Top PDF Firm relocation: state of the art and research prospects

Firm relocation: state of the art and research prospects

Firm relocation: state of the art and research prospects

The new viewpoints in policy and research coincide with a turn in interest with respect to the most relevant economic sectors. From a firm relocation point of view, one could say that the sectors of manufacturing industry, wholesale and business services (offices) have left the city in a sort of outward procession, of which the order has been dictated by the intensity of their land use. In the first post-war decades, the interest in industrial movement was of course partly due to the then more dominant position of manufacturing industry in the employment structure. But manufacturing also was the most mobile sector of that period. For its growth it needed space, which was made available at specially developed industrial sites (in fact in most countries a new, post-war phenomenon) at the city fringes, in suburban locations, or in more distant development nodes, at prices which were affordable for this sector, of which the more traditional branches need a large acreage per worker. Before long, the wholesale sector followed the industrial exodus, and soon even outsized it. In the second half of the 1960s the Amsterdam Bureau of Statistics already counted a number of emigrant wholesale firms which was twice the number of emigrant industrial firms (Pellenbarg 1976). At that time, the number of business services leaving Amsterdam was still very modest, but this was to change in the next decades. The multi-storey offices of the business services sector, using their square miles much more efficiently than ground floor facilities for production, storage or distribution, kept their positions in the central parts of urban areas longer. But in the course of the 1980s and 1990s they inserted in the urban overspill process too, and soon dominated it. Especially in the second part of the 1980s, when the economic recession was over, a huge demand for new office space arose, catching up the investment arrears of the past period. This lead to a massive relocation of business services to business parks at city fringes and in suburbs, lining the urban beltways and growing into the office corridors which we now face along most city entrances.
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Translation Studies. Major problems, the state of the art and research prospects, interests of scholars

Translation Studies. Major problems, the state of the art and research prospects, interests of scholars

The language of art is a specific sort of linguistics which uses not only language norms but also individual artistic conventions. Several language skills are required from the translator as well as individual feeling for the style, form and means of expression used by the artist. This article analyses certain difficulties which may appear while translating artistic texts, such as, for instance, lack of translation possibilities referring to modern theories of translation, along with the need for equivalent vocabulary connected with art (painting, sculpture, graphic, performance, video-art etc.). What seems to be of crucial importance is that the contact with the artist and deep study of his art should be treated as an inseparable element of translation.
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Nature Inspired Algorithms: State of Art, Problems and Prospects

Nature Inspired Algorithms: State of Art, Problems and Prospects

Nature inspired algorithms are motivated from natural ecosystem and simulate the behavior of natural living and non living things. This paper presented an extensive review of 12 nature-inspired algorithms. The work highlighted the important features of these algorithms in terms of their input parameters, evolutionary mechanism and applications. The main focus of this article was to enlighten the research community with the optimization capability of contemporary algorithms over multi-modal and unimodal continuous functions for large scale global optimization. It also helps researcher or practitioner to gain insight of the various toolboxes available for simulating nature inspired algorithms over benchmark problems. Thus, this paper would act as a boon to the research community in identifying the research prospects in the field of nature inspired algorithms. In future, the work will focus on more comprehensive evaluation of nature inspired algorithms with graphical and tabular analysis.
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Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

transdisciplinary research. Conclusions There is much potential for physiological research to contrib- ute to conservation of marine fish biodiversity and fisheries, which strengthens fish environmental physiology as a discip- line. There is a clear need to increase the overall knowledge base about marine fish environmental physiology, especially tolerance thresholds for major environmental stressors and how such stressors affect performance within their tolerated range. Physiologists should explore avenues for international collaborative research, in order to avoid duplication of effort and cover as broad a range of species as possible. A particular application of such data would be to improve the reliability of models in order to gain a better understanding of what de fines current fish distribution and abundance and, therefore, to increase con fidence in projections of the effects of ongoing glo- bal change. Increased interaction with researchers using other tools, notably fishery biologists, ecologists and modellers, will
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Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the environmental physiology of a wider range of species. Multifactorial field and laboratory studies on biomarkers hold promise to relate ecophysiology directly to habitat quality and population status. The ‘Fry paradigm’ could have broad applications for conservation physiology research if it provides a universal mechanism to link physiological function with ecological performance and population dynamics of fishes, through effects of abiotic conditions on aerobic metabolic scope. The available data indicate, however, that the paradigm is not universal, so further research is required on a wide diversity of species. Fish physiologists should interact closely with researchers developing ecological models, in order to investigate how integrating physiological information improves con fidence in projecting effects of global change; for example, with mechanistic models that de fine habitat suitability based upon potential for aerobic scope or outputs of a dynamic energy budget. One major challenge to upscaling from physiology of individuals to the level of species and com- munities is incorporating intraspeci fic variation, which could be a crucial component of species’ resilience to global change. Understanding what fishes do in the wild is also a challenge, but techniques of biotelemetry and biologging are providing novel information towards e ffective conservation. Overall, fish physiologists must strive to render research outputs more applicable to management and decision-making. There are various potential avenues for information flow, in the shorter term directly through biomarker studies and in the longer term by collaborating with modellers and fishery biologists. Key words: Biomarkers, ecological models, fisheries, Fry paradigm, individual variation, telemetry
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State of the art and prospects for peer to peer transaction based energy system

