Top PDF Field survey of air conditioner temperature settings in a hot, dry climate (Oman)

Field survey of air conditioner temperature settings in a hot, dry climate (Oman)

Field survey of air conditioner temperature settings in a hot, dry climate (Oman)

In Asia, there has recently been a rapid and widespread diffusion of air conditioners. Therefore, we conducted a survey to clarify what temperature and humidity level people in Asian countries prefer in order to feel comfortable. Following that research, this article presents the results of a questionnaire survey on the use of air conditioners in houses in hot, dry climates. Nizwa and Rustak, Oman, which are characterized by the hot, arid climate of the Arabian Peninsula, were chosen as survey areas. The questionnaire survey was distributed to students of Nizwa University. Questions were asked about the duration of air conditioner use and the preferred air conditioner temperature setting. In order to determine how respondents felt about their indoor environment, we also asked about the thermal sensations that were experienced while using the air conditioner. In both cities, the mean operating time of the air conditioner was very long. The respondents reported selecting a low temperature setting while sleeping despite the fact that many of them reported that they were cold while sleeping. Ninety percent of respondents reported a cold, cool, or neutral thermal sensation while using the air conditioner, without feeling discomfort. 1. INTRODUCTION
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Building Envelope Design For Indoor

Air Temperature In Hot And Dry

Climate, Yemen

Building Envelope Design For Indoor Air Temperature In Hot And Dry Climate, Yemen

The energy sector plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of any country (Al-Yousfi, 2004). More than 20% of the population in Arab regions suffer from the lack of electrical energy supplies; and almost the same percentage suffer from epileptic supply of electric power (UN-ESCWA, 2006; Al-Yousfi, 2004; Fattouh and El-Katiri, 2012; Abdul Gelil, 2008). Yemen is one of Arab world countries with the poorest energy services particularly in the field of electricity access (Fattouh and El-Katiri, 2012). According to Yemeni government report published in (2005), it was reported that the beneficiaries of the electricity power are about 36% of total population in the year 2004; and about 39.6% in years 2009 and 2010 (W B, 2013). In Hadhramout state, energy consumption increased rapidly to reach about 278.25 GW/H in 2010 from 140.07 GW/H in 2001with a growth rate of about 11% per annum. Yemen still needs to increase electric power generation to meet needs which means increase in air pollution and CO2 emissions. Thus, any successful energy-efficiency building design will also have a significant impact in reducing the negative impact on the environment.
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Energy Efficient Facades For Hot And Dry Climate In India

Energy Efficient Facades For Hot And Dry Climate In India

surfaces (tiles and brick wall) on both sides of the chamber. In this façade, the cavity air-temperature is lower than the temperature reached in a conventional façade with a sealed air chamber. The thermal energy extracted by ventilation depends on the mass flow rate of air that circulates inside the cavity. This flow, been driven by natural convection, is a function of the temperature field, The effectiveness of the ventilated façade relays on the amount of the amount of energy absorbed by the air as it rises in the cavity. The extracted energy does not enter the building and therefore the cooling thermal load is reduced. In the areas of high solar irradiation the described mechanism can be quite intense, although the angle between the sun position and the façade (time of day, season, latitude) is also a major factor [6].
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Hot Dry Climate Air Conditioner (HDAC) Combined Field Test Report

Hot Dry Climate Air Conditioner (HDAC) Combined Field Test Report

Commercially available air conditioners are designed to meet national performance standards that are roughly based on “average” cooling season weather conditions across the United States. For residential air conditioners, the performance metric is the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER). SEER is based on indoor conditions that require significant dehumidification and an outdoor temperature of only 82ºF. For commercial air conditioners larger than 5 tons, the metric is Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) rated at 95ºF, closer to the performance needed in California. The current design process gives little or no attention to the performance of the air conditioners at higher temperatures or where dehumidification is not necessary. The only mandatory test for high temperature is a Maximum Operating Conditions test at 115 ºF. The manufacturers do not certify or report the performance of their air conditioners at that temperature.
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AIR-CONDITIONER SPLIT TYPE

AIR-CONDITIONER SPLIT TYPE

This air conditioner adopts the new refrigerant HFC (R410A) which does not damage the ozone layer. The working pressure of the new refrigerant R410A is 1.6 times higher than conventional refrigerant (R22). The refrigerating oil is also changed in accordance with change of refrigerant, so be careful that water, dust, and existing refrigerant or refrigerating oil are not entered in the refrigerant cycle of the air condi- tioner using the new refrigerant during installation work or servicing time.

