Top PDF Foot pressure distribution during walking in young and old adults

Foot pressure distribution during walking in young and old adults

Foot pressure distribution during walking in young and old adults

to the following anatomical areas: medial calcaneus, lat- eral calcaneus, medial arch, lateral arch, first metatarsal, metatarsals two and three, metatarsals four and five, hal- lux, and toes. The following 5 variables were calculated for the each mask: maximum pressure, maximum force, mean pressure, mean force, and relative load. All variables were calculated for each step and then averaged over the 50 steps for each foot. Maximum pressure was defined as the greatest pressure any single sensor in each mask meas- ured in a single step, and these values were averaged sep- arately for each mask over 50 steps. Mean pressure was defined as the average of all activated sensors in a mask for a single step. To calculate maximum and mean forces, the pressure time-series data were converted to force by mul- tiplying each pressure value with the cross-sectional area of the corresponding sensor. All sensors in a defined mask were added together for each time frame to give the summed time-series for force, which was the total force for each mask. The maximum force was defined as the greatest force exerted for each mask in a single step. The mean force was defined as the average force exerted in each mask for a single step. Body weight was significantly different between men and women (p < 0.0001). All vari- ables were normalized by body weight (BW) and the area of each mask, to account for these factors. Relative load was defined as the ratio of the total force in a specific mask to the total force of all masks combined, expressed as a percentage [5].
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Acceleration of Upper Trunk Coordination in Young Versus old Adults During Walking on the Level and Irregular Floor Surface Using MTx Sensor

Acceleration of Upper Trunk Coordination in Young Versus old Adults During Walking on the Level and Irregular Floor Surface Using MTx Sensor

Procedure - Two X sense were used to measure head and trunk accelerations in the vertical (VT), anteroposterior (AP), and mediolateral (ML) directions during each walking trial. For data collection, one X sense was attached to the top of the head by a firm elastic headband, and another sensor firmly strapped over the sacrum with a rigid belt. Walking trials were performed on regular and irregular floor surface conditions. Prior to data collection, each X sense was statically calibrated on a flat horizontal surface. All participants wore their own comfortable clothing and the same thick stuck during tests [16]. Each participant was instructed to walk on the straight line; irregular and regular floor surface at their normal comfortable speed while focusing on a target set at their eye level. For each condition, three trials
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Gait performance and foot pressure distribution during wearable robot-assisted gait in elderly adults

Gait performance and foot pressure distribution during wearable robot-assisted gait in elderly adults

Beyond reduced hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor ac- tivity, we also observed a remarkable increase in max- imum force and peak pressure of the total foot, medial masks, anterior masks and posterior masks in the RAG condition. Because foot pressure distribution is affected by gait speed and stride variability [9], the increase in maximum force and peak pressure in the total foot asso- ciated with the GEMS may be related to increased gait speed and stride length. In the medial masks, increased maximum force and peak pressure imply that elderly adults preferentially bear weight on the lateral foot dur- ing free walking [42]; however, in the RAG condition, maximum force and peak pressure improved signifi- cantly, so weight bearing on the medial foot compen- sated for the forces and heavy loads imposed on the foot. Walking may present a challenge to elderly adults with an age-related decline in foot pressure. Elderly adults show lower foot pressure and force in the anterior masks and have a reduced ability to push off in anticipa- tion of the swing phase compared to young adults [43]. In the RAG condition, statistically significant changes in the anterior masks indicated that despite reduced ankle plantar flexor effort, greater force and pressure in the anterior masks increased the efficiency of walking. Foot pressure under the heel is affected by weight bearing at the heel strike. Elderly adults exert lower maximum force and pressure on the calcaneus region, resulting in instability of the ankle during the heel contact phase. However, in the posterior masks, an increase of max- imum force was observed in the RAG condition. This indicated that the device provided the force needed to stabilize the ankle during the heel contact phase.
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Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)

Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)

