The undermining effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsicmotivation (also referred to as the ‘motivation crowding out’ effect) has been reported in a variety of settings, for instance in relation to altruistic behaviour and charitable donations (e.g. Newman and Shen, 2012; Titmuss, 1970), volunteering efforts (e.g. Frey and Götte, 1999; Reeson and Tisdell, 2008), performance in creative and interesting tasks 2 (e.g. Calder and Staw, 1975; Deci, 1971; Lepper et al, 1973), as well as in relation to work motivation and performance, both in the private and the public sectors (Bellé and Cantarelli, 2015; Georgellis et al, 2011; Jordan, 1986; Kuvaas, 2006; Markova and Ford, 2011; Pouliakas, 2010). While the effect has been documented mostly in laboratory experiments (e.g. Deci, 1971; Gneezy and Rustichini, 2000a; Heyman and Ariely, 2004; Reeson and Tisdell, 2008), observations from secondary data (e.g. Georgellis et al, 2011; Pouliakas, 2010; Titmuss, 1970), field experiments (e.g. Gubler et al, 2016; Huffman and Bognanno, 2017) and surveys (e.g. Huang et al, 2014; Kuvaas, 2006) have generated further evidence in support of the undermining effect. Negative outcomes were observed predominantly in the case of providing monetary rewards contingent on engagement with specific tasks (e.g. Frey and Götte, 1999) or attaining certain levels of performance (e.g. Gneezy and Rustichini, 2000b), however non-cash incentives were sometimes found to have comparable effects (e.g. Kruglanski et al, 1971; Newman and Shen, 2012). In the majority of these studies, intrinsicmotivation was measured through self-reports of satisfaction with the task itself, differences in performance levels across different reward conditions, or through the ‘free choice’ method, whereby the time spent on unrewarded tasks for which rewards had initially been provided was regarded as a proxy for intrinsic interest. The following review begins with an account of studies documenting the crowding out effect in general (non-organisational) settings, and then moves towards a more focused discussion of the effect of financialrewards on intrinsicmotivation at work.
Abstract- Employee Turnover Intention is recognized as one of the strategic and critical issue in competition among organizations especially in the hotel industry in Sri Lanka. Therefore, organizations try to minimize their turnover ratio in order to save their cost, consists of hiring, recruiting and selecting the employees. Thus the study mainly focuses about two objectives as to identify the impact of the non-financialrewards on employee turnover intention as well as to identify the mediating effect of intrinsicmotivation on the relationship between non-financialrewards and the turnover intention. The sample consisted of two hundred operational level employees working in Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority (SLTDA) resisted five star hotels. The data were gathered by self- administrated questionnaire and the data were analyzed by using simple regression analysis as well as Baron and Kenny mediation analysis method. The analysis exposes that there is a strong negative relationship between the employee non-financialrewards and turnover intention. Mediating analysis results goes to show that intrinsicmotivation partially mediate the relationship between non- financialrewards and employee turnover intension. The results help top managers to formulate effective strategies to retain their employees in the long run.
earning new and useful ideas (Joo, Yang, & Mclean, 2014). Employees are able to work more creatively and effectively when they experience a positive mood, which increases work productivity and efficiency. Employee creativity in organizations is very dependent on two different factors, namely career satisfaction and perceived self-esteem (Kim, Hon, & Crant, 2009). Creativity is also related to job satisfaction, where creative employees tend to be more satisfied with their job (Tongchaiprasit & Ariyabuddhiphongs, 2016).
engagement. Our expectations were mostly con ﬁ rmed as most of the expected relations were signi ﬁ cant and in the expected direction. However, some of the expected relations were not found to be signi ﬁ cant. As expected, intrinsicmotivation was predicted by auton- omy support and structure, but not by involvement. Furthermore, it appeared that struc- ture predicted a broader spectrum of motivational outcomes (i.e., intrinsicmotivation, amotivation, behavioural engagement), whereas autonomy support and involvement only predicted certain aspects of students ’ motivation (only intrinsicmotivation or only amotivation and behavioural engagement, respectively). These ﬁ ndings align with SDT notions suggesting that structure would be a stronger predictor of di ﬀ erent aspects of motivation compared to autonomy support and involvement, because feeling competent (which is supported through structure) is conditional for almost all aspects of motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985). In addition, it has also been suggested that involvement plays a more distal role in predicting motivational outcomes compared to autonomy support and struc- ture (Deci & Ryan, 2000). However, as suggested by Stroet and colleagues in their review (2013), these notions of di ﬀ erential e ﬀ ectiveness of these di ﬀ erent dimensions of need- supportive teaching warrant more research.