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AIR-CONDITIONER SPLIT TYPE

AIR-CONDITIONER SPLIT TYPE

1. Basic operation ........................................................................................................... 27 1. Operation control ................................................................................................... 27 2. Cooling/Heating operation ..................................................................................... 28 3. AUTO operation...................................................................................................... 28 4. DRY operation ........................................................................................................ 28 2. Indoor fan motor control .............................................................................................. 29 3. Outdoor fan motor control ........................................................................................... 30 4. Capacity control .......................................................................................................... 32 5. Current release control ............................................................................................... 32 6. Release protective control by temperature of indoor heat exchanger ........................ 33 7. Defrost control (Only in heating operation) ................................................................. 34 8. Louver control ............................................................................................................. 35 1) Louver position ....................................................................................................... 35 2) Air direction adjustment ......................................................................................... 35 3) Swing ..................................................................................................................... 35 9. ECO operation ............................................................................................................ 36 10
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Ceiling Cassette Air Conditioner

Ceiling Cassette Air Conditioner

- It enables to control 16 x 8 = 128 units with the help of 8 controllers. All units can be put on and off from one Central Room. For Setting Temperature, Fan Speed and other sub functions, access the respec- tive LCD wired remote controller of each unit.

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AIR CONDITIONER INSTALLATION MANUAL

AIR CONDITIONER INSTALLATION MANUAL

• Block sunlight with blinds or curtains while you are operating the air conditioner. • Keep doors or windows closed tightly while you are operating the air conditioner. • Adjust the direction of the air flow vertically or horizontally to circulate indoor air. • Speed up the fan to cool or warm indoor air quickly, in a short period of time.

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AIR-CONDITIONER SPLIT TYPE

AIR-CONDITIONER SPLIT TYPE

R410A refrigerant is apt to be affected by impurities such as water, oxidizing membrane, and oils because the working pressure of R410A refrigerant is approx. 1.6 times of refrigerant R22. Accompanied with the adoption of the new refrigerant, the refrigeration machine oil has also been changed. Therefore, during installation work, be sure that water, dust, former refrigerant, or refrigeration machine oil does not enter into the new type refrigerant R410A air conditioner circuit.

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Automotive Air Conditioner Booster

Automotive Air Conditioner Booster

Firstly, I would like to thank to my supervisor, Mr Shamsul Bahari b Azraai, Lecturer of Mechanical Engineering Faculty in Utem (Thermal – Fluid), for giving me the opportunity doing my PSM under his supervision. I also would like to thank to him for teaching me more in mechanical engineering subjects especially works for my topic which is Automotive Air Conditioner Booster. He also guided me and given advised based on his experience during my progress of this project. I have learned many new things from him.

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AIR CONDITIONER ENERGY-EFFICIENT

AIR CONDITIONER ENERGY-EFFICIENT

“SEER” stands for Seasonal Energy-Efficiency Ratio, which is a mea- surement of a air conditioner’s cooling efficiency developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. It’s a simple formula: the higher the SEER of your unit, the greater its efficiency – and the lower your operating costs.

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Different response of surface temperature and air temperature to deforestation in climate models

Different response of surface temperature and air temperature to deforestation in climate models

Afforestation has been proposed as a tool to mitigate climate change globally (UNFCCC, 2011), mainly because forests can store large amounts of carbon (Luyssaert et al., 2008; Le Quéré et al., 2017). In addition, changes in forest cover can cause a warming or cooling via an alteration of the exchange of energy and water between the Earth’s surface and the at- mosphere, i.e., the so-called biogeophysical effects (Bonan, 2008). Earth System models have been employed to assess how these biogeophysical effects affect the temperature of the surface (e.g., Bala et al., 2007; Pongratz et al., 2010; Davin and de Noblet-Ducoudré, 2010; Boisier et al., 2012; Devaraju et al., 2015; Li et al., 2016) and the temperature of the near-surface air (usually air temperature 2 m above zero- plane displacement height) (e.g., Claussen et al., 2001; Gib- bard et al., 2005; Findell et al., 2006; Pitman et al., 2009; Bathiany et al., 2010; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al., 2012; Jones et al., 2013; Luyssaert et al., 2018). The different temper- ature variables that are considered in studies about defor- estation effects are relevant for different questions and ap- plications. Satellite-based studies on changes in radiometric surface temperature provide important information about the biophysical mechanisms of surface energy partitioning and thereby surface–atmosphere interactions (Duveiller et al., 2018). Compared to changes in surface temperature, changes in air temperature may be considered more relevant for hu- man living conditions because of their importance, e.g., for the perceived temperature (e.g., Staiger et al., 2011). Within- and below-canopy air temperature (which is not included in this study) is the most relevant variable for many organ- isms that live within forests (e.g., De Frenne et al., 2013; De Frenne et al., 2019). The coupling between ground temper- ature and air temperature is strongly influenced by the type of vegetation that covers the surface (Baldocchi, 2013; Melo- Aguilar et al., 2018), but it remains unclear whether surface temperature and near-surface air temperature respond differ- ently to deforestation in climate models. This is the focus of the present study.
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Effect of Low-temperature Induction on Heat Mining Performance of EGS in Hot Dry