State of the art and prospects for peer to peer transaction based energy system

Buyers select the preferred specific provider from a list of energy products posted by suppliers in the case of the buyers’ selection approach. The suppliers provide the types of generation and the selling price to the selling list, and the buyers pick from available and preferable providers [62]. In ESP-centered trading, suppliers and buyers make contracts with ESP. ESP forms a big energy pool to trade with utilities or the power market. In the model, participating prosumers do not know how the resources are operated since they are directly controlled by ESP [63]. Therefore, in a strict sense, it is not a P2P ETS, but one of the realistic solutions for prosumers. In the buyers’ prioritization and ESP-matching mechanism, a buyer provides the preference of the energy type and/or providers instead of selecting specific providers; then, ESP matches providers and products to buyers considering buyers’ preferences and real generation amount. In this way, buyers can increase use choice even though they may not know the exact matching mechanism [64]. Double auction-based P2P energy trading models without the intervention of ESP are proposed in research or pilot projects [29,68,69]. It, however, would take a longer time for these models to come to market because of their operation complexity. Furthermore, the basic mechanism of ideal P2P energy trading models would be similar to a conventional power market mechanism except for the existence of a larger external market that is usually an existing power market. The last stage of the transaction is one of the most important roles of ESP: transaction settlement. Once production and consumption occur after the transaction matches, then the settlement should be performed by ESP considering the participants’ performance. Mostly the settlement is made up of money in the real-world system [62–64], but credits or virtual money could also be used for trial projects [29].
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Global Initiatives for Improving Hospital Care for Children: State of the Art and Future Prospects

Global Initiatives for Improving Hospital Care for Children: State of the Art and Future Prospects

Deficiencies in the quality of health care are major limiting factors to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals for child and maternal health. Quality of patient care in hospitals is firmly on the agendas of Western countries but has been slower to gain traction in developing countries, despite evidence that there is substantial scope for improvement, that hospitals have a major role in child survival, and that inequities in quality may be as important as inequities in access. There is now substantial global experience of strategies and interventions that improve the quality of care for children in hospitals with limited resources. The World Health Organization has developed a toolkit that contains adaptable instruments, including a framework for quality improvement, evidence-based clinical guidelines in the form of the Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children, teaching material, assessment, and mortality audit tools. These tools have been field-tested by doctors, nurses, and other child health workers in many developing countries. This collective experience was brought together in a global World Health Organization meeting in Bali in 2007. This article describes how many countries are achieving improvements in quality of pediatric care, despite limited resources and other major obstacles, and how the evidence has progressed in recent years from documenting the nature and scope of the problems to describing the effectiveness of innovative interventions. The challenges remain to bring these and other strategies to scale and to support research into their use, impact, and sustainability in different environments.
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Neurotechnologies for Human Cognitive Augmentation: Current State of the Art and Future Prospects

Neurotechnologies for Human Cognitive Augmentation: Current State of the Art and Future Prospects

In this paper, we will focus on a subset of means for human augmentation—neuroscience technologies—and only on one particular area—human cognitive enhancement. Our aim here is providing a snapshot of the current state of the art of neuroscience technologies for human cognitive enhancement and a motivated forecast of their most likely developments in the next two decades. Here, by cognitive enhancement we mean the improvement of the processes of acquiring/generating knowledge and understanding the world around us. Such processes encompass attention, the formation of knowledge, memory, judgement and evaluation, reasoning and computation, problem solving and decision making, as well as the comprehension and production of language. For these reasons, unlike previous efforts, here we choose to review applications of these technologies by the cognitive function they augment (more on this below). Readers interested in more details on recent techniques in brain function augmentation and futuristic applications are encouraged consult the comprehensive three- volume, 148-article special issue/research topic edited by Lebedev et al. (2018) .
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Servitization : revisiting the state-of-the-art and research priorities

