The primary purpose of the present study is to explore the level of informationliteracy among the farmers with regards to agriculture at the Jinddistrict of Haryana state in India. Survey method with accidental sampling is used, and data were collected from a total number of 52 farmers who lived in the two selected villages by using a self-structured questionnaire. The demographic profile shows male dominancy on agriculture, and the majority of the farmers found literate. Their primary source of income is agriculture (86.54%), and 84.62% of them own the land of fewer than four acres. Rice, wheat, sorghum, cotton, and pearl millet are main crops that the farmers grow in their fields. Agriculture, education, and health are the main areas on which all the farmers need information, and TV & newspapers are found as the primary sources of acquiring the required information. The low price of crop production (M=4.87), lack of electricity in rural areas (M=4.85), and low level of literacy (M=4.73) are significant problems the farmers faced in information searching. However, there is a need to make the farmers aware of the public library and their importance and use, and Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) and their utility.
problem of demand and supply of quality food particularly the availability of adequate fish. The fisheries in Tripura is facilitated by a network of institutes comprising of Department of Fisheries, Government of Tripura and its units at different districts of the state; Indian Council of Agricultural Research Complex for NEH Region, Tripura Centre; Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs); College of Fisheries, CAU (I); Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDAs); Self-Help Groups (SHGs); Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs); fish farmers and entrepreneurs. Scientists from different institutes have made efforts for the development of new farm innovations and technologies. However, there is a wide gap between what could be achieved and what is being achieved by these fish farmers. Meena et al. (2014) in her study also found that knowledge, education, mass media exposure and land holding were very imperative variables for minimizing adoption gap. Thus, the technology dissemination system must be geared up to organize campaigns, field days, demonstrations, exhibitions, kisan gosthi, kisan mela, discussions with farmers, etc. so that farmers could acquire latest knowledge, that can lead to reduction in adoption gap in relation to feeding practices of dairy animals. There has been information explosion around the globe and our fish farmers have to keep pace with the latest development which creates a situation wherein fish farmers are unable to understand and cope up with the vast amount of information available. There is a huge gap between those who use ideas and those who produce them; a good technique of information management will certainly mitigate this problem. The information management behaviour has been conceptualized as a composite measure of information seeking, evaluation and preservation behaviour of the individual fish farmer. Thus, present study was conducted to study the information management behaviour of the fish farmers in West Tripura.
Technological change has been the major driving force for increasing agricultural productivity and promoting agriculture development. Dissemination of information related to technology is important. In general, tribal farmers have conservative attitudes and need more time and information to be persuaded to adopt new technologies. In the study area low literacy rate of the tribal farmers was the major hurdle in the adoption of new agricultural technology. Majority of the tribal farmers were small landholders, which was one of the major obstacles towards the adoption of agricultural technology. As tribal farmers are getting agriculture information extension staff is very meager, which indicated its effective role in the study area. It is therefore important that the government provides reliable and site-specific data. Agricultural research and extension services could concentrate, on improving the productivity of tribal farms. Rural financial systems are required to facilitate tribal farmers’ borrowing for investment, input purchase and insurance purposes. The Government should take steps to raise literacy rate in the study area. Small agricultural training centres should be opened in the areas to train the tribal farmers with new agriculture technology.
Before going into depth, we would like to know what is ‘informationliteracy’ and who are ‘information literates’. ‘Informationliteracy’ is “the ability to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively the needed information” [http://en.wikipedia.org]. Informationliteracy embraces related concepts like ‘user education’, ‘library instruction’, ‘bibliographic instruction’ and ‘library research’, although ‘informationliteracy’ has broader perspectives and wider applications than these concepts.
profit efficiency is relatively high, but there is a significant variation between efficiency and inefficiency indexes among farms. The average inefficiency for both areas is about 16%; about 10% in Hmawbi and about 22% in Waw townships. Farmers who have higher income from secondary crop tend to lower profit efficiency. The higher educational level of farmers reduces the profit inefficiency. Farmers who have higher schooling year have more allocative ability in relation to perceiving and responding to the changes in the market prices and market behavior. Furthermore, the marginal value of an additional year of the household head‟ education in rice production is 23450 Kyats per farm in one rice production season. Mellor (1976) argued that investment education in rural areas should be considered as a central ingredient in a strategy designed to improve agricultural productivity when technology is dynamic. The finding in the study agrees with Mellor‟s argument.
