had the most impact on the dropout rate, respectively? After summarizing and analyzing the themes of the interviews, a questionnaire was designed to identify the factorsaffecting secondary school girls' education. This questionnaire consisted of two parts: personal information and the second part consisting of: 1) personal factors (unwillingness to study, lack of confidence). Self-care, malnutrition, organ or disease disorders, anxiety and anxiety), 2- Economic factors (service charge, tuition, homework expenses, lack of fixed family allowance, father unemployment, lack of supportive institutions) 3- Educational Factors (Lack of Separate Middle School in Your Village - Lack of Educational Facilities - Lack of School Service - Boy Harassment - Complex Classroom Teacher inappropriate behavior with students - Promoting literacy skills - Promoting school dropout patterns - Fighting with teachers - School punishment - Students discouragement - Poor schooling - Lack of interest in reading - Frequent school absences 4- Family factors (Parental illness - Divorce - Parental care - Parenting issues - Parenting - Failure to interact with children at home - Parental illiteracy or one of them - Need help and work with children - Priority in work - Parenting age and 5 - Specific cultural beliefs (belief in early marriage - Preference for the role of housewife - Being a teacher (D) promoting the Turkish model Thsyly- avoid sending children to nearby villages). To determine face and content validity, a questionnaire was provided to 10 university professors for approval. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.8 to determine reliability.
According to India’s 2009 Right to Education (RTE) Act, education is a fundamental right of children between the ages of 6 and 14, and no child can be held back, expelled, or required to pass a board examination until completion of elementary education. This has contributed to primary school enrolment rates, in part, of over 95 percent. But only few students actually understand basic reading and math. According to 2012 ASER survey, in grade 5, only 47% of students could read a grade 2 -level text proficiently, while about 25% were able to solve questions involving division, a grade 4 level competency. Also, 76% of grade 8 stu dents read at the grade 2 levels, thus showing how this learning gap in the initial years of education tends to build over time.
Based on the results of this study, several factors have significant effects on the intention of nurses to leave a healthcare system ranging from justice, commitment, individual and organizational factors to cultural, economic, and social factors. Therefore, it seems essential that hospital manag- ers consider these factors in their planning and decision makings. Other stakeholders like health care providers, administrators and policy makers of countries can also use the results of the current study in their planning and policy-making. They should also attempt to lay grounds for desirable organizational, cultural and motivational condi- tions for nurses in hospitals so that by increasing their job satisfaction their work stress alleviates.
This thesis has identified factors which contribute to the production of competent phyllosoma larvae; a dietary mix of live and pellet feed is sufficient to supply the lipid and AA requirements of broodstock, large females producing large eggs and phyllosoma should be targeted as broodstock, while incubation should be conducted under conditions of ambient temperature. The development of an activity test is an effective tool that provides a quick and easy determination of larval competency at hatch, capable of enhancement by feeding with juvenile Artemia supplemented with a particulate form of AA. Adoption of these procedures should ensure the most competent larvae are available to improve the success of phyllosoma larval rearing in the spiny lobster J. edwardsii.
(Chapters 6 and 7). It was noted that the lipid and fatty acid profiles of broodstock ovary and tail muscle were stable over time despite the provision of an unusual dietary mix of EFA (Chapter 6). This stability extended to the phyllosoma with minimal differences between the fatty acid profiles of animals from two widely differing diets, suggesting that larval profiles are maintained under situations of extreme nutritional duress, as sometimes reported in wild populations (Jernakoff et al. 1993; Barkai et al. 1996; Cox et al. 1997). There was no direct link between fatty acid profiles and survival of larvae in culture or activity tests. Therefore, the stability of both broodstock and phyllosoma lipid and fatty acid profiles and the ability of animals to sequester their requirements from meager supplies should largely negate concerns about the need to supplement broodstock dietary fatty acids to maintain larval competency. The other organ examined was the digestive gland, which demonstrated a large storage capacity for dietary lipids and fatty acids, with no evidence for direct sequestering of these stores during ovarian maturation. Lipid catabolism appeared to occur during periods of inadequate nutrition, which is useful for wild animals experiencing dietary deficiencies. The digestive gland fatty acid profile was malleable and assumed the fatty acid profile of the diet, which may be a potential correlate for identifying those feed sources associated with improved larval competency in wild animals.