Despite the numbers of studies testing the model including satisfaction of basic psychological needs, motivational regulations and different indices of well-being (e.g Deci, et al., 1981; Levesque, et al., 2004; Ryan & Grolnick, 1986), no studies have tested the same model in Turkish PE environment, consequently current research has contributed to the existing literature. In line with our hypothesis and the past study results, (Deci, et al., 1981; Ryan & Grolnick, 1986) hierarchical multiple regression analysis results proved that the students’ age, gender, autonomy, competence, and relatedness need satisfaction in PE positively predicted students’ global self-esteem. These findings supported the tenets of SDT in PE context with Turkish adolescent sample. Consistent with our results, Levesque et al. (2004) used composite autonomy index for intrinsicmotivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation and extrinsic motivation and found that autonomous motivation and perceived competence were related with life satisfaction and self-esteem as components of well-being. If an environment offer people choice, feeling of success and quality socialization instead of pressure and control people can satisfy all three needs and eventually higher quality behaviour and greater psychological well-being are obtained (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Mabekoje and Okubanjo (2009)’s study indicated that the combination of the satisfaction of all three needs enhanced adolescents' self-esteem. However in the current study, competence was found to be the strongest predictor (β=.528) of self- esteem compared with autonomy and relatedness need satisfaction. It was an expectable result because perceived competence has a central importance in PE context (Feltz, 1988). Adolescents show their skills in front of their peers which cause social comparison and if they are not satisfied with their physical capacity, they tend to be less motivated to participate in physical activities (Maiano, et al., 2004). Moreover, students’ who have high competence need satisfaction showed more effort in PE and intended to be more physically active (Ntoumanis, 2001). Also the study by Sheldon et al. (1996) emphasized the importance of competence and autonomy needs for well-being. Oppositely Mabekoje and Okubanjo (2009) and Hein and Hagger (2007) stated that satisfaction of autonomy needs contributed most significantly to adolescents' self-esteem.
With sixty- ive percent of college students reporting regular or occasional video game play , AVGs may provide a viable enjoyable solution to reduce sedentary gaming and physical inactivity in college students. However, little research exists on what type of game play in terms of physical activity and exercise would promote continued use of a game. Enjoyment of exercise has been found to mediate the effectiveness of exercise interventions  with intrinsic motives such as enjoyment being positively associated with exercise behavior . Within a gaming context, it has been theorized that games that meet psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness outlined with Self-determination theory would promote continued game play [16-18]. Self-determination theory examines the underlying psychological needs and how these needs contribute to motivation and behavior . Self-determination theory proposes that decisions to engage in a behavior are based on needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and that behavior is a result of an intrinsicmotivation due to personal choices (autonomy) or extrinsic motivations due to external pressures [19,20] Research on inactive videogames has shown that perceived in-game competence and autonomy predict game enjoyment, game preferences, duration of game play, and post-game feelings of wellbeing . This suggests that for individuals to adhere to AVGs they must be perceived as engaging and enjoyable, while providing a sense of autonomy and competence. Initial research suggests that participants prefer AVGs to laboratory prescribed exercise such as walking on a treadmill , however, both the AVGs and exercise conditions were controlled conditions where participants were unable to choose activities or display competence. To date there is insuf icient evidence to determine if itness based AVGs can elicit suf icient physical activity in an autonomous free play condition. Furthermore, motivational aspects for continued game play in active video games is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify differences in physical activity during autonomous self-paced exercise and autonomous active video game play. The secondary purpose was to identify enjoyment and factors related to continued game play among college-aged students. We hypothesize that 1) higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity will occur in the autonomous self-paced condition and 2) participants who enjoy AVG will experience autonomy and competence during game play.
