Top PDF Factors associated with persons with disability employment in India: a cross-sectional study

Factors associated with persons with disability employment in India: a cross-sectional study

Factors associated with persons with disability employment in India: a cross-sectional study

areas, particularly regarding illiteracy, employment, hearing disability, and mental disability. 221[r]

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Patients Opinion on the use of Generics and Factors Associated with it: A Cross-Sectional Study

Patients Opinion on the use of Generics and Factors Associated with it: A Cross-Sectional Study

of the study. To the best of our awareness, there is no published study with adequate sample size from the India wherein patients’ opinion or perception is assessed about the generics and this is an honest attempt to get first glimpse of it. We observed that awareness and acceptability of generics is very inadequate and there is a need of proper dissemina- tion of information as well as advocacy to patients. There is also a need to arrange proper training of physicians regarding various myths affecting the use of generics in Indian setting. Patient being a very important stakeholder has all rights to demand generic drug prescription form physicians but to reach that stage patient must have good awareness about basics of the generic drugs. Ideally it is expected from a physician to provide correct and adequate information about generics for making informed choice by patients but either the physicians are prejudiced or have no adequate time to inform patients or they themselves have misconceptions. Strong advocacy by doctors by sharing information with the patients about generic drug may not only increase the awareness but may change the perception and help the informed patients in the decision process. 29-32
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Factors associated with glucose tolerance, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes in a rural community of south India: a cross-sectional study

Factors associated with glucose tolerance, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes in a rural community of south India: a cross-sectional study

The lack of results showing significant associations between dietary variables and diabetes outcomes is notable, especially considering the overwhelming evi- dence of the importance of dietary risk factors in deter- mining risk of obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome [3, 5, 8, 33, 35, 36, 38, 61]. This may expose limitations in the ability of the FFQ to adequately assess dietary factors due to recall bias, interviewer bias, or location-specific anomalies. However, it is more likely that results reflect a lack of sufficient variability in the rural diet to adequately assess the associations between dietary intakes and glucose tolerance within the study population. This is an important finding, as it may indi- cate that, while dietary changes are driving the diabetes epidemic in other locations, such as urban India, the ris- ing rural prevalence of diabetes is due to other risk fac- tors, such as physical activity, rising obesity, and genetic predisposition. Alternatively, individual dietary intakes may be changing uniformly among populations in rural India, perhaps due to effects of the nutrition transition, thus increasing risk of pre-diabetes and diabetes across the population as a whole [36, 37]. Thus, future obser- vational studies examining dietary factors should ensure that the study population is heterogenous in its dietary intake, and should take into account the shifting nature of diet and nutrition in rural south India.
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Factors associated with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy in older people with Intellectual Disability differ from the general population; a cross sectional observational nationwide study

Factors associated with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy in older people with Intellectual Disability differ from the general population; a cross sectional observational nationwide study

Medication data for this study was drawn from the 2009/ 2010 Wave 1 of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA), which contains 753 persons with ID, aged between 41 and 90 years 22 ( fi gure 1). The IDS-TILDA study has been described in detail elsewhere 10 22 and further details of the representativeness of the sample are avail- able in online supplementary tables S1 and S2. In summary, IDS-TILDA is a nationally representative, lon- gitudinal study of older adults with IDs designed to explore aging pro fi le, physical and behavioural health (including medication use), health service needs, psy- chological health, social networks, living situations, com- munity participation and employment. A preinterview questionnaire (PIQ) was sent to each participant at least 1 week in advance of a face-to-face interview. Additional data were gathered in a subsequent face-to-face interview and PIQ reports were also con fi rmed in this interview. A number of different interviewing styles were offered to the participants given their differing levels of ID and abilities to communicate; a respondent-only interview conducted directly with the individual (n=147; 19.5%), a proxy interview completed with a family member or carer most familiar with the person (n=265; 35.2%) or an interview with the person was supported by a familiar family member or carer (n=314; 41.7%). A small number of participants required a combination of these approaches (n=27, 3.6%). We have followed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) standardised reporting guide- lines for cross-sectional studies. 23
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Nutritional intakes and associated factors among tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional study in China