COP trajectories in very young elephants are similar to those of the adults, but exhibit greater variability between and within individuals. Furthermore, as elephants grow larger, they shift the region of the foot impacting the ground cranially (away from the ‘heel’). As a result, in larger, older elephants the foot is closer to horizontal at initial contact, showing that plantar and palmar contact pressures are distributed over a larger area during very early stance. The larger contact area may help achieve a more even distribution of plantar/palmar pressures and protect the caudal and central foot regions from excessive stresses and thus damage. These variable COP trajectory and roll-off patterns of very young individuals are presumably linked to their lack of experience in walking, similar to the plantar pressure profiles of human toddlers, which are initially highly variable and atypical of adults, but which rapidly mature thereafter (Bosch and Rosenbaum, 2010). We did not find other temporal changes in foot loading in our elephant subjects, but general ontogenetic changes of temporal parameters are predictable from previous kinematic studies – smaller elephants take quicker steps [shorter stance (i.e. contact) durations] but otherwise move similarly to adult elephants, and the manus stance durations (i.e. duty factors) remain slightly longer than for the pes (Hutchinson et al., 2006).
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Laterality of lower limb and plantar pressure symmetry while walking in young adults

Laterality of lower limb and plantar pressure symmetry while walking in young adults

The aim of this study is to discover whether the lateral preference of the lower limbs influences the selected dynamical parameters of the gait and to discover whether the data of the healthy limb can be used as reference ones in patients after lower limb injuries. 51young adults (age 22 ± 2 years, height 1.72 ± 0.1 m, body weight: 70 ± 16 kg) took part in the measurement. Foot preference for 5 different motion tasks (kicking a ball, stepping down from a stool, single leg stance, picking up marbles, hopping on one leg ) was observed repetitively and dynamographic records of participants’ gait using force plate (Emed®-c50, Novel, De) were performed. The average values of the maximum vertical force relativized to body weight (RF max ), maximal
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Within and between-days repeatability and variability of plantar pressure measurement during walking in children, adults and older adults

Within and between-days repeatability and variability of plantar pressure measurement during walking in children, adults and older adults

Plantar pressure was analyzed considering the forefoot (FF), midfoot (MF) and rearfoot (RF) regions defined using a software (Research Foot 6.64, Tekscan Inc., Bos- ton, MA, USA) and anatomical aspects determining that the rearfoot comprised 31% of the foot length, the mid- foot comprised 19% of the foot length, and the forefoot comprised 50% of the foot length [15]. Data were aver- aged for each foot region and normalized to the total foot pressure to minimize effects body mass and foot size that differ among the participants [16]. Variables of interested in our study were mean pressure, computed by the average pressure over active sensors, and peak pressure, defined as the highest value observed among the selected active sensors [17]. Data variability was de- termined by the coefficient of variation that is the ratio between standard deviation and mean values.
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Improvements in lower-limb muscle strength and foot pressure distribution with foot care in frail elderly adults: a randomized controlled trial from Japan

Improvements in lower-limb muscle strength and foot pressure distribution with foot care in frail elderly adults: a randomized controlled trial from Japan

long-term care subgroup that had a force of 5 kgf or lower and were at high risk of falling before the inter- vention showed considerable improvement; in addition, some subjects improved to the extent that they were re- classified from the falling risk group to the non-falling risk group. The questionnaires completed by the sub- jects, their family members, and staff members at resi- dential facilities indicated that the reasons for these improvements included the benefits of foot care and in- creased function in their feet and toenails, which moti- vated them to become interested in caring for their feet. Considering that the subjects had made an effort to stand and to walk, walking is likely to have strengthened the inner hip joint muscles and led to improvement in movement.
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Pressure distribution beneath the foot in sideslope walking

Pressure distribution beneath the foot in sideslope walking

TABLES Table 2:1 Normal foot pressures walking Table 2:2 Comparison of pressure platform characteristics Table 2:3 Peak foot pressures for adults and children walking Table 2:4 Peak forc[r]

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Movement coordination patterns between the foot joints during walking