The main objective of the present study was to identify the EFL teachers’ motivational profiles and to examine the relationship between these profiles and demographic variables through a mixed method approach. The quantitative findings indicated that the autonomous types of motivation including intrinsicmotivation and identified regulation were the most prominent types of motivation among EFL teachers in this study. The results also uncovered the existence of three clusters: The Low, Moderate, and High groups. The highest percentage belonged to the High group and the lowest percentage belonged to the Low group. Different combinations of reasons were found to be related to each group’s choice of teaching English as a career, but at the same time, some common sources of motivation were recognized across the three groups. This result can be in line with Deci and Ryan’s (2000) who have an opposite view regarding dichotomous nature of different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic). Thus, alongside with the variable-centered approach, the person-centered investigation showed that the majority of EFL teachers participated in this study were autonomously motivated to their teaching commitment. The findings of the present study are align with current findings in the literature regarding the predominance of intrinsic reasons for teaching as powerful motivators (e.g., Pop & Turner, 2009; Thomson et al., 2012).
Monetary rewards will extrinsically motivate employees when it can satisfy their needs (Cruz, Martín Pérez, & Trevilla Cantero, 2009). According to Cruz, Martín Pérez, and Trevilla Cantero (2009) extrinsic motivation can be categorized as a set of monetary rewards which is given directly to employees through salary and incentives or provided indirectly through contributions to employees’ benefit plans such as medical benefits and life insurance. Other examples of extrinsic rewards such as pay and fringe benefits, promotion or advancement opportunities within the organization should be offered in the organizations’ rewards system (Lincoln & Kalleberg, 1992). Financialrewards offered from the management are very important and have significant influences on employees’ working behaviour (Locke & Latham, 1984; Stonich, 1984). Extrinsic rewards are usually referred to the monetary rewards that are provided by an organization through the person who has a high position in that organization (Breadwell & Holden, 1994). In the classic point of view, the uses and effects of extrinsic motivation are strictly different with intrinsicmotivation (DeCharms, 1972).
A primary focus on weight - a number on a scale - as the single measure of success, while regarding exercise and diet primarily as a means to an end (weight loss) presents additional problems. First, it may tend to mini- mize the importance of the process of exercising, becom- ing physically fit, healthful eating, etc. and its inherent attributes and experiential elements, which could per se undermine behavior change . Many sports and phy- sical activities can clearly be a great source of enjoyment and provide a source of optimal challenge, to the point of being regulated primarily by intrinsicmotivation . A second limitation around a mostly instrumental view of lifestyle change is that whenever results do not meet initial expectations, take too long, or even because results are achieved, people may find themselves missing a good reason to continue their exercise and/or health- ful eating efforts. A focus on fast results may even exacerbate these problems. For instance, more aggres- sive lifestyle changes (e.g., using a very low calorie diet or a reduced carbohydrate diet) are less likely to be explored for their inherent interest and instead valued only for their results. By contrast, an emphasis on mak- ing experiences worthwhile per se is not only clearly centered on the person’s preferences but it also does not set inflexible boundaries or contingencies for suc- cess or failure. Indeed, there are indications that a dichotomous, all or nothing approach towards weight management as well as a rigid control of eating behavior negatively predict success [10,37]. From a self-determi- nation theory perspective, rigid thinking and rigid beha- vioral patterns are thought to be maladaptive responses to conditions where basic needs are (or were) not satis- fied . They can provide an illusory sense of control, akin to what is described as introjected behavioral regu- lation, when preserving self-esteem and avoiding guilt are the primary energizers of behavior. As we will review later in this text, such controlled regulations are typically associated with less stable behavioral patterns [38,39].