Servitization : revisiting the state-of-the-art and research priorities

The literature recently explored the broad topic of organisational design. There is a recognition that delivering advanced services demands capabilities that differ from those used during production (Oliva and Kallenberg, 2003; Gebauer et al., 2005; Datta and Roy, 2010; Ceci and Masini, 2011; Biege et al., 2012). A variety of authors addresses this topic. Spring and Araujo (2009) provide a conceptual framework for intra-firm capabilities, and Roy and Cheruvu (2009) offer a similar framework, focusing on infrastructural factors. Baines and Lightfoot (2013) identify six practices and technologies that manufacturers deploy to deliver advanced services. Although many questions remain unanswered, or need to be answered more convincingly, a picture of how manufacturing organisations should be configured to deliver advanced services is emerging, but researchers have given less attention to processes of servitization.
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Servitization: revisiting the state-of-the-art and research priorities

Servitization: revisiting the state-of-the-art and research priorities

The literature recently explored the broad topic of organisational design. There is a recognition that delivering advanced services demands capabilities that differ from those used during production (Oliva and Kallenberg, 2003; Gebauer et al., 2005; Datta and Roy, 2010; Ceci and Masini, 2011; Biege et al., 2012). A variety of authors addresses this topic. Spring and Araujo (2009) provide a conceptual framework for intra-firm capabilities, and Roy and Cheruvu (2009) offer a similar framework, focusing on infrastructural factors. Baines and Lightfoot (2013) identify six practices and technologies that manufacturers deploy to deliver advanced services. Although many questions remain unanswered, or need to be answered more convincingly, a picture of how manufacturing organisations should be configured to deliver advanced services is emerging, but researchers have given less attention to processes of servitization.
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Review of the state of the art and future prospects of the ground-based GNSS meteorology in Europe

Review of the state of the art and future prospects of the ground-based GNSS meteorology in Europe

More than 15 years of GNSS meteorology in Europe has already achieved outstanding cooperation, overcoming difficulties such as cross-border data access. Through col- laboration between atmospheric and geodetic communities in Europe, it is now feasible to develop next-generation GNSS tropospheric products and applications that can en- hance the quality of weather forecasts and climate monitor- ing. This work is carried out within COST Action ES1206 advanced global navigation satellite systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate (GNSS4SWEC) (2013–2017). GNSS4SWEC is targeting improved understanding of atmospheric processes that will result in more accurate nowcasting of severe weather. This will lead to improved hazard management, lowering the risk of loss of life and the risk to national infrastructure. GNSS4SWEC will also promote the use of reprocessed long- term GNSS-based tropospheric delay data sets for climate research, with a focus on climate-sensitive regions such as higher latitudes. A correct representation of water vapour in climate models is essential for improvement of global warm- ing and precipitation projections, on which the development of socio-economic response strategies are based. Also, the benefit to NWP and climate modelling in turn will lead to improved satellite-based positioning, navigation, and timing products through improved signal propagation models. In ad- dition, while the production, exploitation, and evaluation of operational GNSS tropospheric products for NWP is a well- established research field in northern and western Europe, it is still an emerging R&D field in eastern and south-eastern Europe. GNSS4SWEC is supporting the knowledge transfer and establishment of new ACs, which will benefit the opera- tional E-GVAP service.
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CORPORATE GOVERNANCE STATE OF THE ART AND NEW RESEARCH TRENDS

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE STATE OF THE ART AND NEW RESEARCH TRENDS

An article from 1997, by Andrei Shleifer and Robert W. Vishny, provides a survey of corporate governance up to that point in time. They investigated the topic with the hope that understanding corporate governance can stimulate institutional changes in places where they needed to be made. Their approach is based on the agency problem, as developed, theoreti- cally, within the contractual view of the firm. Seen in this perspective, the firm is the creation of an entrepreneur who raises funds from investors to develop a business. The busi- ness is owed by financers, and run by managers. The agency problem refers to the difficulties investors have in assuring that “their funds are not expropriated or wasted on un- attractive projects” (Shleifer, Vishny, 2007, 54) but they earn them dividends. The authors argue that the weight of financer control over management depends on whether they are big financers or small financers. Also, the role of courts in settling issues between business owners and business managers varies from country to country, and in most cases they are only called upon in major violations by managers of investors’ rights. They conclude that “both the legal protection of investors and some form of concentrated ownership are essen- tial elements of a good corporate governance system” (Shleifer, Vishny, 2007: 77).
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The state of the art of strategy research and practice: An integrative review