Movement coordination patterns between the foot joints during walking

Good qualitative consistency was found for kinematics of the foot joints with comparable results from previous studies [6, 17, 18, 24]. For coordinative patterns, similar to what was reported by Chang et al. [10], late stance in- phase coordination pattern between coronal-plane motion of the ankle and tarso-metatarsal joints was detected. The same coordination pattern was also found for the midtar- sal joint. This suggests that late stance in-phase coordin- ation may be present also in other foot joints. This seems in contrast to the classic view of simultaneous opposite rotations assisting foot stability during push-off [25]. Moreover, the presence of a predominantly distal coordin- ation pattern, due to the rapid midtarsal joint plantarflex- ion in late stance, further reflects the complex interaction between joints in the foot across multiple planes of motion. Unlike what reported in previous studies [10], an increased frequency of proximal coordination between ankle and tarso-metatarsal joints was detected, associ- ated to a less frequent distal coordination pattern (Table 1 and Fig. 3c). This difference is likely due to differences between foot models across studies, with less tarso-metatarsal motion probably biasing the pat- tern toward proximal coordination, as highlighted by the rather flat angle-angle relationship (Fig. 2 c1).
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The role of tibialis posterior fatigue on foot kinematics during walking

The role of tibialis posterior fatigue on foot kinematics during walking

during walking. These preliminary results suggest that the anatomical structure of the foot is not associated with the dependence of muscular activity that an individual requires to maintain normal foot kinematics during gait. However, it has been discussed earlier that reduced force output of tibialis posterior may have been compensated for by other muscles. Therefore, it is possible that com- pensation strategies may have masked the true relation- ship between anatomical structure and tibialis posterior contribution. The present investigation was also limited by the fact that the standing rearfoot angle was the only structural measurement of the foot. For instance, the range of motion (ROM) of the rearfoot might influence the degree to which an individual's rearfoot eversion can change following fatigue. If the peak rearfoot eversion angle was close to their end ROM during the pre-fatigue gait, then structural restraints would prevent any further increases in eversion following fatigue. In addition, struc- tural measures of the arch and forefoot have not been reported here. It is possible that a rigid cavus foot would rely less on muscular contribution to maintain the integ- rity of the arch and forefoot during walking. Indeed a recent study demonstrated that during gait, flat-arched individuals exhibit greater activity of tibialis posterior compared to those with normal arches [14]. Future stud- ies with more comprehensive foot structure evaluations are required to understand the contributions of bony anatomy and muscular activation to foot biomechanics.
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Transfer of plantar pressure from the medial to the central forefoot in patients with hallux valgus

Transfer of plantar pressure from the medial to the central forefoot in patients with hallux valgus

As described in previous studies, no difference was ob- served in the spatio-temporal gait parameters such as step width, step length, and single-limb support [6, 9, 21, 22]. The only difference, as observed in one study, was reduced walking speed and overall shorter step length [21]. This did not, however, distinguish between the pathological and the healthy foot of each affected indi- vidual - a trait common to many of the previously pub- lished studies. When analysing the pathological and healthy side separately in our study, still no difference could be detected in the bilateral parameters of step length and single-limb support. If a difference in plantar pressure distribution exists between hallux valgus and healthy feet, it thus seems to not affect the overall gait pattern. Such a possible difference would thus be mostly compensated within the foot and ankle region itself, without affecting sagittal motion in, for example, the knee or hip region. Indeed, when considering the hindfoot, the midfoot, and the forefoot regions separately, no difference in plantar pressures could be observed between the pathological side and the contra- lateral healthy foot.
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Attention demanding tasks during treadmill walking reduce step width variability in young adults

Attention demanding tasks during treadmill walking reduce step width variability in young adults