India, 2001 and District Statistical Magazine, 2009-10.
Despite encouraging leaps in literacy and current school attendance over the 1990s, the situation at the start of the twenty first century leaves much to be desired. It is clear that a lot remains to be done to achieve universal elementary education. The central government’s new emphasis on elementary education under its Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan initiative the promise of continuation of the enabling conditions of the 1990s give grounds for optimism in the medium term. However, even if progress towards universal elementary education is rapidly achieved, education of a decent quality for all will remain a challenging goal. In particular, developments such as the increasing employment of para-teachers in small or marginal communities and the rapid growth of private education give rise to concerns about ‘hierarchies of access’, with those who are poorer and subject to discrimination being frequently left with the lower quality options in primary schooling. The achievement of better education for all will require still greater social action and public commitment than has been given to education so far.
You should not worry that talking about disasters will make children fearful. On the contrary, children are usually more frightened by what is whispered or not mentioned aloud than by matter-of-fact discussion. Let children speak freely about what scares or puzzles them - for example, "What will happen to my puppy if we have to evacuate?" "If there's a flood and I'm at school, I won't be able to find you." Try to answer questions and address concerns with concrete, easy-to-follow information. When helping children learn how to prepare for, respond safely during, and recover from a disaster, it is important to adapt your discussions, instructions, and practice drills to their skills and abilities. Be aware that young children can easily confuse messages such as "drop, cover, and hold on" (response during an earthquake) and "stop, drop, and roll" (response if your clothes catch on fire). Tell children that a disaster is something that happens that could hurt people, cause damage, or cut off utilities, such as water, telephones, or electricity. Explain to them that nature sometimes provides "too much of a good thing" - fire, rain, wind, snow. Talk about typical effects of disasters that children can relate to, such as loss of electricity, water, and telephone service.
mathematics learning should facilitate and develop students’ ability to “identify sources of data, access data, critically evaluate it, and then use it to explore significant questions about our world” (p. 5).
A number of studies suggest how classroom activities could facilitate the development of informationliteracy. According to OECD (Ananiadou & Claro, 2009), problem solving can develop informationliteracy because it mostly involves defining, seeking, evaluating, selecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting information. P21 (2011) points out that informationliteracy is in line with mathematical practices that involves constructing arguments and critique the reasoning of others and looking for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. A kind of mathematics problems that fit the suggestion of OECD and P21 regarding informationliteracy is context-based mathematics tasks or also referred as ‘word problems’ (see, e.g. Verschaffel, Greer, & De Corte, 2000; Verschaffel, Van Dooren, Greer, & Mukhopadhyay, 2010), or ‘modeling tasks’ (see, e.g. Blum, 2011; Maass, 2006). Such problems require students to understand the real problem and to set up a model based on reality for which a set of competencies are needed. These competencies include the ability to recognize quantities referred by or included in the situation and to look for available information and to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant information (Maass, 2006), which are clearly characteristics of informationliteracy. Interestingly, such competencies are also characteristics of mathematical literacy (see OECD, 2003). It indicates how informationliteracy and mathematical literacy have common characteristics. Considering a commonality between these two literacy, the present study was aimed to investigate (Indonesian) students’ informationliteracy from the perspective of mathematical literacy.
vital in agricultural development of any community and if they are poorly disseminated that community’s agricultural development becomes highly impeded. This study looks at providing information, knowledge and expert support through ICT-based information dissemination services easily and faster to farmers with the hope of improving their income and economic situation through better practices e.g. in dealing with natural disasters, pests, trading, making market decisions and with raised awareness of government support and favorable policies. This paper reviews current information service systems, with three information dissemination models identified and demonstrated with case studies.