Nutritional intakes and associated factors among tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional study in China

Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is the leading cause of death from single infectious agents. According to World Health Organization (WHO), there were estimated 10.0 million people developed TB disease and 1.6 million people died from TB in 2017. China is in 2nd place among 30 TB high burden countries, with a reported incidence of 63 per 100,000 persons per year in 2017 [1]. The interactions between tuberculosis and malnutri- tion are well appreciated. TB can cause weight loss or cachexia and malnutrition can predispose to TB. On one hand, TB patient requires more energy to maintain body function that caused by increasing basal metabolic rate (BMR), leading to weight loss [2]. On the other hand, food intake may be negatively affected for TB patients due to reduction in appetite and gastrointestinal disorder [3], resulting in undernutrition. Malnutrition can further lead to impaired immune function [4, 5], as nutritional deficiency alters the interaction between macrophages and T-lymphocytes [6]. Moreover, although most people who get infected from TB will not manifest symptoms as their immune system manages to control the bacteria, malnourished persons are more likely to develop active TB because the infection is no longer constrained by their immune systems [7].
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Factors associated with spontaneous abortion: a cross-sectional study of Chinese populations

Factors associated with spontaneous abortion: a cross-sectional study of Chinese populations

Low income levels were associated with poor housing, nutrition and health care access, as well as increasing the risk of spontaneous abortion. It has been investi- gated that women with low SES have an increased risk of SA when measured by income or wealth, while other studies found no such significant correlations [6, 14–16]. The level of educational attainment is an international indicator of social position. According to literature, ma- ternal educational level influenced pregnancy outcomes though access to health services and care strategies for both mother and fetus [16, 17]. Some researchers have reported that there was inversely association between educational level and SA, while some studies did not find the association [14, 17–19]. Compared to income and education, employment status was controversial and information as to whether adverse effects of occupation affect spontaneous abortion was scant. A couple of stud- ies demonstrated that employment increased the risk of SA, but more studies reported no association between em- ployment and spontaneous abortion [10, 15, 18, 20]. In addition, lifestyle factors were significant associated with female’s reproductive health, such as tea drinking, alcohol consumption and smoking [21–26]. Medical condition such as induced abortion count, history of diabetes and hypertension, also lead to negative reproductive health outcomes [21, 27–30].
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Extent and pattern of burden of care and its associated factors among Eritrean families of persons living with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

Extent and pattern of burden of care and its associated factors among Eritrean families of persons living with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia who visited SMNNRH were asked to take part in this study. Patients with schizophrenia were screened based on their cap- acity to understand the relevant information and cap- acity to give informed consent. Exclusion criteria were any comorbid disorders (any known physical/mental/ neurological disorders as per the patients chart), the age of <18 years old and duration of caregiving for <1 year. Also, caregivers who were not staying with patient currently and who had any known (informed by any health professional) physical and psychological dis- abilities were excluded from this study. A total of 146 primary caregivers of their respective patients were selected using convenience sampling technique. Prior to the recruitment of caregivers, selection of the patients without any additional comorbidity was made by the psy- chiatric nurses. All patients recruited for this study met the principal diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria.
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Factors associated with BMI, underweight, overweight, and obesity among adults in a population of rural south India: a cross-sectional study

Factors associated with BMI, underweight, overweight, and obesity among adults in a population of rural south India: a cross-sectional study