The state of the art of strategy research and practice: An integrative review

Based on the conclusion some recommendations can be given to help steer future studies in the right direction for further alignment. Currently there are some major matches and differences. For instance, performance/firm performance and strategic change/networks are relatively well balanced. The topics researched in SMJ and used by managers in practice share some common ground with firm performance topics and networks. The other themes, subthemes and topics are relatively imbalanced. To bring academics and managers to a closer equilibrium where managers find the themes and topics researched relevant for their business, and vice versa, some recommendations can be made for future studies. Recognizing there is a gap between what is being researched and what is being used in practice is the first step to alignment. Furthermore, because it is a two-way street, in order to be successful, change has to come from both sides of the spectrum. A platform where ideas and theories can be exchanged between academics and managers would help the further alignment of the strategic management field. For now, it would suffice to recommend some changes to address the most important differences between research and practice. For instance, more studies can be performed to the themes/topics, which are underrepresented in current scientific literature. These are resources/human resources, stakeholders/customers and marketing. Although the literature review indicated marketing as a theme not studied in strategic research, the fact is that there are journals specialized in marketing and therefore possibly not included in SMJ. Logically, existing studies have already researched topics that currently are overrepresented. Thus, future studies can concentrate their efforts on under-researched themes and topics, which have been summarized in the conclusion. The academic and practical relevance of this study thus lies in its future applications. In the long-term, managers can use more scientific based insights to help them in their business, and academics can research more themes and topics managers find relevant for business, and vice versa of course.
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Fungal allergy in asthma–state of the art and research needs

Fungal allergy in asthma–state of the art and research needs

Studies performed in occupational settings have shown that employees more commonly report improvement of symptoms while being away from work [179] and indi- cated a reduction of respiratory symptoms including cough, shortness of breath, wheezing [185], stuffy or runny nose, eye, throat, skin, and headache symptoms [179] after evacuation/relocation from the infected building [179,185]. In active intervention studies patients in remediation groups reported significant reduction of bronchitis [180], improvement in wheeze affected activ- ities, perceived reduction in asthma medications (both relievers and controllers), symptoms of rhinitis [178] in- cluding allergic rhinitis [180], conjunctivitis [180,184], rhinoconjunctivitis [178], complaints on irritated eyes or nose and skin rash [181]. When remediation is com- pared to no remediation, a significant decrease in re- ported wheezing [178,183], need for asthma relievers and controllers [178] and trend toward fewer hospital admissions for respiratory conditions [183] in those pa- tients whose homes or work places had remediation undertaken. However, other studies failed to show a beneficial effect of intervention [182,184,186]. Inconsist- ent effects of remediation on lung function are also noted [178,180,181].
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Measuring the Digital Economy: State-of-the-Art Developments and Future Prospects

Measuring the Digital Economy: State-of-the-Art Developments and Future Prospects

When the firms’ output growth exceeds a "normal" rate, and after accounting for the growth of other factors, the authors conclude that computers contribute to productivity growth. Since the study is conducted with a variation in the time horizon, the authors found that the computer’s short run contribution to output is approximately equal to the direct user cost of computer capital. In the long run, they find that the contribution of computers rises by a significant margin and their interpretation is that computers complement organizational changes. This study is a very good example of what can be done to measure the multidimensional aspect of introducing digital technologies at firm level.
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The Macroeconomic Implications of Consumption: State of Art and Prospects for the Heterodox Future Research

The Macroeconomic Implications of Consumption: State of Art and Prospects for the Heterodox Future Research