school in Belitung district, Indonesia about sufficiency and accessibility of the infrastructure for supporting hand washing practice including location, hand washing stand, soap, tap water, and clean water. Perceived barriers towards implementing hand washing refers to belief of sixth grade students about the environmental and personal obstacles to perform hand washing behavior such as hand washing stand location, availability of clean water, availability of soap, lack of time, laziness, and possible to forget. 8 Subjective norm
Background: The prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) can substan- tially contribute to reducing the mortality rate across countries. The level of interest in cholesterol among experts increases when the subjects are elderly and obese individuals. However, specialists do not recommend that children should receive the cholesterol test. The objective of this study was to investi- gate the distribution of cholesterol levels among the children of public school and their parents’ lifestyles that are associated with cholesterol levels, and to assess the need for and utility of cholesterol testing in school settings. Me- thods: The study investigated a group of 226 fourth-grade public school children aged between 9 and 10 years and guardians in Akitakatacity of Hiro- shima Prefecture, Japan. Multiple regression analyses were performed with the logarithmic value of cholesterol levels as a response variable, awareness about lifestyles and health of children as an explanatory variable, and child’s sex and body mass index (BMI) as moderating variables. Using questionnaires about lifestyles, the step-down procedure was applied in multiple regression analyses to narrow down relevant lifestyle variables. Results: The percentage of children with the high total cholesterol (TC) value was about 15 and with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol value was about 10. Children with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol value were 5%. Treatment was not required according to the comprehensive assessment. Cholesterol levels were associated with the situation of the children and their guardians as fol- lows, guardian need to consider the food, and child has the correct knowledge about food like how to eat snacks. Conclusions: Children had poor cholester- How to cite this paper: Kihara, A., Kawa-
transition. Some participants noted that during their transition, their organization had provided them with some sort of such facilities. Our nursing office was very helpful. They [nurse managers] provided us with whatever we needed and resolved our problems (Participant 7). However, according to most of our participants, serious lack of welfare services for nurses was a major barrier to their coping with transition. There is neither nursery nor transportation facilities here [in the hospital]. They provide [us with] nothing. They do not provide us with dinner; therefore, we have to either starve till morning or take dinner from home. Moreover, the availability of [welfare] services and facilities is being reduced day by day. I’m not interested in nursing anymore. I’m just waiting for completing the current work assignment. Afterward, I will surely leave nursing forever (Participant 14). Currently, there is a general shortage of welfare facilities for nurses in the Iranian healthcare settings. Accordingly, the limited amount of facilities and resources is mainly allocated to more experienced, senior nurses. More experienced ones had the choice to take rest in cozy places. However, we [the juniors] had no option but to find a place in basement or cellar to rest (Participant 6). Staff shortage According to our participants, severe nursing staff shortage was one of the most important factors contributing to nurses’ ineffective coping with transition.
burnout among these human resources. In fact, if super- visors want to increase the proportion of high intenders, they need to ensure adequate nurse staffing in schools, as a nursing shortage is recognised as a serious threat to the deployment of health-promotion practices by nurses . Indeed, a shortage of nurses means understaffing and decreased presence in the milieu. The success of the HPS approach depends on the stability of networks over time , and networking requires a minimum of shared time among the different actors . A presence at school is also associated with leadership. Leadership has been shown to be a key component to improving nurse staffing and retention, as well as health-promotion practices . In the international context of financial constraints, where additional nursing staffing has proven difficult to obtain, investing in the development of dele- gation skills could help schoolnurses increase their pre- sence where needed to advance a role in health promotion. It would also contribute to heightened feel- ings of worth . Leadership is a major skill that should be addressed at the university level, preferably in the context of a school health specialisation, so that schoolnurses are socialised to be leaders and expected to act as leaders before they enter the school system. Leadership training could also be provided to schoolnurses in the form of workshops in collaboration with local universities. Leadership development covers topics such as management of resources, marketing, team motivation, negotiation, effective communication, orga- nisational change, contribution to the development of policies, mentoring, and delegation .
