Top PDF Fine-scale behavioural differences distinguish resource use by ecomorphs in a closed ecosystem

Fine-scale behavioural differences distinguish resource use by ecomorphs in a closed ecosystem

Fine-scale behavioural differences distinguish resource use by ecomorphs in a closed ecosystem

suggested there were two morphs, characterised by differences in body size and growth rate. They observed that present day anadromy does not exist in Ellasjøen charr, as the outlet is too steep for fish to ascend. Three temperature loggers (Vemco: V13T-1L), set at 3, 25 and 31 m depths, recorded the water temperature of Ellasjøen over the study period (28/8/2009–23/8/2010). The lake showed negligible stratification over summer (Fig. S1) but an inverse temperature gradient occurred over winter, inferring the likely period of complete ice cov- erage (16/12/2009–24/5/2010, 158 days), with temperatures close to zero at 3 m between December and June. Polar night occurred between 8/11/2009–3/2/2010 (88 days) and polar day occurred between 31/4/2010–12/8/2010 (102 days), based upon times of sunrise and sunset (U.S. Naval Observatory website http://aa.usno.navy.mil/ data). The surface area of Ellasjøen (0.71 km 2 ) was divided, based on Secchi measurements into a littoral (0–8 m
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Fine-scale behavioural differences distinguish resource use by ecomorphs in a closed ecosystem.

Fine-scale behavioural differences distinguish resource use by ecomorphs in a closed ecosystem.

Despite long-term resource partitioning, short-term patterns of spatial distribution largely defined the behavioural differences between the Ellasjøen morphs. This was most distinct directly after ice break, in late May, when Pelagic fish moved into deeper water, close to the lake bed and Littoral fish were at shallow depths, exclusively within the littoral zone. This is likely a seasonal response to food availability, corresponding to a peak in feeding by the Littoral morph on littoral prey resources i.e. young-of-year charr and zoobenthos and predom- inant use, by the Pelagic morph, of zooplankton in the water column and emerging chironomids 31 . Pelagic charr often occupied larger home range areas and were usually more active than Littoral charr, consistent with a more pelagic, planktivorous mode of foraging 27,53 . Only during summer was Littoral charr activity (both displacement and home range area) greater than that of the Pelagic morph. This pattern of intense activity by the Littoral morph, coupled with a reduction of metabolism in a period of reduced rations (i.e. winter), has been shown in ectothermic animals 54 and may account for the annual variation in activity for this morph, supporting an energy conservation strategy in periods of resource scarcity. During winter ice-cover average fish displacement (for both morphs) was reduced by over 50% when compared to ice-free conditions, and home range area was significantly smaller. However, Pelagic fish remained more active and occupied more open water i.e. they were further from the lake bed and further from the lake edge than Littoral fish, although Littoral fish migrated into deeper water during this period, possibly due to habitat restriction due to thick ice at the lake edge, or to occupy warmer water temperatures. Hayden et al. 30 have shown that Arctic fish can alter their trophic ecology from being summer planktivores to winter benthivores in order to exploit this natural variation
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Fine-scale behavioural differences distinguish resource use by ecomorphs in a closed ecosystem

Fine-scale behavioural differences distinguish resource use by ecomorphs in a closed ecosystem

suggested there were two morphs, characterised by differences in body size and growth rate. They observed that present day anadromy does not exist in Ellasjøen charr, as the outlet is too steep for fish to ascend. Three temperature loggers (Vemco: V13T-1L), set at 3, 25 and 31 m depths, recorded the water temperature of Ellasjøen over the study period (28/8/2009–23/8/2010). The lake showed negligible stratification over summer (Fig. S1) but an inverse temperature gradient occurred over winter, inferring the likely period of complete ice cov- erage (16/12/2009–24/5/2010, 158 days), with temperatures close to zero at 3 m between December and June. Polar night occurred between 8/11/2009–3/2/2010 (88 days) and polar day occurred between 31/4/2010–12/8/2010 (102 days), based upon times of sunrise and sunset (U.S. Naval Observatory website http://aa.usno.navy.mil/ data). The surface area of Ellasjøen (0.71 km 2 ) was divided, based on Secchi measurements into a littoral (0–8 m
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Economics of small scale irrigation and resource use plans in the Bogra District of Bangladesh

