According to Corrin, Kosovo’s femaledropout rates are very high and present an issue for Kosovo education system. In addition to that the report are identified the main factors that explain the femaleschooldropout in Kosovo which according to this repot were: 1) Security: fear of being physically attacked or raped; 2) Poverty: boys are chosen above girls who are useful to work at home or on land; 3) Unwillingness: often girls did not want to go because of a lack of encouragement at home and school; 4) Age: reflecting the fear that girls in their latter teens will be too old to find marriage partners." 10 Despite the fact that this report was written in 2000, the reasons which have been stipulated to explain the femaleschooldropout can be seen as quite relevant for today, as well, because the reasons given, mainly involve cultural aspects; regardless the fact that the culture is known to be dynamic, it is recognized that a great cultural shift cannot happen within thirteen years. Another report which has identified that there are retentionschooldifferences among the genders in Kosovo is the Human Development Report Kosovo. In this report, are identified two main factors to explain the femaleretention rate: 1) ethnicity and 2) geographical location. According to this report “[N]on -Albanian and non-Serb girls are far more likely to drop out of school than girls
It is apparent from the data analysis results on genderdifferences in mathematics students’ counselling needs that girls face more challenges than boys in the mathematics study and achievement. These findings concur with Steinberg (2007) consenting that girls come to see mathematics as part of the masculine role and develop negative attitudes towards the subject. As a result, the girls have few role models of successful mathematicians as reflected by the higher percentage of male than female heads of mathematics departments in the secondary schools. Consequently, girls are less likely to aspire to enter the mathematics oriented fields like engineering or major in advanced mathematics at the college level of education. Thus, school counsellors can intervene and break this vicious cycle of associating mathematics with masculinity by influencing an appropriate belief system among the girls.
taught by female teachers. male students tend to give male teachers higher ratings, while femalestudents favour female teachers. in other words, when a teacher-studentsgender interaction with respect to student rating of teachers is present, it most often appears to reflect a same-gender preference; i.e. supporting the gender-stereotypic model. unfortunately detailed information about the age of the students in the different studies is lacking. concerning the effects of teacher gender on students’ mathematics achievement, it seems that no typical pattern can be drawn from the literature since the research findings are inconsistent. li (ibid.) argue that some of the conflicting findings may be due to cultural differences rather than genderdifferences. correlation between teacher gender and genderdifferences in students’ math achievement were mostly observed in areas other than Western countries. Genderdifferences in teacher–student interaction in mathematics classrooms have also been investigated. li’s review shows that teacher–male student interactions are more frequent than teacher–female student interactions. the gender of the teacher does not seem to affect that teachers (both male and female) tend to interact more often with male students. however, one important teacher gender distinction is that female teachers tend to be more student-centred and supportive of students than male teachers. female teachers also appear to use class discussion more frequently and encourage collaboration. li conclude that the relationship between genderdifferences in teachers’ beliefs and genderdifferences in their classroom instructions in mathematics need to be explored.
about the future (Miller, Kemmelmeier, & Dupey, 2013), and medical students’ professional aspirations (Bradford, Anthony, Chu, & Pizzo, 1996; Kaplan et al. 1996; Kruijthof, Leeuwen, Ventevogel, Horst, & Staveren, 1992; Salgueira, Costa, Gonçalves, Magalhães, & Costa, 2012). On the basis of studies indicating genderdifferences in various aspects of medical practice, it was anticipated that important differences in the manner in which male and female medical students relate to feelings of calling during their medical training may be revealed. Two possible explanations are offered here for this presumption. First, the various genderdifferences found at later stages of medical practice may be indicative of basic genderdifferences in the meaning and importance attributed by men and women to the medical vocation. These differences are likely to be reflected in calling as well. A second explanation is based on the assumption that as medical students approach the end of their basic medical training and stand at the threshold of their medical practice, genderdifferences in medical practice become more salient and are likely to have an effect on their perceptions of calling. Therefore differences in the sense of calling towards the final year of medical school compared to the first year are to be expected and on the assumption that women face more challenges regarding medical practice such as gender bias as well as difficulties in integrating work and family, such changes would be more substantial for women than for men.