Five hundred and sixty-five fourth-grade students and their 9 PE teachers from 9 elementary schools located in a suburban area in the US were recruited as subjects from the third year of the Healthy Kids and Smart Kids project. The project was designed to help elementaryschool students become physically active, mentally healthy, and socially cooperative children through implementing the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) PE curriculum and Mileage Club (MC) Recess Program as well as family/community events. 21–23
Today, the evolution of institutions, organizations based on job analysis, merit-based organizations has changed so that today a large number of organizations, competency-based human resource management methods to apply (Prald and Hamel, 1990). The term competence in the public dictionary means competence, professionalism, skill and specialized dictionary, management means, competence, qualifications, competency, ability come. In slang, it means having the ability, skill, knowledge and competence, and the term, means according to the labor and employment environment the person (Abertsdon and Cal Yndan, 2012). Forenham (1990), quoting from Cooper (1998) states that the term merit, a new term and related to the present age but it is an old concept. Although the exact date and recognized competence approach it is little consensus among experts but they all agree that in this case its emergence in the last decades of the twentieth century. In fact, the company "Mac's" merit-based identification methods were pioneered and David Mac Kland, a psychologist at Harvard University in the late 1960s and early 1970s, it was founded.
medication doses. The objectives of this project were to reduce the chance of medication errors and to reduce the time needed to prepare the CPR card. As part of the admission procedure in PSMMC, CPR medications doses were calculated for each paediatric patient as illustrated in Figure 5-1. The card required 25 calculated data entries. The PSMMC CPR committee which consisted of a consultant clinical pharmacist, a consultant intensivist physician and a nurse was responsible for evaluation of all the original medications of CPR card including medications and doses. The doses were calculated based on the child weight. The CPR medications chart consisted of 14 medications, the Cardioversion procedure dose and the length of Endo Tracheal Tubes (ETT). The CPR medications chart was calculated manually by one nurse and the results were checked independently by other nurses then the card was approved by physician. Even the process was designed to be robust, it was still highly prone to errors. In addition, it was time consuming. In the Vardi et al. (2007) study, the doses were calculated by one nurse and another nurse and a physician would check the results independently. Thus any errors represented an error that evaded a triple check (by two nurses and a physician). The PSMMC CPR card carried the names and doses/kg of the medications as well as the concentrations of CPR medications. Several factors made children in a critical care setting especially vulnerable to medication errors and adverse events, among them were weight-based dosing, significant weight changes over short periods of time, dilution of medications, and the decreased communication ability of paediatric patients and critically ill patients (Kaushal et
VLS is one of the most attractive aspects of language learning researches. With the increasing relevance and significance of Eng- lish language globally more studies are needed particularly in the context of Saudi Arabia or in relation to Saudi students where Arabic language is the lingua franca and most students of Saudi origin are naturally inclined to use their mother tongue wherever they find themselves. The findings of this study indicate that learning environment, students’ motivation as well as attitude and beliefs of students can all have either a negative or positive im- pacts on students’ English vocabulary learning. Therefore, there is need for further researches in finding solutions to these factorsaffecting students’ vocabulary learning particularly in a Saudi Arabian context. The implication of the study’s findings means that an environment where English language is needed for one to go about their daily affairs has a positive impact on English vo- cabulary learning, their attitudes and beliefs as well as their moti- vation. Contrarily, an environment, such as Saudi Arabia where Arabic is the language of expression, will have a negative impact on students’ vocabulary learning.