ground walking with their eyes closed. The amplitude and direction differences between our results and those of Bauby and Kuo may reflect differences in the availability of vision. Humans veer, or deviate from straight line walk- ing, after just a couple of meters without vision [24]. It is possible in the experiment of Bauby and Kuo, during which subjects received verbal stimuli to help them main- tain a straight line gait, that the increased step width vari- ability resulted from an interaction between the veering due to the absence of vision and the corrections in response to the verbal stimuli. In the present study, visual information was not absent although the extent to which it was available for guidance may have been reduced due to need to direct vision at the projection of the Stroop test words. Thus, the between-study differences in protocols render meaningful comparison of the results difficult. However, the biomechanical and physiological signifi- cance of these disparate findings may have considerable clinical importance. It is possible that directional changes (increase vs. decrease) are contextual and must be consid- ered relative to the specific experimental conditions. In addition, it may be that changes in step width variability can not be considered in isolation from other relevant var- iables. For example, in the present study and that of Wal- ter et al. [20] there was no effect of the attention demanding task on step width. In contrast, in the study of Bauby and Kuo step width increased by 11 percent. In the work of Maki [16], the older adults who fell demonstrated increased step width (compared to young adults) and decreased step width variability compared to older adults who did not fall.
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Embedded wearable device for monitoring diabetic foot ulcer parameters

Embedded wearable device for monitoring diabetic foot ulcer parameters

For non-invasive remote monitoring of diabetic foot, temperature measurements can be used as a base parameter. Human skin plays a pivotal role in thermo-regulation of the body. Tem- perature of human body is the result of thermal balance between thermal energy supplied by core and energy lost to the environment via conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation (Fierheller and Sibbald, 2010). Studies of dermal thermometry have suggested that variations in temperature > 4°F (> 2.2°C ) could be helpful in skin surveillance (Armstrong et al., 2007). This rise in temperature can be detected up to one week before actual foot ulceration occurs (Liu et al., 2013). However there is no reference range available as body temperature can vary widely from person to person and even within different body parts of the same individual. This difficulty can be overcome by comparing one part of the body with it’s symmetrical counter part since under normal circumstances they are considered to be comparable (Fier- heller and Sibbald, 2010; Jones, 1998). Clinical studies on the home monitoring of plantar foot temperature have shown that frequent temperature assessment, and, treatment in the case of temperature differences greater than 2.2°C between same regions of both foot, can prevent di- abetic foot complications (Liu et al., 2015). In the studies performed by Armstrong et al. (2007), authors found that, temperature difference between ulcerated foot regions was 4.8 times higher than that of region without ulceration. This difference depicted in Figure 3.1 was found almost a week prior to ulceration.
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Intra subject Variability of Impact Shock of Foot on the Ground during Walking and Running Activities

Intra subject Variability of Impact Shock of Foot on the Ground during Walking and Running Activities

We can affirm that walking velocity and peak force are good gait parameters to evaluate walking and running activi- ties. The mean ratio between peak force F and static weight W can be considered function of the walking frequency. We noted a considerable intra–subject variation of this mean ratio for the velocity from 1 m/s to 9 m/s. Due to the intra–subject variability, the walking force parameters (Fig.6) are not con- stants but fluctuate with time and change from one stride to the next stride. The ratio between the peak force and static weight increases from 1 m/s to 6 m/s and assumes a flat trend from 6 m/s to 9 m/s.
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Reliability and Sex Differences in the Foot Pressure Load Balance Test and Its Relationship to Physical Characteristics in Preschool Children

Reliability and Sex Differences in the Foot Pressure Load Balance Test and Its Relationship to Physical Characteristics in Preschool Children

as variables for the foot pressure load balance in this study. Because the human body always sways while standing, meas- ured values also vary. Foot pressure load balance variables trial-to-trial reliability has not been examined. In addition, be- cause some of the young children had trouble understanding the measurement method, multiple trials were needed in order to obtain stable measured values. Reliability between the second and third trials was the highest for all foot pressure load balance variables and their ICCs were over 0.7. Jackson et al., (1980) judged that reliability is good when ICC is over 0.7. In addition, significant differences between the first and third trials were found in two foot pressure load balance variables in girls. Namely, it was suggested that stable measured values could be obtained after the second trial. Hence, foot pressure load bal- ance in young children is required to measure more than two trials and when measuring three trials, it may be adequate to use the mean of the second and third trials as a representative value. Based on the present results, the mean of the second and third trials were used in this study. The total sway length showed insignificant difference between the second and third trials but was significantly longer in the first trial than in the second and third trials (Table 3). Namely, it is inferred that bodily posture is more unstable in the first trial than in trials after the second one. Because this was the first time the subjects had their foot pressure load balance measured, they may have been uneasy and inexperienced at the first trial. It is inferred that they gradu- ally got used to the measurement and could maintain a stable posture after the second trial.
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Increased frontal brain activation during walking while dual tasking: an fNIRS study in healthy young adults