Compared with male students, the femalestudents in this study played computer games about 25 min per day, signiﬁcantly less than the time spent by male students. Females were found to be less motivated than males to play computer games, and motivated by diﬀerent reasons altogether, especially in entertainment, seeking infor- mation, and as social device dimensions. When females try to escape from routines and people, to escape from loneliness, or to ﬁll time, they are equally as motivated as male students to play computer games. The most frequent game types female stu- dents play include puzzles, action, and role-playing; the least popular type of game played is sports. Femalestudents obviously gain some enjoyment from playing; how- ever, compared with males, they experience equal enjoyment in escape and emotional release, but less from excitement and fantasy, and sharing enjoyment. In general, if females are more motivated to play computer games, they will experience more enjoy- ment while playing. Femalestudents rated the impacts on their studies from playing computer games more positively than did males; this was also true in the areas of rela- tionships with parents and teachers. Females considered game playing positively inﬂuenced their relationships with friends, but not as positively as did male students. In conclusion, this study was motivated by the tremendous increase in popularity of computer games among adolescents. In fact, playing computer games has become the primary leisure activity for many adolescents and, as such, is considered by researchers a phenomenon requiring study within various cultural contexts. This study has attempted to explore gender diﬀerences in computer game playing time, motivation, enjoyment, impacts, and types. It is hoped that this empirical study will add to the growing body of knowledge that informs our understanding of who, what, why, and how adolescents play computer games.
Only a few of the researchers at either the college or high school level have looked at genderdifferences in LMS behaviors, but those who have suggest that there may be differences in how male and femalestudents approach their online courses (Hung, Hsu, & Rice, 2012; Johnson, 2011; McSporran & Young, 2001; Rovai, 2001; Yukselturk & Bulut, 2009). For example, McSporran and Young (2001), analyzing data from a college-level web design course, found that women showed consistently higher levels of activity than males in their online classes, completed more assignments, seemed to be better at self-regulation, and performed better. Similarly, Hung, Hsu, and Rice (2012) also found that females performed better and were more active than males. Johnson (2011), analyzing data from a large information systems course, found that the higher levels of interaction and general sociability among females was an advantage in online courses that was likely to lead to better outcomes for females than males. Tsai, Liang, Hou, and Tsai (2015), comparing online and face-to-face discussions, found that while male and female discussion strategies were similar in face-to-face situations, females had better elaboration skills than males in the online discussions. Our own research (Lowes et al., 2015) found that females were overall more active than males—they logged in more frequently, spent more time when logged in, viewed more discussion forum posts, and did more discussion forum posting. However, all five behaviors explained a larger proportion of the variance in the final grades for males than for females. In addition, interactivity behaviors had a statistically significant relationship with final grades for males only. The lack of a correlation between interactivity, in this case measured by posts viewed and posts written, and higher final grades for females suggested that this interactivity was for some reason not rewarded by better grades.
that, in some countries, girls excel in Biology. Male students demonstrate a higher profi ciency in mathematical aspect of science than femalestudents (Pervin, 1978). The evidence reported so far shows that males appear to do better than females in mathematics and science; however, recent studies have challenged this trend by showing that this gap has declined (Barker, 1997; Hyde, Fennema, & Lamon, 1990; Knodel, 1997). And some other studies have shown no gender sex differences in mathematics and science achievement. Bronholt, Goodnow, and Convey (1994) reported no signifi cant differences between male and female high schoolstudents in mathematics achievement. The studies of Olajide (1982) showed no gender sex difference in students’ performance in Biology tests while Ogunboyede (1996) also reported that there was no gender sex difference in Agricultural Science achievement tests. Research efforts by Leahey and Guo (2001), and Ericikan, McCreikth, and Lapointe (2005) also indicated that there was no signifi cant difference in achievement between boys and girls in mathematics. Subsequent studies on gender sex differences in mathematics also confi rmed that there were no signifi cant differences when considering gender (Abe, 2004; Lynn & Jaan, 2008). The National Assessment of Educational Progress (1997) reported that 4th Grade males’ average scores in mathematics were higher than scores of 4th Grade females; however, scores for 8th and 12th Grade males and females did not show any signifi cant differences.
From the recharging of gender, the data obtained is masculine type, which man whose nature is above average and his female traits are below average. The analysis gained from written and interview tests, masculine type, elementary students have three indicators of creativity, that is the fluency, flexibility and novelty of working on the story and open multiplication problem.
Another factor in schoolretention related to academic achievement was personal aspiration. Girls in school generally enjoyed education and valued it as a way to achieve their personal goals and dreams. In other words, they were intrinsically motivated to continue their education. On the other hand, girls out of school generally lacked intrinsic motivation and tended to view their education narrowly in terms of how it could benefit their families (‘it will benefit my [future] children’). Also playing a role in student motivation were girls’ expectations in relation to the outcomes of their education. When asked what they wanted to do in the future, virtually all girls (in school and out) said they wanted to be teachers, doctors or engineers. While being a teacher was a reasonable goal for many girls, the high academic achievements required to enter the fields of medicine or engineering meant that these goals were unrealistic and unattainable for most students. With their limited knowledge of other potential careers open to them, many girls who were not high achieving academically simply gave up hope that their education would one day help them to participate in the labour market.