Economics of small scale irrigation and resource use plans in the Bogra District of Bangladesh

Linear programming is an operation research technique for maximising/ minimising a linear objective function subject to linear inequalities. This technique can serve as an important planning tool both at macro and micro levels. In the present study this technique is used at micro level for formulating alternative resource use plans. This study mainly serves to show the usefulness of the technique. The linear programming technique has some advantages over budgeting methods. In budgeting it is extremely difficult to maximise profit or minimise cost if the number of constraints are numerous. Linear programming treats the farm as a whole entity and can be used to maximise or minimise (profit or cost) with best allocation of the available resources between different products subject to a number of constraints. This will give one optimum solution. Although these techniques have been used widely in developed countries, the developing countries have been using these only recently on a limited scale in order to examine the impact of new technologies on cropping pattern, supply responses etc. (Hutton, 1965). In the Indo-Pak sub-continent these techniques have also recently been used by different researchers such as Gotsch (1975), Ahmed (1972), Singh and Rahim (1975) and so on to investigate
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Terrestrial support of lake food webs:synthesis reveals controls over cross ecosystem resource use

Terrestrial support of lake food webs:synthesis reveals controls over cross ecosystem resource use

We delineated catchment boundaries for each lake by mapping flow direction and accumulation from digital elevation models. By then processing digital land use and cover datasets and satellite imagery through the total area that drained into a focal lake, we extracted catchment characteristics for each lake in a given sampling year. The characteristics included area of woody vegetation cover, mean vegetation density, mean soil carbon concentration (0-15 cm depth), lake area, lake perimeter, and soil wetness. Generally, catchment delineations and terrain analyses were at a 30 m resolution whereas landscape characterization and soil carbon estimates were at 250 and 1,000 m resolutions, respectively. This uniform approach ensured consistency in both resolution and data sources across lake districts. Our approach also produced very similar results to those derived from higher resolution catchment delineations provided by individual investigators and an alternative delineation that removed land intersecting other lakes upstream in the same catchment (full details given in Supplementary Methods S1).
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Reducing risks by transforming landscapes: Cross-scale effects of land-use changes on ecosystem services

Reducing risks by transforming landscapes: Cross-scale effects of land-use changes on ecosystem services

landscapes in Indonesia have changed land uses over the last 20 years to adapt their liveli- hoods that were at risk from multiple hazards. We estimated the impact of these adaptation strategies on the supply of ecosystem services by comparing different benefits provided to people from these land uses (products, water, carbon, and biodiversity), using forest inven- tories, remote sensing, and interviews. Local people converted forests to rubber plantations, reforested less productive croplands, protected forests on hillsides, and planted trees in gar- dens. Our results show that land-use decisions were propagated at the landscape scale due to reinforcing loops, whereby local actors perceived that such decisions contributed posi- tively to livelihoods by reducing risks and generating co-benefits. When land-use changes become sufficiently widespread, they affect the supply of multiple ecosystem services, with impacts beyond the local scale. Thus, adaptation implemented at the local-scale may not address development and climate adaptation challenges at regional or national scale (e.g. as part of UN Sustainable Development Goals or actions taken under the UNFCCC Paris Agreement). A better understanding of the context and impacts of local ecosystem-based adaptation is fundamental to the scaling up of land management policies and practices designed to reduce risks and improve well-being for people at different scales.
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Behavioural Differences between Users Seeking HIV-Testing

Behavioural Differences between Users Seeking HIV-Testing

Men are more sexually active and had a higher number of sexual partners than women, but on the other hand reported more frequent use of condoms. Although men were more protected from a sexu- al point of view, this has not occurred in more than 50% in both genders, showing that the use of condoms in these intercourses, fixed or casual, are still below the expected (5,12) . In reproductive

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Behavioural water resource economics: behavioural applications to the residential water sector

Behavioural water resource economics: behavioural applications to the residential water sector

