Top PDF Forage seed systems in Ethiopia: A scoping study

Forage seed systems in Ethiopia: A scoping study

Forage seed systems in Ethiopia: A scoping study

The FeedSeed Project aims at developing and piloting farmer, cooperative, private and public sector seed enterprise models to identify where and under what conditions varying types of seed enterprise models are most suitable and profitable. These efforts are anticipated to then stimulate an increased quantity and higher quality forage seed production and availability, and higher levels of forage use by smallholder livestock producers. In particular, the project engages private and public sector enterprises, smallholder farmers as well as cooperatives in forage seed production and marketing. The project follows a public-private partnership approach in developing sustainable forage seed production and marketing systems, along with nurturing the establishment of viable commercial forage seed enterprises. The FeedSeed Project activities are expected to increase the availability, purchase, and use of quality forage seed by land resource poor livestock farmers and enable them to better adapt to climate change by intensifying their feed and livestock production. This will lead to enhanced animal productivity and more productive and sustainable use of limited land resources thus relieving the pressure on communal grazing areas and fragile and marginally productive lands. In addition, the FeedSeed Project engages public and/or private incubators that provide various business development services and technical support to private and/or public enterprises in order to become viable seed businesses. The incubator and FeedSeed Project staff assist businesses in accessing loans and grants. The project also provides technical and business skills training to the batch group of entrepreneurs. These enterprises can act as demonstration sites and assist in idea sharing and linkages for start-up businesses.
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Farmers’ willingness to pay for improved forage seed in LIVES Districts of west Shewa Zone, Ethiopia

Farmers’ willingness to pay for improved forage seed in LIVES Districts of west Shewa Zone, Ethiopia

Higher willingness to pay for improved forage has positive effects on utilization of improved forage which increases livestock productivity. However, the extents to which farmers are WTP for improved forage seed has not been studied at study area. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify determinants of farmers’ WTP for improved forage seed and to assess the seed system in LIVES districts of West Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. The study includes both primary and secondary data. A multi-stage stratified sampling technique was used to collect data from181 farmers. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and econometric model. DBDC elicitation format of contingent valuation method was employed to estimate the parameters in the bivariate probit model. From the result of the study: lack of proper linkage between different actors involved in seed systems; inadequate supply of good quality seed at affordable prices; low level of private sector involvement in the formal system were typical challenges in the seed system of the study area. The response of households' for scenario indicated that the mean WTP for alfalfa, elephant grass, oats and vetch was found to be ETB 173.82, 0.54 per cutting, 39.13 and 28.51 per kg, respectively. The results of the model revealed that on-farm income, land holding, total livestock in TLU, access to credit, family size and contact with extension agents had positive and significant effects on WTP. While initial bid prices, off-farm income, distance to all weather roads and input supplier institutions had negative and significant effects on WTP. The study recommended that well coordinated and organized seed systems which comprehend all actors and promising cultivars through well established national extension system should be required in order to fill the current seed system gaps. Moreover, the farmers’ WTP for improved forage should be enhanced by raising farm household asset creation, training and providing credit services.
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Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

Farmers also store seed potatoes in bags stacked on the floor in untidy places in the house where there is no ventilation, heaped loosely or put on a bed-like structure. Forty seven per cent of the farmers in the district Degem and 46% of the farmers in district Jeldu in the central area of Ethiopia (this study; Table 1 ) and 73.6% in the eastern area of Ethiopia (Mulatu et al. 2005a ) used bags to store their seed potatoes. About 45% of the potato farmers of Jeldu district in the central area of Ethiopia and 21% of the farmers of Banja district in the northwestern area of Ethiopia heap their seed potatoes loosely while 33% of the farmers of Banja district in the northwestern area of the country use a bed-like structure (Table 1 ). Mulatu et al. ( 2005a ) also found that about 26.4% of the farmers in the eastern area of Ethiopia piled up their seed potatoes in an open place or in a corner of their house. However, there are also farmers who store their potatoes in a better place. In a study made in the central and northwestern areas of Ethiopia, about 18% of the farmers were found to use light spaces in the house to store their seed potatoes (Gildemacher et al. 2009b ). In the southern area farmers store seed potatoes in their home or in a store constructed for this purpose. Seed and ware potatoes are stored side by side in the same store or home. In the Shashemene district of the southern area, farmers cover stored ware and seed tubers with teff straw to protect the tubers from sun light. They use a thicker cover for the seed than for the ware. The farmers increase the thickness of the seed tuber cover a few weeks before planting. The farmers believe that an increase in the thickness of the cover will help the seed tubers to break dormancy and thereby encourage sprouting.
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Timeliness costs in grain and forage production systems