This study aims to verify whether depression moderates the relationship between grade retention and schooldropout after taking into account known risk factors of schooldropout (i.e. academic competence, educational tracking, school rebellious- ness, etc.). As such, we expected depression to predict schooldropout not only in itself, but by interacting with grade reten- tion. We hypothesized that depression in the seventh grade con- stitutes a vulnerability factor of dropout partly by aggravating the risk associated with earlier grade retention. Accounting for genderdifferences in depression, we also proposed an interac- tion between gender and depression considering boys greater emotional responsiveness to school-related problems (Rudolph, 2004) and girls higher sensitivity to interpersonal issues (Sund, Larsson, & Wichstrom, 2003). Further, an interaction between grade retention and gender was anticipated as studies have shown that being held behind is more frequent among boys (Byrd & Weitzman, 1994; Frey, 2005; Guèvremont, Roos, & Brownell, 2007; McCoy & Reynolds, 1999). Finally, we pro- posed a three-way interaction involving gender, grade retention and depression.
In another study, Ruffing, Wach, Spinath, Brunken, and Karback (2015), investigated genderdifferences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement in German. Using a correlational research design and a sample of 461 students, results revealed that, general cognitive as well as the learning strategies, effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Male students more often relied on relationships and critical evaluation, whereas femalestudents used all remaining strategies more often. This study utilized a correlational research design while the current study utilized explanatory sequential mixed method design in order to get an in-depth understanding of the study results. Similarly, Simsek and Balaban (2010) examined learning strategies use at Anadolu University in Turkey. One of the objectives of the study sought to establish if there were significant genderdifferences in learning strategies use of undergraduate students. An independent samples t-test was conducted and results revealed that, female participants were more effective in selection and use of appropriate learning strategies. These findings were consistent with those by Ghiasvand (2010) on the relationship between learning strategies and academic achievement of high schoolstudents in Iran. The study sought to compare learning strategies use between under achieving students and upper achieving students. The study utilized a correlational research design and a sample of 501 students from grade 1 to 3 in Qazvin Province. Data was collected using Learning and Study Strategies Inventory. An independent samples t-test revealed that, upper achievers used more learning strategies than lower achievers. More specifically, girls used more learning strategies than boys. These studies involved Asian undergraduate students and primary children respectively. The current study involved public secondary schoolstudents to find out if there were genderdifferences in learning strategies use.
research, a number of studies have produced similar findings which are drawn upon here. There are some studies which look specifically at the relationships between schooling dropout and child labor specifically, and how child labor might contribute to both the process of dropping out and in some cases to enabling retention. Drawing on some points about access and child labor in general, some points will be raised. Differences exist in terms of whether work is paid or unpaid; income generating in some way; or part of what might be regarded as household chores or support. It is important to note the difficulties in trying to pinpoint casual determinants around such complex and household-specific decisions and attributes, particularly where factors interact with each other.
in adulthood suffer a great deal because adolescents gain more educational experience in adolescence, are better able to cope with the challenges of adulthood (Seadatee Shamir, Mazboohi, MARZI. 2019). Based on the findings of the present study, the following suggestions are offered: 1-Improving students' attitudes toward education and feeling the need to reinforce their academic motivation.2-Identifying students with behavioral problems and paying special attention to them and helping them to adapt to the school environment.3-Correcting students' negative attitudes toward their abilities by realizing their abilities and talents in other areas and creating a positive image of themselves.4-Extend parent education and familiarity with appropriate educational patterns and development of indigenous and cultural literacy.5-Forming school trustees and engaging parents and local community in educational matters.6-Establishing a link between the content of textbooks and the daily needs of students and their application.7-Assigning gender to the workforce and employing experienced forces.8-Due to the problems of students with learning disabilities, neglect of assignments, academic failure and cheating in lessons.9-No punishment, humiliation and insult to students and avoid commanding and forcing discipline in the classroom.10-Providing suitable educational spaces, as well as equipping the school facilities in terms of safety, educational materials and hygiene.11- Improvement of information and communication technologies to make teleconferencing feasible.12- Considering the need for poverty alleviation through economic development programs and payment of scholarships to poor families. The most important limitations of the present study were the lack of useful library information resources in North Khorasan province, inadequate access to education statistics in the province, the high extent and distribution of the area, the high travel costs and the lack of access Easy to test subjects.