We asked participants directly about privacy. Many were aware of data privacy issues, but some felt since the tools were free, the use of their data was a fair exchange. In this case they usually felt that the data they shared was not personal, perhaps not aware of the risks posed by the joining up of data from different sources. They seemed more preoccupied with the privacy of the data between them and their acquaintances, than some seemingly remote service provider. Another had concerns, but seemed resigned to it being unavoidable; she thought it was impo . One had experienced data loss, when they had tried to retrieve historic data from an app they had used in the past, it was found to be inaccessible. No one else mentioned any concern around long term access to their data.
religious variability in India. The cause-effect relationship shows a +ve as well as –ve correlation among the various quantitative and qualitative variables, as studies by various authors and scholars, belong to different academic and professional streams. On the basis of various inter-censual and demographic reports of different successive periods indicate a considerable anomalies as reported by numerous of government and non-government organizations. Since independence, various National Education policies and literacy promoting programmes have been formulated and executed from time to time, but the varied anomalies are still exist among the people, belong to different religions, sexes, castes and the minor- religious groups. It is because of prevailing social flaws and prejudices against the women‟s education which has given rise to develop anomalies in literacy rates among the women, particularly in the rural and tribal areas. It is therefore, it becomes imperative to suggest some of recommendations which may be proved conducive to ameliorate the „Literacyperspective‟ in accordance with changing scenario. The policy formulation on literacy, should be in accordance with prevailing conditions at grass root level, so that the probability of the responsiveness of the literacy promoting programme may get total quality management position in rural as well as urban areas of the country.
It is hard to imagine that the people that provide food, and work the lands, are not the first ones we think about when discussing climate change issues. Small farmers around the world have been living on their lands for generations, and are now experiencing the negative consequences of other people’s progress and development. It is due time that rural communities are listened to and empowered to the extent that they are able to cope with the hardships they are facing every day. One of the most important lessons for me has been how urgent the issues at hand actually are. Not only farmers, but rural development (and more importantly empowerment) in general is not on the agenda. Zooming in on the study at hand, it would be interesting to study the gender role more thoroughly, especially in a country as India where the gender roles are very inflexible and women are often deprived of basic rights. Talking about risk management is per definition also talking about rights and access to land and resources. One of the things that worry me in the case of crop insurances is that commercial companies, that have no connection to the community they are selling a product to, are solely there to make a profit. This would not be a big problem if the contract reflects a symmetric power relationship. However, a large number of farmers never had any type of insurance before and therefore do not fully grasp the product they are buying. In a country where the government (on several levels) is not always as effective as would be ideal, lack of regulation (or implementation of regulations) could lead to insurance companies taking money out of communities that would much rather be invested in strengthening communities. In this, working together with local organisations of course helps. And although the structure DHAN Foundation implemented is very promising, it is questionable whether it would be even possible to scale up such a structure. Strong local organisations are essential to further the development of community insurance. DHAN already had a structure in place, and it seems that cooperatives and self-help groups can not only be useful for farmers to function as a safety net, but might in the future also help farmers to become more productive.
(3) The risk premium reflects the group risk assumed by the insurer; an indemnity is liable to be paid to the individual farmer when a loss is incurred due to causes beyond his control, as long as he maintains the insurance contract valid by paying the premium without default.
ACKNOWLEDGEMNENT: We acknowledge with gratitude the able guidance, meticulous care, and constructive criticisms of Dr K. Narayanan Nair, Programme Co-ordinator, KRPLLD. The financial assistance to the project from KRPLLD is also acknowledged. We are indebted to the Office of the Joint Director of Agriculture, Wayanad district and Directorate of Agriculture for their kind co-operation and support during the work. The study would have remained incomplete without the help of the staff of the Krishi Bhavans of Padinharethara, Ambalavayal, and Panamaram panchayats. We thank them for their help at all stages of our field investigation. Our sincere thanks also to the farmers of the study area, who whole-heartedly co-operated in our study.