Now, it is pretty obvious that, if one is to obtain a steady state, it is manda- tory to assume that the role of “ruling the roost” cannot be shared by two or more variables. There is no steady state if, for instance, investment and government ex- penditure grow at different rates, for ratios – such as government expenditure and private investment to GDP or (public and private) debt to capital – will not stabilize. What is not obvious is why Keynesian economists should not tinker with diffe- rent assumptions. After all, it seems quite clear that, in specific historical situations, the ultimate driver of growth may not be private investment, but residential invest- ment, or personal consumption, or government expenditure, or net exports (as in the Thirlwallian tradition). Models devised to examine such possibilities may then gain in clarity by assuming that private investment is purely induced by demand. Of course, wise economists will neither interpret the steady states their models gene- rate as predictions of what will actually happen in the long run of a real economy, nor will they confuse the simplifying assumption that investment is induced with, for instance, a statement about the inexistence (outside of the model…) of whimsi- cal fluctuations or path-dependence in investment decisions.
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Internet of things for disaster management: state-of-the-art and prospects

Internet of things for disaster management: state-of-the-art and prospects

VI. CONCLUSION Adoption of new techniques could reduce the chances of losing human lives as well as damage to large-scale infras- tructures due to both natural and human-made disasters. IoT, which allows seamless interconnection among heteroge- neous devices with diverse functionality, is a viable solution for disaster management. By applying data analytics and artificial intelligence tools, IoT-enabled disaster management systems are used for early warning about the mishap. Since the impact of any disaster is enormous, the IoT-enabled disas- ter management system can be applied to find the victim and possible rescue operations. This article summarizes the avail- able IoT-based technologies for disaster management and their suitability to apply into the disastrous situations. Finally, this survey presents some of the open research challenges and fundamental design principles for IoT-based disaster manage- ment systems. In summary, the aim of this study is to provide fundamentals about IoT-based disaster management systems that help us to understand past research contributions and future research direction to solve different challenges disaster management systems.
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Organic Agricultural Research in Europe  – Present State and Future Prospects

Organic Agricultural Research in Europe – Present State and Future Prospects

In the process of allocating more money to organic farming research, many national agricultural ministries and some international organisations have evaluated the needs and priorities of organic farming research. With far less than one per thousand of public and private research funding allocated to organic farming during the last 50 years, the results of such evaluations inevitably are long lists. Although organic farming benefits from basic and conventional research (e.g. resistance breeding, soil ecology, agri-environmental research, bio control etc.) most practical solutions suitable for integrated pest management or conventional farming can not be applied to the organic system.
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Current state and future prospects of research on fear of cancer recurrence

Current state and future prospects of research on fear of cancer recurrence

agreement about what constitutes a clinical level of FCR. Discussion between researchers and clinicians is required to enable agreement on the diagnostic characteristics of clinical FCR. Attendees discussed the consequences of diagnostic labelling. While it was recognised that a clinical diagnosis may be stigmatising, attendees felt a clinical cut-off would: (i) instigate effort to assist patients with higher than average levels of FCR, (ii) prevent unnecessary use of limited resources and (iii) focus research activity to those with problematic recurrence fears. Attendees identified elements of clinical FCR based on their clinical experience and the existing literature [Lebel et al. Submitted]. These elements will be refined in a second Delphi study.
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RELOCATION, RESEARCH, AND FORENSIC EVALUATION: PART II: RESEARCH IN SUPPORT OF THE RELOCATION RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL

RELOCATION, RESEARCH, AND FORENSIC EVALUATION: PART II: RESEARCH IN SUPPORT OF THE RELOCATION RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL

parent–child relationship as the main factor to consider, seemingly to the exclusion of others. The obvious problem with this singular approach to predicting a child’s adjustment to relocation is that, in the individual case, it will be a combination of risk and protective factors that ultimately describe the child’s outcome with divorce (Hetherington, 1999a) or relocation (Kelly & Lamb, 2003). The research literature cannot be plausibly interpreted to mean that this one factor so effectively insulates the child that the level of risk is minimal in light of the survey research on residential mobility (Part I). While this factor is very important and might serve as a basis for justifying relocation in a case, it is clear that children are more likely to follow a normal developmental course if they can benefit from quality relationships with two biological parents under conditions of low exposure to conflict (Amato & Sobolewski, 2001; Hetherington & Kelly, 2002). When circumstances require a child to relocate with a parent, and there have been two highly involved parents, then the revised parenting plan always needs to be based on a goal of harm mitigation (Austin, 2000c; Austin & Gould, 2006). When the nonresidential parent is not a viable candidate to become the residential parent, then the focus needs to be on how to maximize the likelihood that the child will have a successful relocation and achieve a healthy adjust- ment. This goal will usually revolve around how to facilitate the child’s access to the resources of the nonrelocating parent and other important sources of social capital for the child (Austin, 2005; see Hetherington, 1999b; Amato & Sobolewski, 2004).
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