McCurrie (2009) reported that summer bridge programs were an economical way to increase retention of non-traditional, first-generation, or at- risk students (p. 28). Columbia University has been supporting summer bridge programs for ten years. And while the college’s data show that students who successfully complete summer bridge programs are retained in greater numbers, it also revealed that these students GPAs are lower than non-bridged peers. Still Columbia’s 61% retention rate is above the national average (p.33). In addition to the higher retention rates, Columbia Administrators concluded that the summer bridge programs also provided guidance in applying for financial aid, grants, and scholarships. The Columbia summer bridge program met Monday through Friday and included both English and math classes. Each week students also visited a gallery or one of Columbia’s other cultural venues. Students
Taking into account the abovementioned trends in students’ reading and writing motivation, we can conclude that the end of elementary grades and the beginning of secondary grades are crucial phases for students to engage in autonomously motivating literacy activities since their autonomous motivation to read and write, both in and beyond school, seriously drops. Based on previous research on students’ declining academic intrinsicmotivation, different reasons for this decline can be put forward ( Gnambs and Hanfstingl, 2016 ). Next to developmental changes, such as identity formation ( Faye and Sharpe, 2008 ), and neuropsychological changes, such as students’ still developing brain structures ( Blakemore et al., 2007 ), SDT-related research puts forward a need-driven explanation ( Gnambs and Hanfstingl, 2016 ). More specifically, SDT points to the importance of fostering autonomous motivation by nurturing students’ inherent psychological need for autonomy (i.e., feeling psychologically free), competence (i.e., feeling confident and effective), and relatedness (i.e., feeling related to significant others) ( Ryan and Deci, 2000b, 2020 ). In this respect, the longitudinal cohort study of Gnambs and Hanfstingl (2016) demonstrated that students’ intrinsicmotivation remains fairly stable during adolescence when students experience an adequate satisfaction of these three basic psychological needs in school. To ensure the facilitation of these needs, teachers can adopt a qualitatively supportive teaching style, characterized by autonomy-supportive, structured, and involved teacher behavior ( Soenens and Vansteenkiste, 2005 ). In the context of reading and writing instruction, some experimental studies aiming at fostering students’ autonomous reading or writing motivation already exist (e.g., De Naeghel et al., 2016 ; De Smedt et al., 2018a, 2020 ), but remain rather scarce. Therefore, more research is needed to identify and test instructional reading and writing
Selfdetermination theory claims three basic psychological needs that have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic mo tivation and internalization of autonomous selfregulation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and related ness [2,8]. The needs for autonomy refers to making decisions by your own will, based on one’s own needs and values . The need for competence refers to the desire of feeling capable of performing a determined task and it is related to seek chal lenges that are optimal to one’s abilities . Relatedness is de scribed as the need for belongingness or connectedness with significant others, as well as with a significant community . It means being accepted and valued by people surrounding us. The clinical learning environment can promote these needs and foster intrinsicmotivation through an autonomysupport ive teaching style, making students feel autonomous, compe tent and supported by their teachers and peers. This opposes to the traditional controlling style in which behaviour is usu ally regulated by punishments and rewards , leading to ex trinsic motivation. Evidence suggests that if teachers support students’ autonomy, competence and relatedness, they will thrive in educational settings , they will take responsibility for their learning  and also act in a more autonomy sup portive way in their interactions with patients . Therefore the aim of this systemic review is to describe and analyse how the teaching environment supports students’ needs for auton omy, competence, and relatedness and consequently supports undergraduate students to achieving intrinsicmotivation and
As a macrotheory of human motivation, Deci and Ryan’s (2000) self-determination theory (SDT) addresses such basic issues as personality development, self-regulation, basic psychological needs, learning goals, energy and vitality, and the impact of learning environments on learners ‘ motivation, affect, behavior, and wellbeing. Self- determination theory suggests that autonomy-supportive contexts maintain or enhance intrinsicmotivation and promote identification with external regulations, while controlling contexts tend to undermine intrinsicmotivation. In educational settings, the concept of autonomy support means that the teacher takes the learners’ perspective, acknowledges their feelings, and provides them with information and opportunities for choice, while reducing the use of pressures and demands. Deci and Ryan’s (2000) self- determination theory suggests that autonomy-supportive contexts maintain or enhance intrinsicmotivation and promote identification with external regulations, while controlling contexts tend to undermine intrinsicmotivation. In educational settings, the concept of autonomy support means that the teacher takes the learners’ perspective, acknowledges their feelings, and provides them with information and opportunities for choice, while reducing the use of pressures and demands (Deci, Mezlek, & Sheinman, 1981). Many studies have indicated that autonomy-supportive learning environment is associated with better learning, more creativity, and greater intrinsicmotivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Rahmanpanah, 2017; Rahmanpanah & Tajeddin, 2015; Ryan & Connell, 1989; Ryan, & Deci, 2002, 2008; Ryan & Neimiec, 2009). Moreover, under the tenets of self-determination theory, the five mini-theories of basic needs theory, organismic integration theory, goal contents theory, cognitive evaluation theory, and causality orientation theory are identified.