5.7 Validity and Transferability
The validity describes the accuracy in the research made (Bernard, 2011). To reach high validity means that there is a good correspondence between the theoretical definitions and the operational definition, that what is meant to be measured in theory actually is being measured in the empirical research (Esaiasson et al., 2012). First to have in mind is the validity of instruments and data. Have we asked the right questions? The validity of the data is bound to the validity of the instruments (Bernard, 2011). During every interview we conducted, the questions shifted a little depending on the answers and the more knowledge we got about the culture in the villages we became better in grasping what was important when finding the answers to our questions. Although two months is not enough in a different culture it was plenty of time for us to learn about whom we interviewed, how to interview and how to ask questions relating to our subjects. We also felt that the focus group interviews gave us a good starting point before going out to get deeper into the livelihood strategies of female farmers. We also went back in our recordings and listened again if we suspected there had been a misunderstanding. The validity of the findings concerns whether the conclusions made from the data are valid (Bernard, 2011). Have we drawn the right conclusions? Directly after every interview we discussed what had come up during that interview with our interpreter. She was a great help in telling us things that we might not have noticed. When transcribing the data the process of understanding what our empirical data actually told us started. We base our conclusions with support from our theoretical framework and with the context of previous research findings in mind.
Low agricultural productivity remains one of the main factors influencing poverty and food insecurity among smallholder farmers in many developing countries. Among the key interventions assumed to influence agricultural productivity of smallholders is the provision of agricultural extension services to farmers. Access to agricultural extension however remains low in most developing countries thus slowing down agricultural productivity growth. This study therefore sought to determine the labor productivity effects of agricultural extension in northern Ghana using data from a cross-section of 300 smallholder farm households. The results of a binary probit model indicated that participation in agricultural extension increased with farming experience, farm size, access to irrigation and group membership but decreased with years of formal education and household size. Regression estimates of a labor productivity model revealed a positive and statistically significant relationship between agricultural extension and labor productivity. Also, labor productivity increased with farming experience, household income, access to irrigation, degree of specialization in production and the level of conventional inputs used per man-day of labor but decreased with participation in off-farm work. The authors recommend an increase in agricultural extension coverage to ensure that more farmers are reached with information on modern technologies to enhance their labor productivity. Furthermore, farmers need access to inputs such as seed and fertilizer to improve the productivity of labor.
Stratified sampling was followed in the collection of data. The sample was divided into two strata. The first strata consisted of females engaged in agricultural operations in their own fields and the second strata are females engaged in agricultural operations, not in their own field but working as agricultural labourers. The sample for the study has been taken from both the strata. Primary data for the study was collected with a structured questionnaire and through personal interview with the respondents. Secondary data was collected from various Central and State Government publications and Census of India Report. The paper is divided into V sections. Section II gives an outline of the studies already completed on woman’s increasing role in agriculture. Section III gives a socio-economic profile of the sample. Section IV gives a disintegrated picture of the total household income derived from agricultural and non-agricultural sources. Section V summarizes the findings and the policy implications of the study.