Timeliness costs in grain and forage production systems

included in the model can be defined with specific data for price, size and capacity. An example of an applied mathematical model is the farm level model presented by Ramsden et al. (1999), which uses linear programming to establish optimum utilisation of machinery and labour depending on the time available for field operations. Soegaard & Soerensen (2004) developed a non-linear programming model specifically for optimisation of machinery size but also intended for use as part of a whole-farm planning model. In the study presented in Paper I, a MIP model developed by Nilsson (1976) was used for selecting the size of the seed drill and combine harvester that minimised annual costs including timeliness. Camarena et al. (2004) presented a MIP model for multi-farm use of machinery that selects the machinery sets used in a shared form on a number of farms corresponding to the lowest mechanisation costs. Mapemba et al. (2008) used a MIP model to determine the least-cost harvest and delivery system for plant biomass on a large scale.
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Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

ii. Other traditional storage methods Farmers also store seed potatoes in bags stacked on the floor in untidy places in the house where there is no ventilation, heaped loosely or put on a bed-like structure. Forty seven per cent of the farmers in the district Degem and 46% of the farmers in district Jeldu in the central area of Ethiopia (this study; Table 1 ) and 73.6% in the eastern area of Ethiopia (Mulatu et al. 2005a ) used bags to store their seed potatoes. About 45% of the potato farmers of Jeldu district in the central area of Ethiopia and 21% of the farmers of Banja district in the northwestern area of Ethiopia heap their seed potatoes loosely while 33% of the farmers of Banja district in the northwestern area of the country use a bed-like structure (Table 1 ). Mulatu et al. ( 2005a ) also found that about 26.4% of the farmers in the eastern area of Ethiopia piled up their seed potatoes in an open place or in a corner of their house. However, there are also farmers who store their potatoes in a better place. In a study made in the central and northwestern areas of Ethiopia, about 18% of the farmers were found to use light spaces in the house to store their seed potatoes (Gildemacher et al. 2009b ). In the southern area farmers store seed potatoes in their home or in a store constructed for this purpose. Seed and ware potatoes are stored side by side in the same store or home. In the Shashemene district of the southern area, farmers cover stored ware and seed tubers with teff straw to protect the tubers from sun light. They use a thicker cover for the seed than for the ware. The farmers increase the thickness of the seed tuber cover a few weeks before planting. The farmers believe that an increase in the thickness of the cover will help the seed tubers to break dormancy and thereby encourage sprouting.
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Economic and agronomic analysis of the seed potato supply chain in Ethiopia

Economic and agronomic analysis of the seed potato supply chain in Ethiopia

improvement by increasing food availability and cash income of smallholder farmers. Currently, production and productivity of potato in Ethiopia are very low because of poor quality seed tubers and unavailability of seed tubers of improved varieties. The overall objective of this thesis was to study the economic and agronomic aspects that affect quality and availability of seed potatoes in Ethiopia. To accomplish this objective, first, seed potato systems currently operating in Ethiopia, i.e. informal, alternative and formal ones, were analysed for their strengths and weaknesses. The result of the analysis showed that all existing seed systems have problems in performing their function and need to improve. To enhance overall supply of seed tubers co-existence and linkage of the three seed systems were found to be very important. Second, a conjoint analysis (a technique used to measure relative contribution of product attributes) was conducted to elicit farmers’ opinions on management attributes that they believed to affect yield and quality of potato. The results showed that management attributes, such as storage method, hoeing combined with hill size, fertilizer rate and fungicide application frequency had more effect on seed yield and quality than seed source, seed size, sprouting method, tillage frequency, and planting date. Third, a study was conducted to develop cost-effective seed potato production plans for farmers in Ethiopia using perceived contributions of production and postharvest management and costs. Several plans were developed from which farmers could choose an affordable plan that will enable them to produce seed potato with reasonable yield and quality levels. The fourth study was conducted to describe existing and potential seed potato supply chains, and to evaluate the performance of these chains. The findings showed that seed potato supply chains vary in their performance with respect to cost, seed quality, flexibility and responsiveness. Actors in the chains also varied with respect to their importance to improve seed potato supply chain performance sub- indicators. The results of this thesis indicate that seed quality and availability can be improved by improving economic and agronomic aspects of the seed systems in general and seed supply chains in particular.
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Cropping systems diversification, improved seed, manure and inorganic fertilizer adoption by maize producers of eastern Ethiopia

Cropping systems diversification, improved seed, manure and inorganic fertilizer adoption by maize producers of eastern Ethiopia