It is generally recognized that people may receive two major categories of rewards from work6. One is intrinsicrewards, which are rewards that are internal to workers and which they give themselves. Intrinsicrewards include self-esteem, a sense of accomplishment, and a feeling of growth or development of special skills and talents. Many of these rewards are desired from the work itself. Intrinsicrewards are related to the worker’s perception of the job and, hence, are affected by job design, intrinsicrewards may be called as “non-financial/non-monetary rewards. A second category is extrinsic rewards, which are external to workers and are given by the organisation or someone else. Extrinsic rewards include direct and indirect compensation. Direct incentives are those rewards which are directly involved with the money as wages and salaries, bonus, commission, individual and group incentives, profit sharing and stock options. Indirect incentives are those rewards which are related to employees’ benefits or perquisites. It consists of protection programmes, paid time off, health insurance plans, child care benefits and employee discounts (Henderson, 1994).
The objective of the current study was to identify the supervisory practices that can facilitate satisfac- tion of three basic psychological needs as postulated in SDT. The study utilised the experience sam- pling method to collect qualitative data in real time to capture students’ psychological and experiential experience of supervision in a repeated manner. The findings revealed several effective supervisory practices, such as providing autonomy need satisfaction by respecting students’ research interest, en- couraging self-initiation and becoming amenable to changes in studies as suggested by the students. Doctoral students’ need for competence can be fulfilled by constructive, positive and timely feedback and by providing optimal challenges. Further, the need for relatedness can be satisfied by providing personal and professional development support for students and ensuring their emotional well-being. Although these are meaningful findings, we concede that the types of supportive motivating behav- iours for doctoral supervision is not limited to these findings. There are other complex issues that we are aware of may contribute the quality of motivation experienced by the doctoral students. For ex- ample, that at times, doctoral students sometimes also form a bond with their topic and this might be proven to be a strong sustaining motivation. Additionally, attaining the degree itself is a powerful motivation which will benefit them and their family and yet could be the source of damaging ten- sions. Moreover, the limited sample size and single-university context are limitations of this study, Nevertheless, we believe that since the needs in SDT are common across cultures, age and gender (Deci & Ryan 2000), the findings of this study would be applicable to varying extents in other coun- tries. In this regard, a future study could seek to extend this study’s findings by considering supervi- sion data from supervisors reporting on their relationship with their students and aspects of supervi- sion relationship from a student perspective. In addition, longitudinal studies could be conducted to ascertain other supportive motivating behaviours and also to chart changes in students’ comments over time.
One of the most important results from studies examining the effects of rewards on intrinsic motiva- tion is that the interpersonal climate within which rewards are administered has a significant influence on the rewards’ effects. Specifically, when rewards are administered in an autonomy-supportive cli- mate, they are less likely to undermine intrinsicmotivation and, in some cases, can enhance intrinsicmotivation. For example, Ryan et al. (1983) found that performance-contingent monetary rewards administered in an autonomy-supportive context enhanced intrinsicmotivation relative to a no-reward, no-feedback control group, whereas those administered in a controlling context undermined intrinsicmotivation. The research thus indicated that rewards used to acknowledge competence can have a posi- tive effect if the climate is autonomy supportive. Further, research has shown that rewards must be perceived as equitable in order not to have negative effects (Adams, 1963). Together, such results sug- gest that incentive programs need to be designed to be equitable and to acknowledge effective perfor- mance without incorporating controlling elements such as competition among team-mates or pressure to ‘meet the numbers.’ Then, the rewards need to be administered by autonomy-supportive managers. All of the studies of reward effects on intrinsicmotivation have been done with the dichotomous conceptualization of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. Little research has examined reward effects with respect to the internalization of extrinsic motivation. The differentiated view of extrinsic motiva- tion presented by SDT provides a basis for examining the effects of tangible rewards on motivation in a more rigorous and careful way that includes a consideration of the effects of rewards and work climates on internalization as well as intrinsicmotivation. The field is in need of just such research.