Reducing knowledge gaps and sharing agricultural marketing information to farmer is an essential input for increasing productivity and boosting agricultural growth in rural areas. An attempt has been made to identify the various pattern of awareness, sources, utilization and its benefits, constraint and expectations of agricultural marketing information (AMI) among different categories of farmers in the study area of two regulated markets namely, Mawiong Regulated Market in Mylliem Block of East Khasi Hills and Garobadha Regulated Market in Selsella Block of West Garo Hills district. The sample size consisted of 120 farmers from both selected regulated market areas were selected for the study based on purposive and random sampling technique. From the findings of the research study, it was revealed that that in case of large category of sample farmers, the extent of awareness on arrivals, prices in local markets and other markets, quality / grade of produce required, post harvest handling of agricultural produce was found to be higher than small and medium size farmers. The extent of utilization of agricultural market information by different categories of sample farmers were in decision making on production, selling and post harvest handling. It was observed that the sources of agricultural market information at household level were radio, newspaper and television for small farmers. At the market level, commission agents were most predominant sources of AMI for all categories of farmers. It revealed that the market information on prices prevailed in other nearby market placed high expectations among all the categories of farmers followed by future price projections and quality wise price information. Proper integration of various agencies for adequate and efficient dissemination of vital agricultural marketing information, so that it will act as an ‘one stop solution’ for the needs of the farming community in hilly regions of Meghalaya. There is need of proper dissemination of market intelligence and information through all possible means of communication for improving the marketing efficiency.
is optimal for them not to do so. Given this, it is perhaps not so surprising that better price information did not translate into higher farmer prices. 20
If the above interpretation is correct, it has a number of implications for the external validity of our …ndings. Price information could help if spatial arbitrage across agricultural markets does not hold, e.g., because markets are disorganized, segmented, or too thin to attract a steady ‡ow of buyers – or because sellers have a comparative advantage in transport, as in Jensen (2007). Even in such a case, however, price information is likely to be used …rst by traders, as documented for instance by Aker (2008). Price information could also help farmers who sell at the farm- gate, such as the co¤ee growers studied by Fafchamps and Hill (2008). A stronger e¤ect on crop quality may be obtained if price information is detailed by variety and grade, and farmers are provided with complementary information on how to produce high price varieties and grades. These suggestions should help steer policy intervention towards regions and markets where the e¤ect of price information may be bene…cial, and avoid wasting resources on markets where it is unlikely to matter.
As seen in the diagram above, the financial component has the largest contribution to the vulnerability of the community with a value of 0.772. Having adequate financial backups is helpful to overcome external risks and shocks. Thus, we can say that this high level in the financial sector will be affecting negatively the rest of the components, because without a stable economy and economic resources, and depending exclusively on agriculture as the only source of income, it is very difficult to cope with climate change impacts. Additionally, the lack of resources reduces the possibility to apply mitigation strategies. One of the reasons that explain the financial component having such an effect on vulnerability is that in 66% of the households in the sample reported to have more expenses than income in a year. Most of the households in the sample (exactly the 95%) reported having resort to money loans in recent years; and a few of them have even had to resort to agriculture, land or house loans. Nevertheless, other factors, such as the recent lack of rain and water stress, the reduction in market prices, and investment risk, might also cause that 71,5% of the households are unable to repay any of their money loans. Consequently, 65% of the interviewed households reported that they can only pay the interest loan, while 17% of the households reported that they could not pay anything at all, mostly due to crop failures. Another factor contributing to financial vulnerability is that 76% of the households fully depend on farming as a source of income, a condition that severely limits the family income in the case of a bad harvest year, lower market prices, higher competition between farmers, or crop loss affected by weather conditions. Under such circumstances, household economies have numerous
The study establishes relationship between the water fluoride level in drinking water and prevalence of dental fluorosis and revals that though the prevalence is low but dental fluorosis is public health problem in rural area of JindDistrict, Haryana. The prevalence varied between 18.44%-23.74% high fluoride level villages and 7.27%- 14.63% prevalence in low/normal fluoride level villages. Fluoride was found nearly higher than that of recommended upper limit by WHO and ICMR in some villages. Low cause awareness, poor knowledge about appropriate preventive measures and poor access to safe drinking water could be some factor implicated for this. Thus in this region, there is an instant need to warn the people against the risk of dental fluorosis, and people are advised to adopt some techniques of defluoridation of groundwater before using it for drinking purpose.