We assume that all consumers know either their block structures or their expense, and that there are no price fairness concerns. Both assumptions could be challenged. The latter topic was discussed in Chapter 5. As for the former, it is often possible to distinguish between two types of consumers (or households): those who have price knowledge and those who are “naïve" (i.e. “price-ignorant"). For instance, considering the literature on residential water demand, Carter and Milon (2005) found that price-conscious households exhibit more responsiveness to both average and marginal prices, as expected. Additionally, the authors obtain a somewhat counter-intuitive conclusion that price awareness increases water consumption, which may be explained by price overestimation, in line with electricity demand literature (as pointed out in their article). Gaudin (2006) notes that the information provided to water consumers through the water bill alters the effectiveness of water pricing policy. Frondel and Messner (2008) use data from a household survey to corroborate that water pricing policies will only have significant effects in sophisticated households (i.e. " price-conscious"), while naïve households, the large majority of their sample, do not significantly reduce consumption when price increases. Finally, Martins and Moura e Sá (2011) argue that water bills fail to provide clear information to consumers, obscuring price signals and jeopardizing the effectiveness of pricing strategies. Despite this empirical evidence, most discussions of water demand seem to be broadly circumscribed to model specification, estimation techniques and economic outcomes (i.e. price and income elasticities) (Worthington and Hoffman, 2008; Arbués et al., 2003).
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Accelerated behavioural development changes fine scale search behaviour and spatial memory in honey bees (Apis mellifera L )

Accelerated behavioural development changes fine scale search behaviour and spatial memory in honey bees (Apis mellifera L )

In the critical test condition, the proximal landmark was removed (Fig. 4A) and normal-aged foragers appeared to leave the distal landmarks on a vector that would have taken them closer to the location of the proximal landmark than for precocious foragers in the same test (Fig. 4B). A Rayleigh V-test for the directional uniformity revealed that the concentration of the flight directions with respect to the proximal landmark direction was statistically significant for normal-aged foragers for both LM1 (u=3.05, P<0.001) and LM2 (u=3.02, P<0.001) and for precocious forager for LM2 (u=2.03, P=0.020), but not significant (i.e. uniform around the landmark) for precocious foragers for LM1 (u=0.02, P=0.507). Because these Rayleigh V-tests suggested that both normal-aged and precocious foragers were statistically significantly heading for the proximal landmark direction from LM2, we conducted a Var-test (Julle- Daniere et al., 2014) to examine differences in directional spread between groups, and found that the two groups differed significantly in the uniformity of the flight direction from LM2 (P=0.037). The distribution of flight direction was more scattered in precocious foragers than in normal-aged foragers (Fig. 4A,B). In summary, these analyses showed that normal-aged foragers departed from the distal landmarks more closely to the direction of the removed proximal landmarks than did the precocious foragers.
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Societal breakdown as an emergent property of large-scale behavioural models of land use change

Societal breakdown as an emergent property of large-scale behavioural models of land use change

The resulting benefit values were then used as a basis for competition between agents for the ownership of cells, which occurred on a defined proportion of cells at each time step (Sect. 2.6). Agents producing combinations of services with the highest benefit values were best placed to win this com- petition but did not necessarily do so because existing agents could choose to persist with their existing land use rather than submit to competition. This process was controlled by “abandonment” and “competition” thresholds describing the ranges of benefit values within which agents would abandon their land, persist with their existing land use or cede their land to another agent (representing an alternative land use) (Holzhauer et al., 2019; Murray-Rust et al., 2014). These thresholds were initially fixed across agent functional types and then varied at typological and individual levels as de- scribed below. Therefore, agents did not necessarily opti- mise their land uses according to benefit values, and these values were not used to ensure full supply of each service. With thresholds set to zero, individual agents would choose a more beneficial land use when made aware of one through the competition process (i.e. when their cell was selected for competition by another agent type) but would not necessar- ily do so under non-zero thresholds. In neither case was any system-level optimisation involved. Therefore, benefit val- ues, responding to changes in demand and supply levels, stimulated production but did not guarantee a given produc- tion level. The model therefore contains no assumptions that override the emergence of suboptimal or non-equilibrium outcomes from scenario conditions. Service production in any part of the EU contributed to satisfying demand levels, representing an assumption of free trade across the modelled area (constrained by the infrastructure and transportation net- works described in the manufactured capital values). This is a reasonable assumption given that the EU is a free trade zone. A full description of the valuation and competition process is given in Appendix A.
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Reversing chromatin accessibility differences that distinguish homologous mitotic metaphase chromosomes