Clandfield and Martell (2014) indicate that the one’s entire social environment, including schools, media, and communities, imposes narrowed definitions of gender on both boys and girls. The socialized rules for girls are to do what they are told by teachers, to be nice, and to be responsible to family life. That contains two parts in the stereotypes for girls: one circles several specific criteria for what girls’ ‘appropriate’ behaviors are, and the other emphases the importance of family roles for women. There is also a distorted but widespread interpretation of the theory: ‘different brains’ among boys and girls. It has been accepted that because of their different brain designs, male students have instinctive abilities in STEM fields and female excel in the social sciences. This kind of interpretation reinforced socialized gender norms. However, there are few differences in “basic cognitive, emotional and self-regulatory abilities” between males’ and females’ brains in their early age, specifically the primary and secondary school years (Eliot, 2011, p. 364).
“The global task approach, which consists in entrusting a group of students to a team of teachers who then become responsible for all aspects of each student’s program of study, has been applied in two classes with individualized paths in the Beauce region. Research has shown that, within the global task framework, the students’ stress, worries and rates of absenteeism drop significantly, while their behaviour and attitudes improve. Moreover, this situation creates a sense of belonging in students, acceptance of their peers and a better understanding of the subject. The teachers, for their part, noted that this approach gave them more freedom and flexibility, which made their teaching less routine and more effective.” 74
Abstract: A student drops out of school is a process, this process does not happen overnight, the dropping process start much prior to a child is admitted to school, also there appears major reasons for a student dropping out of school. Parent engagement, Academic performance, Family economic status, Delinquency, Lack of interest, Working in family shops, Supporting family, Constant failure, Serve bullying, Too much of academic pressure, Grabbing hold of other opportunities, Unable to fit in, are the reasons for dropout.
Over the last three decades, public debate in most industrialized countries has seen a growing concern in the education, school-to-work-transition and social integration of low-skilled young adults. The institutional pathways and typical points of failure as well as the diagnosis in terms of dropout and unemployment rates differ across countries. But the common trend has been that a majority of countries has observed a relative deterioration of the youth labour market compared to the one for prime age workers and an increased duration of youth unemployment. Moreover, the long-term consequences of lacking general and vocational education have become more severe in terms of lower relative wages or higher unemployment risk (Ryan; 2001, Quintini et al.; 2007). Germany and other countries with a dual system combining class-based and work-based training for young adults have long been relatively successful in limiting the problem of youth unemployment. But, as our data document, a considerable share of around ten percent of young adults drops out of this system. The long-term consequences of this failed integration have sharpened. In parallel to the successful dual system, Germany’s strong industrial sector traditionally offered employment and on-the-job training for school leavers without a vocational degree. Looking at the evolution of unemployment rates between 1970 and 2005, it becomes evident that the employment perspectives of those who have not completed the dual system have deteriorated markedly. Since the 1970s, the gap between the unemployment rate for the whole population and for those without vocational degree has risen from 2 to 15 percentage points. Most of the drift occurred after German reunification (see Figure 1). Reasons for educational dropout and its increasingly severe consequences can be sought on the supply and the demand side of the labour market for low- and medium-skilled workers caused e.g. by globalisation and skill biased technical change. In this paper we focus on the supply side considering individual skills, family background and previous educational achievements as determinants of educational dropout.
Despite years of research into negative rape victim perception, these judgements continue to pervade individual judgements about rape (Anderson, 2007). Negative attitudes toward rape victims include beliefs that “denigrate victims, trivialize victims’ experiences, highlight victims’ deservingness or undermine victims’ credibility” (Ward, 1995: 202), for example, in relation to the rape of women, the endorsement of items such as “A raped woman is a less desirable woman” or “Women who have had prior sexual relationships should not complain about rape” (Ward, 1988: 134). Research has found many factors that contribute to these judgements. One of the most frequently replicated findings is that men exhibit more punitive attitudes toward female rape victims than women (Pollard, 1992; Jiminez & Abreu, 2003; Joohee, Pomeory, Seo-Koo, Y. &
Health care providers including pediatricians, school nurses, and athletic trainers all can play an important role in AS intervention strategies, but the responsibility also should be shared by teachers, coaches, youth sport administrators, and fitness in- structors. Although many AS users may participate in sports that are school-based, some AS users also may belong to fitness centers (eg, local gyms) or sport centers (eg, gymnastics clubs). AS interven- tions may need to be extended to public and private centers where children exercise. Data from our study suggest that the weight room may be a good place to educate middle schoolstudents about AS, because a high percentage of both male and female AS users appear to participate in weight training, which now is recognized as an important component of youth fitness programs. 38