Self-determination theory is a macro-theory of motivation which examines how interactions between a person‟s internal processes and social-contextual factors affect a persons‟ motivation and behavior. It was introduced by Deci and Ryan (1985) as an elaboration of the intrinsic/extrinsic paradigm (Dörnyei, 1998) and focuses not only on the level but also on different types, i.e. qualities of motivation. Autonomy, or self-determination, is a fundamental theoretical principle in SDT. According to SDT, autonomy is a form of volitional functioning that is affected by satisfaction of psychological needs and the social- contextual factors. Central to self-determination theory (SDT) is the belief that the satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the social context enhances the natural processes of autonomous motivation and, consequently, fosters high-quality learning. According to STD people have an innate need to be autonomous. The need for autonomy is of central importance for human development and well-being and refers to individuals‟ need to behave with a sense of volition, willingness, and congruence as one aspires to fully endorse and concur with the behavior one is engaged in (Deci & Ryan, 2012). Thus, to be autonomous or self-determined is not so much about being free from external factors but it refers to experiencing autonomy through internalizing the value and significance of certain behavior. In addition to the need for autonomy, people have a need of competence and a need of relatedness. When these three needs are supported in the classroom, students are more likely to internally value academic goals and tasks which increases high-quality motivation and voluntarily engagement. Accordingly, the quality of student motivation depends on the degree to which the teacher is able to meet students‟ needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Regarding types of motivation, SDT distinguishes between a lack of motivation referred to as amotivation, and different types of motivation depending on the degree of self-determination i.e. autonomy (Figure 1).
Friedman (2009) analyzed the impact of rewards on creativity. The data from United States’ respondents were gathered through well-structured questionnaires. Creativity was used as dependent variable while extrinsic and intrinsicrewards were used as independent variables. A positive relationship between rewards and creativity was found. It was concluded that extrinsic and intrinsicrewards enhanced creativity with the condition that the rewards were to be paid upon creative performance. Grant and Berry (2011) studied the association among perspective talking, pro-social and intrinsic motivations and creativity. The data were gathered from the Indian respondents through interviews. A positive relationship between intrinsicmotivation and creativity was found. Furthermore, it was also found that creativity strengthen the pro-social motivation and enhanced performance. Malik, Butt and Choi (2015) analyzed the relation between creative performance of employees and rewards with the moderating impact of locus of control, importance of rewards and creative self-efficacy. They observed a positive influence of extrinsic rewards on creativity. The relation between extrinsic rewards and creativity was moderated by personal disposition, values and locus of control. Navaresse Yauch Goff and Fonseca (2014) explained the impact of rewards, creativity, and organizational culture on workgroup performance of workers working in United States’ organizations. A significant relationship between creative performance and individual creativity was found. They did not find any relationship between rewards and creative behavior of individuals. Wiltermuth and Gino (2013) analyzed whether intrinsic and extrinsic rewards increase motivation. They used rewards as independent variable and motivation and creativity as dependent variables. The study was conducted in the organizations working in India. They concluded that rewards significantly increased motivation and motivation, in turn, enhanced creativity.
The Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) stipulates that underlying intrinsicmotivation is part of an individual’s “innate psychological needs for competence and self-determination “(Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 2001, pg. 3). As maintained by the theory, the effects of external rewards on intrinsicmotivation shows how events may influence an individual’s perception on self-determination and competence. If particular events are seen to decrease a person’s self-determination and competence, this will evidently undermine intrinsicmotivation. On the other hand, if events increase self-determination and perceived competence, then intrinsicmotivation will be enhanced (Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 2001). Some rewards are seen to have a controlling nature, in that they can regulate and manage students’ behaviour, but in the end, undermine intrinsicmotivation (Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 2001). For example, a classroom teacher may give a sticker to a child each time the child
While aspects of the other motivation types may be perceived as directing individuals to engage in humanitarian health work, our analyses suggest they do not play a major role in initial or subsequent reasons. As previously mentioned, not all of the SDT motivation types are as salient in relation to different behaviours. Also, while for example, some workers might engage in humanitarian work to earn some money (extrinsic motivation) or because some tasks are deemed enjoyable (intrinsicmotivation), the financial or pleasurable aspects associated with the work are not the primary motivating factors. Indeed, previous research suggests these intrinsic and extrinsic factors serve as de-motivators for health workers (e.g., Tzeng, 2002). Therefore, it is not surprising other SDT motivations that are more extrinsically or intrinsically focussed were not found in the analyses.