Reversing chromatin accessibility differences that distinguish homologous mitotic metaphase chromosomes

Additional file 4: Figure S3. Quantification of inter-homolog probe fluorescence intensities following chromosome decondensation with ICRF-193 in independent cell lines. (A – F) Box plots show normalized integrated intensity ratios (y axis) following scFISH for six distinct genomic regions within chromosomes 1q43 ( RGS7 ), 9q34.3 ( CACNA1B ), 15q13.1 ( HERC2 ), 17p12 ( ADORA2B , PMP22 :IVS3), and 22q13.33 ( ACR ) in untreated ( − ) and treated (+) cells (x axis). GVF measurements in cells hybridized with single copy probes detecting DA from within RGS7 , HERC2 , PMP22: IVS3, and ACR are indicated from cell line GM10958. Measurements of normalized inter-homolog intensities for CACNA1B and ADORA2B are indicated from cell line GM06326. The same genomic regions were hybridized in opposite cell lines and inter-homolog differences quantified as shown in Fig. 3. Probes detecting DA exhibited larger differences in inter-homolog DNA probe fluorescence (red box plots: median intensity ratios: from 0.68 to 1, n = 125 cells). ICRF-193 treated chromosomes exhibited smaller differences in DNA probe fluorescence (black box plots: median intensity ratios from 0.15-0.39, n = 118 cells) ( p < 0.05; two tail t -test), suggesting retrieval of the less accessible chromosome target, except in the case of HERC2 , in which DA was not completely reversed. In instances where the median is coincident with the upper quartile, it is emphasized by a thick line to show distinction from the median in the corresponding category.
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Individual Differences in Behavioural and Physiological Responses to Affective Touch

Individual Differences in Behavioural and Physiological Responses to Affective Touch

individuals with low levels of autistic traits (Di Martino et al., 2009; Scheele et al., 2014). Abnormalities in ACC activation would suggest wide spread deficits in motivational responses to stimuli. Interestingly in Chapter 7, individuals with high levels of autistic traits elicited a significantly larger ULP than individuals with low levels of autistic traits. It has been hypothesised both here and in Ackerley et al (2013) that this peak amplitude is related to frontal lobe activity specific to C-fibre activation or a phenotypic switch from CTs to nociceptors (with similarities between relative ULPs recorded for noxious and pleasant stimuli). Although the exact source of these signals is not known, it can be inferred from fMRI research that this potential is related to activity in the ACC, potentially reflecting higher levels of salience ascribed to CT stimuli. Alternatively, it could reflect activity in the OFC reflecting affective and motivational processing of stimuli. If this is the case, then differences in the peak amplitudes recorded in this region could suggest some deficit whether it be in the individuals with high levels of autistic traits or those with low levels. This makes sense considering research shows that the functional activations (Asada, Fukuda, Tsunoda, Yamaguchi, & Tonoike, 1999; Di Martino et al., 2009; Thakkar et al., 2008; Zeeland et al., 2011) and the gray matter density (Hadjikhani et al., 2006; Haznedar et al., 2000; Simms, Kemper, Timbie, Bauman, & Blatt, 2009) of the ACC region are atypical in individuals diagnosed with ASD (Mundy, 2003). Interestingly this is not something that has been tested regularly in individuals with different levels of autistic traits despite the functional role of the ACC in social behaviour and autistic trait measurement of social interaction (Scheele et al., 2014).
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Foraging ecology of three sympatric ungulate species – Behavioural and resource maps indicate differences between chamois, ibex and red deer

Foraging ecology of three sympatric ungulate species – Behavioural and resource maps indicate differences between chamois, ibex and red deer

and variable plant biomass. Generally, we expected ibex to forage in rocky terrain with little, but nutrient-rich vegetation. While our results suggested that ibex did in- deed forage in areas where plant biomass was low but of high nutritious value (high plant N content), we also found ibex core foraging areas in the highest quality meadows of the Trupchun valley where both plant bio- mass and plant N content were high. Generally, terrain roughness and slope create a template of risk [96,97], in which herbivores have to trade off between resource ac- quisition (e.g. foraging in high quality habitats, finding mates) and predator avoidance [98,99]. Ibex are very good climbers that find protection from predators and the possibility to overview large areas in predominantly rocky terrain with steep slopes. Within the SNP preda- tors are absent, hunting is prohibited and visitors are obliged to stay on the marked paths. Thus, ibex might have abandoned part of their anti-predator behaviour in favour of maximising forage resource acquisition. Visual observations (SNP, unpublished observations) confirm that the rather flat, high quality meadows are regularly visited by ibex, where they forage together with red deer and occasionally also chamois.
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Terrestrial support of lake food webs: Synthesis reveals controls over cross-ecosystem resource use