It has 76 items covering 11 different competency areas (educational knowledge and skills, organizational skills, staff management, technology, educational program- ming, safety and compliance, communication and man- aging relationships, parental and family support, financial management, professional contributions, and personal management) rated based on a 5-point Likert-type scale. All Persian translated items were matched with the crisis management approach. The content validity of the tool was approved in consultation with 10 experts. To analyze the collected data, first descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentage, standard deviation) were presented. Since the data was non-normally distributed, the Kruskal- Wallis nonparametric test was used, and stepwise linear regression was used to predict the components.
creativity is a factor comprised of personal ability and personality . It could produce new and unique forms of personal ability and personality over developmental periods. Lee created the “Volcano model” as a way of understanding and measuring the creativity integrative . The model showed various types of creativities along with the subject domains which are results of the links between abilities (e.g., intelligence, thinking ability, perception) and creative personality (e.g., motivation that based on developing personal environments). It also emphasized that the socio-cultural environment is crucial in developing creative traits. The functions played in creative thinking are factors such as sensitivity, diversity, fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, and imagination.
Within the context of education, numerous researchers have found that role taking, guided reflection and taking social responsibility have impact on the development of moral competency of students (Lupu, 2009; Saeidi, 2011). Another closely related concept which is found to be affecting moral competency is democratic education (Newcomb, 1974; Gömleksiz, 1988; Doğanay, 2000). In other words, in a modern society, schools do not aim at training individuals to consume the available information, but to produce new information(Doganay,2000).Such education develops individual’s ability to criticize and express their ideas freely. Kepanekçi (2006) classifies the factors which create democratic education as, firstly, establishing an atmosphere based on reciprocal communication away from competition and violence and in line with mutual respect and understanding. Secondly, students are provided with appropriate opportunities so that they can realize their democratic acquisition. There have been more than 2000 studies conducted showing the strong effect of teacher’s democratic thoughts on the development of students’ democratic attitudes (Güleç & BalçIk, 2009). During this democratic educational process, teachers help students to acquire critical thinking skills which are assumed as the other factor affecting moral competency of individuals (Powers, 2006). Basic to the concept of critical thinking are the ability to challenge other ideas and find proper solutions when encountering a problem as well as the ability to focus on specific problems and analyze them from different aspects (Güleç & BalçIk, 2009).
Some authors believed only at risk groups should be targeted with elementaryschool SUPE programs (Johnson et al., 2009; Sale et al., 2012; Snyder et al., 2013). While other authors believe SUPE should be initiated universally, in all elementary schools, regardless of socioeconomic risk factors (Hecht et al., 2008; Kurpersmidt et al., 2010; O’Neill et al., 2011; Scull et al., 2014). Johnson et al. (2009) believe elementaryschool SUPE programs should be targeting at risk populations and target a specific substance. Their study on Alaskan natives using inhalants embodies this belief (Johnson et al., 2009), while Hecht et al. (2008), Kupersmidt et al. (2010), O’Neil et al. (2011), and Scull et al. (2014) believe that substance use is an equally distributed epidemic in all socioeconomic groups. Therefore, prevention education should be equally distributed throughout the nation (Hecht et al., 2008; Kurpersmidt et al., 2010; O’Neill et al., 2011; Scull et al., 2014). The YRBSS supports this finding that substance use is equally distributed across all socioeconomic groups. However, there are parts of the country that suffer from higher rates of specific types of drug use (CDC, 2016). Refer to Table A for the CDC Sortable Risk Factors and Health Indicators to compare drug use state by state. The
Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are common in the Vietnamese culture due to the loss of family members, language and cultural barriers, social isolation, and separation from family. Many Vietnamese persons, particularly those who lived during the Vietnam War, are still experiencing the physical and psychological effects related to the communist regime. Tuberculosis and hepatitis are common in the Vietnamese culture and screening for these diseases is essential. Cancer is the leading cause of death for both Vietnamese men and women.