To optimize several responses or quality characteris- tics simultaneously, many researchers have tried to com- bine the Taguchi methods with other methods [14,15]. Through the Grey relational analysis, a Grey relational grade is obtained to evaluate the multiple performance characteristics. As a result, optimization of the compli- cated multiple performance characteristics can be con- verted into optimization of a single Grey relational grade. Lin  has shown optimal cutting parameters can then be determined by the Taguchi methods using the Grey relational grade as the performance index. The cutting parameters, the tool life, the cutting force, and the sur- face roughness are important characteristics in turning. Lin et al.  used reliability analysis, the Taguchi and the Grey methods in this paper. The speed and the load are optimized polishing parameters when the perform- ance characteristics, which include Weibull modulus and the removal rate, are taken into consideration.
Fiberglass reinforced concrete (FGRC) is used form any structural elements due to its high mechanical properties, particularly flexural strength. As the concrete crack forming process accelerates and the probability of sudden fractures increases. There were various methods to eliminate this weakness of concrete. One of most common methods was employed of randomly distributed fiber. In this paper, two types of isolated footings were utilized, square and rectangular shape reinforced by a fiberglass with a length of 18 mm and having a rate of (0.20, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.50 and 1.00%) of weight, to experimentally investigate the tensile and fatigue properties of footings The results of FGRC were compared with the reinforced steel concrete. The results revealed that FGRC has a positive effect on the tensile and fatigue properties of isolated footing, especially with higher percentage of used fiberglass.
The extraction of the common fiber from the plant required certain consideration to maintain a strategic distance from harm. In the present tests, at first the banana plant areas were cut from the primary stem of the plant and after that moved delicately to expel the abundance dampness. Contaminations in the rolled strands, for example, colors, Broken fiber, covering of cellulose and so on were evacuated physically by methods of a brush, and after that the fiber were cleaned and dried. This mechanical and manual extraction of banana filaments was monotonous, tedious, and made harm the fiber. Thus, this sort of strategy can't be suggested for mechanical application. This was trailed by cleaning and drying of the fiber in a chamber at 20˚C for three hours. The fiber were then named and prepared for cover process. The mechanical properties of these filaments were additionally tried and observed to be extraordinarily affected by the state of the fiber, regardless of whether the fiber was new or dried, and upon the some portion of the plant from which the fiber had been evacuated.
In this study, two types of glassfiber filter paper prepared from six different dispersing methods were studied. Rotational viscosity was used to characterize the dispersion process. The impact of dispersion on filtration and tensile properties was analyzed. The rotational viscosity was a good indicator of fiber dispersion. Dispersing strength and time had no significant effect on pressure drop, penetration and figure of merit of glassfiber paper. Fiber composition should be the determining factor of filtration properties. Dispersing strength and time had little effect on the virgin tensile strength of glassfiber paper, while the tensile strength retention after folding was highly affected by dispersion. Lower viscosity as a result of fiber cutting through increased dispersing force or longer dispersion time can lead to lower tensile strength retention. It is suggested that fiber cutting should be reduced during the fiber dispersion process for higher tensile strength retention.
Abstract – All over the world the use of fibre reinforced sheet,wraps and laminates in the strengthening of beams and other concrete members is now used widely in many engineering projects.The use of FRP (FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER) is good method to strengthen and repair the structure that have become delicate over their life.FRP provide economically feasible option to previously used methods of repairs.
The construction of walls to enclose buildings is being carried out today, with few exceptions, almost the same way as it was done two hundred years ago. Although new construction methods, new products and new look finishes have not been as readily accepted by designers and builders, attitudinal changes are occurring as building owners become more conscious of cost and environmental factors in building design, particularly in the area of energy savings.
DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2017.75018 266 Open Journal of Composite Materials and it is projected to reach 4.5 Mt in 2018 . However, because recycling through a thermal process could cause about 50% loss in mechanical properties . The glass fibers would be best recycled through a mechanical process that involves grinding and crushing and then employed for use in manufacturing non-structural products . Products made from glass fibers, especially boats, automobile parts, have increasingly become an environmental menace when they reach the end of their lives. There is a need to find an alternative way to re- cycle glass fibers. Panel products such as particleboards made from lignocellu- losic fibers are available at low cost, easy to recycle and biodegradable. However, they mostly find applications where cost other than aesthetics and strength are major determining factors   . After World War II, the manufacture of particleboards began on a large scale in the United States, serving as a low-cost replacement for plywood and lumber in the cabinetry and furniture industry. Seventy years down the line, the demand for particle-boards has grown exten- sively, replacing plywood and solid wood products. However, particleboard ex- pands and shrinks when the ambient humidity fluctuates, this affects their per- formance in service negatively   . Much research work has been car- ried out to improve the mechanical and physical properties of wood particle- board using different materials and treatments   . Particleboards made from a mixture of wood particles and glass fibers as the core, and two layers of woven jute fabric as skin layers were fabricated using the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding technique . With this procedure, higher values compared to commercially available hybrid composites were obtained  . Particleboards have been developed from wood ( Eucalyptus grandis ), bamboo ( Bambusa vulga- ris ), and/or rice husk ( Oryza sativa ) particles . Sorghum bagasse and Compe- dek wood shaving in 50 wt% ratio and 10% urea formaldehyde (UF) resin as binder was used in manufacturing particleboard. Additionally, composite boards have been produced from shavings of southern yellow pine, kenaf and flax all blended together . The highest values recorded for the MOR and MOE were 27.6 MPa and 4.5 GPa, respectively. Various studies have been carried out to improve the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard using different types of binders.
structure and both of them are made by the same craftsmen team in many cases, describing the method will start with the boat herself. Main materialissolid wood and marine plywood today. Craftsmen begin with making the keel with laminated plywood strips joined to each other all along the centerline, then go on with placing stations and stringers in order to complete the hull structure. Later, beams are connected at every station to span the distance of width ''Figure 1''. Shape and size of the elements are decided by the master, depending on his experience and creativity gained in many years, obviously it is according to the engineering project nowadays . Planking with almost 10 mm. thickness wooden strips is a 3 or 5 layers application to build the hull surface. Strips of a layer follows a crossing way than the previous one and each was nailed in the past but is stapled with U shaped fiber pieces today . After the planking is finished, flooring starts. It is a grid composition of wooden beams on which plywood panels are screwed. Some of the panels are openable to access the bilge volume where the tanks, pipes and propulsion systems are installed. Then the structure of partition walls is made by using 6 x 6 cm. sectioned wooden elements in vertical and horizontal positioning with a 40 cm. distances inbetween. Cells of this structure are stiffened with triangle shaped corner supports. So the cabins layout is roughly finalised. Both wall sides are cladded with 10 mm. thickness plywood panels as base layers. Second layer is another plywood panels layer mounting in modules as a finishing layer which might be of leather or any marine textile coated, wood veneered or lac applied. Ceiling structure has the same grid system with partition walls, but the elements are smaller sized . It is not screwed to the beams of boat structure, instead, connected to it by special joints madeof two L shaped metal brace clamps with a rubber piece inbetween ''Figure 2''. This is for absorbing the vibration or stress on the boat structure. No base material is applied, only one layer of plywood in modules which are clipped to the ceiling structure, means some of them can be opened to access the electricity systems into the ceiling volume.
opment in the concrete can be improved. Glass fibers are able to improve the flexural strength due to their high tensile strength of 1.700 - 3.700 N/mm 2 and their good bond with the cement matrix. However, this effect ap- pears only at very high fiber contents from 3% - 5% of concrete volume . In these ratios the fibers cannot anymore mixed in the concrete because of the loss of consistency and bad fiber distribution. Due to their rela- tively low stiffness compared to steel fibers, glass fibers are able to bridge very small cracks and to support the concrete already during setting (flow of hydration heat and shrinkage) and contribute to its impermeability. Con- crete covers as well as minimal cement contents must not be ensured. Therefore GFRC is used for thin elements or for repair of existing components. Examples for usage are prefabricated elements in façade construction, noise barriers, place formwork, fire-resistant panels, design elements in the interior or for the renovation of old floors as glassfiber modified concrete . In Germany there are a few standards dealing with test methods for glassfiber reinforced concrete . These standards are used for testing thin panels of traditional glassfiber reinforced concrete with high fiber concrete. For structural use of GFRC no rules exist. At the moment slabs on ground are constructed with reinforcement bars, steel fiber reinforced concrete, with combined reinforcement (bars and steel fibers) or are made pre-stressed. If slabs on ground may also be constructed with structural GFRC, has still to be investigated.