The Census Bureau of India classifies households as either urban or rural and policymakers enforce these definitions in health, food, and economic policies [52]. Researchers in India have adopted this definition when examining the ef- fects of urbanization on chronic disease outcomes, often making comparisons between rural and urban populations [35, 53–56]. However, a dichotomous definition of rurality is ineffective when examining rural or urban populations separately. In addition, it fails to account for the gradient of rurality, homogenizes a heterogeneous population, and oversimplifies the effects of rurality as a descriptive factor [57]. Indeed, as stated by Rousseau (2005), ‘rural’ should not imply a single community but a wide range of com- munities with various features [58]. A standardized defin- ition of rurality has thus proved elusive, as the essence of ‘rural’ villages is a complex and context-specific interplay of culture, affluence, geography, agriculture, and access to markets. Several studies have confirmed that urban status is associated with higher BMI and greater odds of over- weight and obesity and rural status is associated with greater odds of underweight [35, 53–55]. Upon deeper exploration, many of these studies described associations between urban or rural status and other more proximate risk factors, such as income, physical activity, and diet (e.g. Pandey et al. 2013 [54]). While in our study, the en- tire study region is classified as rural, we were interested in the more nuanced conceptualization of a rural–urban continuum [59, 60]. In light of the many public health problems posed by urbanization, we believe it prudent to quantify and examine this concept in an epidemiologic capacity.
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Depression, suicidal ideation, and associated factors: a cross sectional study in rural Haiti

Depression, suicidal ideation, and associated factors: a cross sectional study in rural Haiti

Implications for referral, treatment, and prevention The goal of this study was to elucidate patterns of bur- den for depression symptomatology and suicidal ideation in rural Haiti in order to identify potential actions for re- ferral, treatment, and prevention. Regarding referral, having visited a Vodou priest was associated with sui- cidal ideation, whereas having visited a biomedical pro- vider was not. This suggests that persons with suicidal ideation are likely to have visited a Vodou practitioner. Therefore, referrals from Vodou priests and other com- munity and mental health resources may be ideal to sup- port those with current thoughts of ending their life. That said, partnerships with traditional healers can have negative outcomes as well, such as being more expensive than biomedical treatment [108]. Religious and trad- itional healers may also worsen stigma based on the ex- planatory models they invoke [109,110]. These risks should be taken into account when developing referral systems in Haiti.
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Factors associated with perceived quality of life in artisanal fishermen: a cross sectional study

Factors associated with perceived quality of life in artisanal fishermen: a cross sectional study

Worldwide there were more than 43.5 million fishermen in 2009 [1]. In Brazil, there were more than 970 thousand fishermen in 2014, of which approximately 957 thousand were artisanal fishermen [2], characterized by fishing autonomously, preserving socio-cultural traditions, with family regime, as a source of income, through their own production or in partnership, in small vessels with little autonomy [3, 4]. This type of activity has great socioeco- nomic importance for several countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Japan and Chile [5, 6], as it represents employment and food security [3, 6–9].
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Factors associated with depression among prisoners in southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

Factors associated with depression among prisoners in southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

This study also shows that prisoners who were partici- pating in income generating activities were 47% less likely to develop depression (AOR = 0.531 95% CI 0.322–0.877, P = 0.013) than the counter parts. Work engagement positively improved with quality of life of individuals (i.e., improved individual and family satisfaction) and produc- tivity, which will keep an individual mentally health. In contrary, study conducted among women in rural Ethio- pia founds that employment were not associated with depression [28]. This possible explanation to this differ- ence might be socio-demographic characteristics of study participant.
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Factors associated with alexithymia among the Lebanese population: results of a cross-sectional study

Factors associated with alexithymia among the Lebanese population: results of a cross-sectional study

Alexithymia is “a personality construct that refers to one’s inability to successfully deal with emotional regula- tion” [1]. This cross-cultural observable fact recognized in studies across 18 different ethnic and racial groups [2], was coined by Sifneos who describes it as a deflec- tion of emotions [3]. Alexithymia is characterized by a difficulty identifying one’s feelings and describing them to others, limited imaginal manners and a stimulus- bound, externally oriented cognitive style [4]. Alexithy- mic people have difficulties in regulating their emotions. The low emotion regulation level is associated with low levels of social ability, emotion expression and emotion intelligence [5]. Moreover, alexithymic persons have im- paired ability to understand their own feelings and those of others [6]. Alexithymia was originally reported to be widespread in psychosomatic patients who have trouble in developing satisfactory interactions with therapists and in adhering to psychological and behavioral pro- grams. Soon after, these traits were found in other neuropsychiatric diseases such as substance use disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and soma- toform pain disorder [7, 8].
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Factors associated with chronic and acute back pain in Wales, a cross sectional study