Terrestrial support of lake food webs: Synthesis reveals controls over cross-ecosystem resource use

consumer biomass in half of all observations, although high levels of al- lochthony (for example, >60%) are not a general pattern. Concurrently, we have discovered the conditions that make high allochthony possible, helping to explain the tremendous discrepancy observed across stable isotope studies of lake food webs over the last two decades (6–8, 16, 21, 23, 25, 26, 28). The lowest mean estimate (11%) of allochthony reported here exceeds that observed by others, possibly because our nonrandom sample of study sites largely lacked clear deepwater and eutrophic lakes where primary production is relatively high (5, 25). Our results also offer gen- eral insights to understand the fate of spatial resource fluxes, because we have found that allochthonous resources are used more, as determined using stable isotope tracers, in ecosystems that are unproductive and/or well connected to donor habitats. Predictable changes in allochthony along continuous gradients, such as in hydrological connectivity and ecosystem productivity, support theoretical predictions for when cross-ecosystem resources will be most used (30–32), but have only been empirically reported to our knowledge in two much more local studies (9, 14).
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ESTIMAP: Ecosystem services mapping at European scale

ESTIMAP: Ecosystem services mapping at European scale

There are several ways to map ecosystem services at national scales [3]. Probably one of the most commonly used methods is value transfer which upscales local values for ecosystem services to larger areas making use of land cover and land use data which are readily available. Also popular is the use of national and supra-national statistics which help quantify essentially provisioning services such as products coming from agriculture, forestry or fishery. Sometimes, also statistics on recreation and tourism are available and can be used. More integrated but data- intensive approaches are based on the application of dynamic process-based models or on data models which estimate ecological production functions which are subsequently used to map potential or actual ecosystem services. This report presents a suite of models that can be classified under the latter approach. ESTIMAP, which stands for Ecosystem Service Mapping Tool, is a GIS model based approach to quantify and model ecosystem services. It shows many similarities with the InVEST approach, be it that ESTIMAP is meant to run at continental scale. The main objective of the model is to support EU policies with information on ecosystem services. The mainstreaming of biodiversity and ecosystem services into EU policy and decision making is indeed dependent on the capacity to assess how changes in policy will impact biodiversity and the supply of ecosystem services. Scenario assessments are realized by coupling ESTIMAP to a dynamic land use model (LUMP, Land Use Modeling Platform).
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Fine-scale structural variation of the human genome

Fine-scale structural variation of the human genome

Because all the structural variants that we identified by this approach have been effectively subcloned, the availability of the fosmid genomic library now allows for the nature of the structural variants to be defined precisely at the sequence level. As a more direct means of validation, we randomly selected 40 discordant sites for complete fosmid-insert sequencing. Fingerprint analysis of the representative fosmids showed that the insert size (39.4 kb 7 3.7 kb) was consistent with our in silico estimate and that the fosmids were not grossly rearranged (Supplementary Table 3 online). From these 40 fosmids, we generated B1.5 Mb of de novo assembled sequence and compared it with the reference genome. We confirmed large-scale structural variation ranging in size from B5 kb to 169.4 kb for 33 of the 40 selected clones (Fig. 3). This included 17 deletions, 13 insertions and 3 inversions. Two of the seven that were not verified correspond to atypically short fosmids (o30 kb); another two showed evidence of sequence assembly collapse inconsistent with the fosmid length by fingerprint analysis (Supplementary Note online).
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Ecosystem services delivered by small-scale wetlands