4. Venkatasudhahar M, Velu R, Logesh K. Investigation on the effect of flyash on tensile , flexural and impact strength of hybrid 2018;8:117–22. 5. R.Ganesh, Manimaran,A., Logesh, K. “Experimental study on investigation of sic in glassfiber reinforced lap joint” International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development, Volume 08,issue 3,pp893-900,(November 2017). 6. Zheng Wang ,Link Li, Meng Gong. Measurement of dynamic modulus of
now. Consequently, concrete was supplanted in rates of 0%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%with Glass Fiber150 × 150 × 150mm3, Beam and Cylinder molds were utilized for throwing. Compaction of cement in three layers with 25 strokes of 16 mm pole was done for each layer. The solid was left in the form and permitted to set for 24 hours before the 3D squares were de shaped and set in restoring tank. The solid shapes were restored in the tank for 7, 14 days.
homogeneous reinforcements are stacked together. Meanwhile, an intraply hybrid composite is tows of the two or more types of fibers interlaced in the same layer of matrix (Pegoretti et al., 2004). The authors investigated an improvement in the specific ultimate properties of polymer fiber reinforced composites with inorganic brittle reinforcements such as the carbon or glassfiber that was attempted by the incorporation of more ductile organic fibers, such as aramid. Hani et al. (2011) studied the hybrid composite of woven coir and kevlar fiber in which coir fiber has the resistance to the high speed impact penetration by reducing the amount of synthetic fiber used in the composite.
To test the performance of the methods described before, they were all applied to a real case scenario in furniture manufacturing. The Company manufactures 9 different styles of Chairs, 2- Seaters and 3-Seaters respectively. Production of all the styles follows the same set of operations but involve different raw materials. 5 parts namely Seat cushions, Back cushions, Arms Seats and Backs are produced internally in batches of varied sizes, in scattered areas (departments). Movement of parts generates problems such as work in progress, missing parts, shortages, congestion and wrong placement.
Epoxy resins are much more expensive than polyester resins because of the high cost of the precursor chemicals most notably epichlorohydrin. However, the increased complexity of the 'epoxy' polymer chain and the potential for a greater degree of control of the cross linking process gives a much improved matrix in terms of strength and ductility. Most epoxies require the resin and hardener to be mixed in equal proportions and for full strength require heating to complete the curing process. This can be advantageous as the resin can be applied directly to the fibers and curing need only take place at the time of manufacture. And known as pre-preg or pre impregnated fiber.
Abstract: Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are being extensively used in structural and non-structural applications of Mechanical Engineering. The types of reinforcement, its geometry, volume fraction, orientation of fibers, etc. are some of the parameters that affect the properties of the FRP composites. In this work an attempt has been made to fabricate FRP composites to study the effect of orientation of E-glass fibers fabric in epoxy resin for maximum tensile, flexural and impact properties. Glassfiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminated plates were fabricated using vacuum bag moulding technique, while maintaining the fiber volume fraction approximately to 0.6. Four different types of laminated plates were fabricated with following fiber orientation: [0°/-45°/+30°/-30°/+45°/0°], [0°/0°/+30°/-30°/0°/0°], [0°/-45°/0°/0°/+45°/0°], and [0°] 6 along with
Fiber-metal laminates (FMLs) are new type of composite materials which could improve defects of traditional composites in ductility, formability, impact and damage tolerance. Drawing behavior of a thermoplastic based FML consisting of glass-fiber reinforced polypropylene laminate as the core and aluminum AA1200-O as skin layers was investigated. The effects of process variables consisting of blank-holder force, temperature, blank diameter and blank thickness on the forming behavior of the FML were studied. To reduce the number of experiments and investigate process variables on maximum drawing force and wrinkling of specimens, design of experiments was used. The experimental results were indicated that the general effects of blank-holder force on the failure mode in FMLs and the effects of blank diameter and blank thickness of a FML in deep drawing was similar to custom metals. Furthermore, results demonstrated that a high interaction between temperature and blank-holder force was required to remove the wrinkling. Engineering constants of GFRP were obtained using Timoshenko’s beam theory. Numerical simulations were performed by the finite element software, ABAQUS, and a good agreement was observed between the numerical and experimental data.
Instead of using many glassfiber creel, glassfiber roving bundles of 1500 mm length and 180 to 185 g in weight are formed manually to achieve the thickness of composite so that experimentation cost can be reduced. The manually formed glassfiber roving bundles is shown in fig3. After the preparation of these bundles the die temperature and pulling speed of the pultrusion set-up was adjusted one by one for each experiment given in table 2. The filler CaCO3 in the particulate form was also properly mixed in the unsaturated polyester resin matrix according to the experiment run shown in table 2. The die temperatures and pulling speeds are set by temperature controller and A.C. Frequency drive respectively.