Effect of Low-temperature Induction on Heat Mining Performance of EGS in Hot Dry

During heat mining, thermal stress induced by low-temperature fluid circulation changes the effective stress field, as shown in Fig5. The matrix around the fracture is still compressed when only under the action of water flowing pressure due to the presence of in-situ stress(Fig5a); while when the thermal stress is taken into account during water circulation, the stress field changes as the cooling of matrix(Fig5b). Variation of stress field creates the displacement of matrix(Fig6), fracture permeability advances under the combined function of water flowing pressure. As seen in Fig3d, the fracture permeability improves enormously against that neglecting the thermal stress both in M1 and M2, but the increment is different. The fracture permeability increase about 2 times at 1-year in M2, reaches 40×10 -12 m 2 and increase about 3times at 10-year, reaching 62×10 -12 m 2 , but in M1 the fracture permeability only increase 2 times at 10a. It can be interpreted that the cooling scope of matrix is enlarged by the influence of fluid flowing through sub-fracture networks. The amplifying of cooling contraction range in matrix (Fig. 6) leads to the more dramatically
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Modeling Process of Hot Isostatic Pressing with Nonstationary Temperature Field

Modeling Process of Hot Isostatic Pressing with Nonstationary Temperature Field

One of the methods of powder metallurgy is hot isostatic pressing (HIP) which is based on compaction of powder material under high pressure (about 1000 atm.) and high temperatures (about 1000°C). The word "isostatic" is explained by historical reasons and is not related to the actual physics of the process. In a capsule with certain initial geometry the powder material and embedded elements (forming the cavity in the final product) are placed. Then the air is removed from the capsule and it is placed in gasostat, where under the influence of gas (argon), the process of the HIP takes place. In the last step the capsule and embedded elements are removed (chemically or mechanically) to form a final product.
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Automobile Solar Air conditioner

Automobile Solar Air conditioner

Solar operated auto air conditioner system is eco friendly as compare to the present engine driven AC system. Generally combustion of one litre of petrol emits 240 gm of carbon mono oxide, 2.5 kg of carbon Di oxide, 1 gm of hydro carbons, and 0.1 gm of nitrogen oxide. But for successful implementation of this system, it should be cost effective also.

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AIR CONDITIONER (SPLIT TYPE)

AIR CONDITIONER (SPLIT TYPE)

Consideration for accumulated snow Select the position for the outdoor unit where it will not be subjected to snow drifts, accumulation of leaves or other seasonal debris. It is important that the air flow of the outdoor unit is not blocked as this will result in reduced heating or cooling performance. During the heating mode and at sub-zero temperatures, the water drained off the outdoor unit as a result of the automatic defrost may

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Investigation Of The AC2 Air Conditioner

Investigation Of The AC2 Air Conditioner

existing phone line, while other sites received a new phone line. The data were analyzed daily and graphs were printed for review by PEG staff. Reducing Potential Measurement Error The largest potential sources of error are the return humidity reading, the supply humidity reading, and the supply temperature reading. Even high quality humidity sensors are subject to drift and loose accuracy at high relative humidities such as those in the supply air stream. While the return air stream is generally well mixed, the supply air stream is not. Measurements in one part of the air stream are not necessarily representative of the mixed values. In order to reduce measurement error, humidity sensors were post calibrated using a closed container and salt slurries. Salt slurries produce fixed relative humidities at each temperature, providing a very accurate calibration method for humidity sensors. Two pure salt slurries were used, Sodium Chloride and Magnesium Chloride. In order to reduce measurement error of the supply temperature, an averaging grid was employed.
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AIR CONDITIONER (SPLIT TYPE)

AIR CONDITIONER (SPLIT TYPE)

• Avoid cooling the room too strongly or exposing the human body to cool wind for a long time because it can be detrimental to your health. • Never insert fingers or sticks into the air outlet and air inlet to avoid getting injured and damaging the machine because there are fans running at a high speed inside both the air inlet and air outlet. • When you notice something unusual with the air conditioner (such as a burning smell or weak cooling

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Dual-Purpose Air Conditioner

Dual-Purpose Air Conditioner

maximize the amount of heat transfer to cool the sunroom, which is the primary purpose of the system. The dual-purpose air conditioner meets all the design requirements except for increasing the average pool water temperature to 85°F. The heat exchanger and fan kit fit within the 2’ x 2’ x 2’ space that is available in the sunroom, and the tubes are made of stainless steel which is compatible with the chlorinated pool water. When the air in the sunroom is between 110°F and 120°F, the outlet air temperature is estimated to be 94°F to 98°F which meets the requirement of 95°F to 100°F. The system also costs less to operate than a heat pump pool heater and window air conditioner, so the dual-purpose air conditioner meets the cost-effective design requirement. Even if a solar polar heater was installed, which would not have any operating costs, instead of a heat pump pool heater, the dual-purpose air conditioner would cost less to operate due to the $61 seasonal
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SOLAR POWERED AIR CONDITIONER

SOLAR POWERED AIR CONDITIONER

The temperature (To ) should be the inlet temp. of generator, but assuming water loses heat while flowing through the tubes. Also there is certain effectiveness of the generator as a heat exchanger, less that 100 %. Hence net heating in the generator can be assumed to be taking place at 80 0C

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