Ecosystem services delivered by small-scale wetlands

Ecosystem services, as defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2003) are “the ben- efits people obtain from ecosystems.” The MEA (2003) distinguished four classes of ES, described as provisioning (products of the ecosystem e.g. food), regulating, supporting and cultural services. Though these definitions are widely used, numerous studies have modified these definitions, due to the difficulty in distinguishing between the supporting and regu- latory services, a fact acknowledged by the MEA authors (2003). Consequently, in a previous litera- ture review on ESs (Pilgrim et al. 2010), we used the MEA categories as the basis to identify ESs deliv- ered from agricultural grasslands, four of which are described in Table 3, namely: agricultural produc- tion, water quality regulation, hydrological regulation and biodiversity conservation (Pilgrim et al. 2010). The focus here is on these four ESs, because there is very limited published literature on other ESs in the context of the small wetlands we are considering.
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1 Fine motor precision tasks: Sex differences in

1 Fine motor precision tasks: Sex differences in

fine motor precision was measured under different test conditions, three movement types (F – 77.. Thus, the complete model was described by variables of precision (LL –line 80[r]

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Fine-scale habitat use and behaviour of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) morphs in a remote Arctic lake

Fine-scale habitat use and behaviour of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) morphs in a remote Arctic lake

94 swimming speeds than Robust charr. Only during June, July and August were Robust charr more active than Delicate and their habitat usage almost exclusively littoral. This period of intense activity undertaken by Robust charr likely corresponds to a peak in feeding on littoral prey resources i.e. young-of year Arctic charr and zoobenthos. Young-of-year Arctic charr probably form an important component of the diet for the Robust morph, with young-of-year habitat use restricted to the near-shore, littoral habitat during summer (Byström et al. 2004). The profitability of this energy-rich food resource, coupled with a reduction of metabolic rates in a period of reduced rations (i.e. winter), may account for the annual variation in activity for this morph. Similar patterns of activity are known among fish, and supports an energy conservation strategy in periods of resource scarcity (Wieser et al. 1992, O'Connor et al. 2000). Conversely invertebrate prey is a lower resource level than piscivory (Finstad et al. 2006), so the capacity for energy storage during periods of plentiful resources (summer in Arctic lakes) will be limited for Delicate morph fish, thus greater feeding activity over a wider seasonal period might occur. However, smaller individuals can often sustain themselves on lower resource levels than larger ones because of the size scaling of metabolic demands (Byström et al. 2006), thereby the smaller Delicate morph may be able to remain more active than Robust over a more sustained period. Further evidence of disparity in metabolic capacity and feeding strategy may be evident when considering the effect of temperature on fish activity. A clear effect of water temperature was shown on the activity levels of Robust morph fish, with increasing water temperature, associated
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Foraging ecology of three sympatric ungulate species – behavioural and resource maps indicate differences between chamois, ibex and red deer

Foraging ecology of three sympatric ungulate species – behavioural and resource maps indicate differences between chamois, ibex and red deer

Species comparison We fitted multinomial logistic regression models using the three ungulate species as the response and plant bio- mass and plant N content in the animals’ core foraging areas as predictor variables. We rescaled plant biomass to a level similar to plant N content by dividing all bio- mass values by 100 (BiomRS = Biomass/100). As candi- date models we chose i) the two models containing only one predictor variable (plant biomass or plant N con- tent), ii) the main effects model containing both terms (plant biomass and plant N content), iii) the model in- cluding both terms plus their interaction and iv) the intercept-only model. We selected the best model based on differences of AIC (Δ AIC) and confirmed our selec- tion using the likelihood ratio test. To evaluate model fit we calculated the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic and the area under curve (AUC) of the receiver- operating characteristic (ROC) for each of the two logits separately [84]. The ROC is obtained by plotting all sen- sitivity values (true-positive fraction) on the y-axis against their equivalent 1-specificity values (false-positive fraction) for all thresholds on the x-axis. Thus, this measure of overall accuracy is independent of any threshold [85]. AUC values between 0.7 and 0.8 indicate good, values between 0.8 and 0.9 excellent discriminative ability [86]. We assessed the sensitivity of our results with regard to the size of the animals’ core foraging areas by re-running the analysis after adding and subtracting a 6 m buffer to the core foraging areas, respectively, and tested the hypothesis of equality of the model coeffi- cients. For analyses and graphs we used the packages nnet [87], pROC [88] and effects [89] in R [79].
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