Factors associated with chronic and acute back pain in Wales, a cross sectional study

Back pain is a common and potentially disabling condi- tion that can lead to reductions in quality of life, time off work and long-term disability. The Global Burden of Disease Study estimated the point prevalence of low back pain to be 9.4%, and reported low back pain to be the condition responsible for the most years lived with disability [1]. Back pain is one of the most common causes for disability in the working population, and severely impacts upon work productivity and absentee- ism [1]. In the UK alone, almost 3.4 million working days were lost due to work-related back pain in 2016/17, that is 13.3% of all working days lost due to ill health
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Employment-associated factors in multiple sclerosis: Results of a cross-sectional study in Germany

Employment-associated factors in multiple sclerosis: Results of a cross-sectional study in Germany

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease with various symptoms leading to specific disabilities. It is accompanied by high rates of unemployment and early retirement. Among all chronic diseases, patients with MS (PwMS) show the highest unemployment rates [1], ranging from 70–80% being unemployed within 5–10 years of disease onset [2]. With a typical onset between 20 and 40 years of age [3], MS normally hits young people at the beginning of their adulthood, usually when they plan their life and start or consolidate their professional career [4]. Employment is a major factor for quality of life of PwMS because it gives structure to daily life and may help them to reach and maintain a kind of normality [5]. It ensures ones livelihood, which leads to social esteem and appreciation and thus enhances self-confidence. Despite this positive impact of work on PwMS, international studies show high rates of unemployment and early retirement [4, 6]. While most people are employed at time of diagnosis [7, 8] and 90–96% have a work history [2, 7] nearly half of them leave work and change to early retirement within 15 years of diagnosis [4, 9]. In Europe, rates across countries vary between 33% and 45% [10], and even 36% of PwMS in their most productive life span between 35 to 44 years of age are early retired [3]. This impacts not only on quality of life of PwMS, but also contributes significantly to the overall cost of MS and has thus a huge impact on society as well [10].
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The Extent and Factors Associated with Non-Prescription Medicine Use in Eastern India – A Cross-Sectional Survey

The Extent and Factors Associated with Non-Prescription Medicine Use in Eastern India – A Cross-Sectional Survey

Very few studies have been conducted in India in this regard especially in the Eastern part of India. The study in 2014 in a rural area of north India15 showed that 50% of patients were seeking self-medication for headache and other types of pain (23.3%), fever (14.5%), UTI (9.7%) and RTI (11.7%). The medicines most commonly purchased for practicing self-medication were NSAIDs (25.3%), medications used for gastrointes- tinal disorders (20.8%) and antibiotics (16.7%). Prevalence of self-med- ication was higher primarily among illiterate males aged above 15 years with annual low income. 15 Another research reflected similar sources
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Factors Associated with Functional Outcomes in Persons who Underwent Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Cross-Sectional study

Factors Associated with Functional Outcomes in Persons who Underwent Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Cross-Sectional study

The characteristics of the study participants are summarized in table 1. Mean age of the study sample (n = 28) was 54.4 years (SD = 11.2). The number of males and females participated in the study were 11(39.3%) and 17 (60.7%) respectively. The mean duration after surgery for this study was 5 months. The duration of pain before surgery ranged from 6 months to 10 years. Majority of subjects who participated in this study underwent single level fusion (n = 25; 89.3%). The mean Charlson comorbidity index score was 0.6 (range 0-3). The pain intensity was found to be high in low back during movement which ranged from 0 to 9. The average pain intensity at rest both in low back and leg was approximately 1 with SD of 2. Average lumbar flexion and core strength was 25 degrees and 4 mm Hg respectively. The average kinesiophobia score was 26.25 (SD = 6.36). As shown by total score of Oswestry Disability Index (mean = 34.57; SD = 14.40), the sample presented with moderate to severe levels of functional disability.
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Prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among community-dwelling older persons in Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional study

Prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among community-dwelling older persons in Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional study

Malnutrition among older persons is a multifactorial condition. A recent systematic review identified several domains of malnutrition: demographic characteristics, fi- nancial characteristics, food and appetite, lifestyle, psycho- logical characteristics, physical functioning, disease and care, oral health, and social factors [14]. Previous studies have identified additional potential risk factors of malnu- trition related to the above domains: advanced age, female and single/widowed/divorced [15, 16], low education level [17], poverty [17, 18], loss of appetite, food allergies and eating/swallowing/tasting difficulties, [12, 19, 20], cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption [21, 22], betel nut chewing [23], lack of interest, low mood, frequent negative thoughts, loneliness, depression, dementia and low cogni- tion [17, 24], physical inactivity [12], diseases [11], tooth loss and not wearing dentures [25] and social factors such as living alone [26].
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Determinants of Employment Situation in Large agglomerations in India: A Cross Sectional Study

Determinants of Employment Situation in Large agglomerations in India: A Cross Sectional Study

growth, education and labour force, finds that unemployment is decreasing over time, and employment in India is challenged by major factors like economic crisis, gap between curriculum and industry demand, and jobless growth. Most importantly, India Labour and Employment Report (IHD, 2014), states that while India is counted as one of the most important emerging economies of the world, its employment scenario is abysmal. Overall, labour-force to population ratio (age group 15 years and above) at 56 per cent is low in India compared to nearly 64 per cent for the rest of the world. In India, a large proportion of workers (i.e., 49 %) are engaged in agriculture; in contrast, employment share in service sector (or industry) is just 27 % (or 13 %). About 92 % of workers are engaged in informal employment with low earning with limited or no social protection. Papola and Sahu (2012), using NSS data for the period of 1993-94 to 2009-10, have provided a detailed explanation of the trends and patterns of employment across different sectors in India. The study argues that there is need for creation of new jobs and improvement of quality of the existing jobs in order to achieve faster economic growth.
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Cross sectional study of factors associated with home storage of medicines

Cross sectional study of factors associated with home storage of medicines

The household surveys are comparatively difficult to carry out. In the present study, there were six withdrawals; all of them were voluntarily withdrawn from the study. Most of the health informants were woman and it was difficult for male data collectors to enter a house in the absence of a male in the house, particularly in India. The same problem was addressed by Kumar et al.[15] In the present study, the mean family size was 4 and 80% of the households were do not have elderly person, indicating that most of the families were nuclear. The mean age of informant was 36-40 years suggesting middle aged family member takes an important role in healthrelated decisions in our study population. Similarly, gender wise there were more women as health informant, indicating that women play a vital role in health care of family. Most of the household informants had at least completed their primary education. Hence, it was considered that they can understand the purpose of study and their responsibility as participant in the present study. Similarly, most of the informants being housewives; they were unemployed and belonged to lower economic state. These findings were supported by several previous studies conducted across the world [2-3, 5, 8, 12, 14, 20]
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Anxiety and depression associated with vertigo: a cross sectional study from India

Anxiety and depression associated with vertigo: a cross sectional study from India

It would be important to understand possible psychological and cognitive mechanisms underlying the relationship between vertigo and psychological symptoms as this would help in communication between the treating doctor and patient. A complex interaction between psychosomatic (physical symptoms have a psychological origin) and somatopsychic (psychological symptoms are due to physical illness) factors result in a vicious cycle. 38 Symptoms of MD worsen the emotional state which in turn worsen the symptom perception and there is a continuous interaction between the psychological, somatic and environmental factors. It was shown that patients with MD had more daily stressors, used certain coping strategies less often, had more anxiety and depression and a worse quality of life compared to healthy reference groups. Patients with more severe symptoms had more psychopathology and a worse quality of life than patients with mild symptoms. While exploring the cognitions associated with anxiety in MD it was found anxiety to be associated with intolerance of uncertainty, fear-avoidance of physical activity, belief that dizziness would develop into a severe attack of vertigo, and several illness perception factors. 39
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