Increased frontal brain activation during walking while dual tasking: an fNIRS study in healthy young adults

Recently several studies used fNIRS to examine brain ac- tivity during walking [12,13]. NIRS measures use optical ab- sorption to detect hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex [14], similar to the way that activation is assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Optodes placed on the surface of the forehead send and receive light (wavelengths 750 to 1000 nm), recording the changes in returning light that has traversed through the skull. The rationale behind fNIRS is that relevant stimuli produces an increase in re- gional cerebral blood flow due to higher energy demands in “activated” areas, resulting in higher blood oxygenation. Using fNIRS, an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO 2 )
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THE INFLUENCE OF A SCHOOL BAG CARRIAGE ON THE PATTERN CHANGES IN PLANTAR PRESSURE DURING WALKING AMONG SCHOOLCHILDREN IN THE FIRST GRADE

THE INFLUENCE OF A SCHOOL BAG CARRIAGE ON THE PATTERN CHANGES IN PLANTAR PRESSURE DURING WALKING AMONG SCHOOLCHILDREN IN THE FIRST GRADE

Lack of physical activity in children has been recognized by the World Health Organization as one of the primary problems of modern living. School- children spend most of their time sitting in school benches, which increases static strain on them and significantly reduces the time they spend in phys- ical activity playing. During the entire period of schooling, schoolbags are the main means for the transfer of books and accessories, the transportation of which makes the daily activity of the majority of children (Al-Saleem, et al., 2016). Schoolbag’s excessive weight can lead to muscle imbalances during the growth phase and later in life to chronic pain and posture problems (AAOS, 2018).
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Distribution of Blood Pressure in a National Sample of Malaysian Adults

Distribution of Blood Pressure in a National Sample of Malaysian Adults

Distribution of Blood Pressure in a National Sample of Malaysian Adults ORIGINAL ARTICLE Distribution of Blood Pressure in a National Sample of Malaysian Adults TO Linl, MRCP*, L M Ding, MHA*, B L Goh[.]

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Does texting while walking really affect gait in young adults?

Does texting while walking really affect gait in young adults?

Our results may be interpreted as an increased need of stabilizing the ankle joint during a “critical” phase of the gait cycle, when the body weight was transferred from one leg to the other. The decrease of co-contractions in terminal stance may indicate that the CNS supplied more “attention” to the contralateral limb on whom the weight load was being transferred. Hence, the motor control strategy seemed different in the different phases of the gait cycle: increasing co-contractions when the body load was sustained by a single limb; decreasing co- contractions when both feet were providing a proprio- ceptive input. This finding was probably not influenced by the walking speed reduction. In fact, previous research demonstrated no modifications in the ankle muscle co-contraction levels when reducing the walking speed by 10 % [27].
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HUMAN GAIT IN GRIDHRASI (sciatica) AND ITS MODULATORY EFFECTS ON PLANTER PRESSURE MEASUREMENT: A REVIEW .......

HUMAN GAIT IN GRIDHRASI (sciatica) AND ITS MODULATORY EFFECTS ON PLANTER PRESSURE MEASUREMENT: A REVIEW .......

Walking style of the person effected by this disease looks like, that of Vulture and hence the name. Pain, Stiffness and Tenderness, starting from hip region radiating to waist, thigh, knee and calf region with itching sensation are its features. Drowsiness, Heaviness of lower limbs and Anorexia may be seen in some. In modern science, pain originating due to irritation of the roots of sciatic nerve is a group of symptoms which mimics this condition. Gridhrasi is associated with abnormal gait of the p tient as putting abnormal pressure on the foot and leg, pain is felt on heel and leg while walking. Several studies on the foot biomechanics have reported that planter pressure variations are useful to determine
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