The gap between demand for and supply of food in Ethiopia can be reduced by improving farm productivity through the introduction of productivity-enhancing tech- nologies. Conversely, in Ethiopia, the adoption rates of agricultural technologies remain below the expected levels. Hence, by using multivariate probit model, this study identifies factors that motivate the adoption of a combination of inorganic fertilizer, improved seed, manure and cropping system diversification in eastern Ethiopia using multiple plot-level observations. The analysis shows that the probabilities of adoption of agricultural technologies are influenced by household, socioeconomic, institutional and plot-level characteristics. Alongside this, the paper also shows that there is a signifi- cant correlation between the selected technologies, suggesting that adoptions of technologies are interrelated. Specifically, the result indicates that there is complemen- tarity between inorganic fertilizer and improved seed; and substitutability between inorganic fertilizer and manure. The result also indicates there is complementarity between adoption of improved seed and manure; and adoption of improved seed and crop diversification.
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The support for farmer-led seed systems in African seed laws.

The support for farmer-led seed systems in African seed laws.

Broadly speaking, the seed laws of African countries reviewed in this study recognize and promote five differ­ ent classes of seed: breeder seed, basic (foundation) seed, certified seed (one or more generations), standard (or emergency) seed and quality declared seed. No other qual­ ity assurance systems, like truth­in­labelling, are currently mentioned in the legislative seed documents that were reviewed. The legal recognition of these categories of seed is based on the premise that it is produced according to prescribed standards, and on that basis it is trustworthy with regard to its quality (e.g. appropriate germination rate, disease free, genetic and physical purity) having been through the prescribed testing and quality control. In or­ der to submit seed to a certification scheme, nations usu­ ally require seed to be of an officially released variety. The minimum requirements that seed must adhere to, as set by the minister or ministry, may differ for each seed class. An important class that provides less stringent standards for certification, and/or establishes different procedures that are less time­consuming and costly, is quality declared seed (FAO, 2006). Currently, eight countries mention QDS in either their acts or policies: Ethiopia, Ghana, South Sudan (draft policy), Tanzania, Uganda (draft policy), Mozambique, Malawi and Zambia. Rwanda also defines
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Determinants of adoption of improved forage technologies in crop-livestock mixed systems: Evidence from the highlands of Ethiopia

Determinants of adoption of improved forage technologies in crop-livestock mixed systems: Evidence from the highlands of Ethiopia

Based on the above discussion, this study focuses on adoption of a forage technology by market-oriented dairy producers in a mixed farming system of the highlands of Ethiopia. Factors that affect forage adoption in a crop– livestock mixed system emanate from inter- actions amongst the system components and with its external environment (see Figure 1). To the extent that feed markets operate, purchased feed can compensate for feed shortages. Hence, the need to adopt improved forage technologies is affected by: both supply and demand factors for livestock feed; household capacity factors that determine the household’s capability to integrate forage production into the farming system or pur- chase feed from the market; the extent of market integration of the household; institutional serv- ices such as extension; and the usual conditioning demographic factors. It is assumed that house- holds in the study area face similar conditions in terms of access to communal grazing land.
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Commercializing dairy and forage systems in Ethiopia: An innovation systems perspective

Commercializing dairy and forage systems in Ethiopia: An innovation systems perspective

6 Conclusion and recommended options The study looked at the actor landscape, the efforts directed at dairy development and their outcomes through an innovation systems lens. The study concludes that unprecedented opportunities exist or are emerging for achieving productivity improvement and market-orientation in smallholder dairy systems. These are derived from: i) favourable national policy framework and increasing public investment in food security and safety net programs, agricultural R&D, rural roads, and in ICT infrastructural development; ii) the signs of improvement in demand for and prices of milk and milk products as well as the stimulation of milk selling culture with the increasing number of dairy cooperatives; iii) engagement of various actors along with public sector in smallholder dairy development through various pilot innovative initiatives; iv) emerging pluralist service delivery with gradual increase of the private sector involvement; and v) availability of technological options to address constraints relating to cattle feed, breeding, animal health and milk handling and processing.
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Forage Seed System Assessment: The Case of Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

Forage Seed System Assessment: The Case of Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

The resource ownership was also tried to be considered in both the selected districts. The farm size and livestock holding of the study area is in the range of 0.011 to 2.625 hector and 0.29 to 20.59 TLU respectively (table 5). The summary result in table 13 shows us that in 82.19% (60) in Kilte-Awulaelo and 75.64(59) from Atsbi- Wenberta, the land holding distribution lies on the ranges 0.001 to 1 ha. Similarly for the livestock holding distribution the survey (Table 3) found out (67.12% and 30.14%) respondents from Kilte-Awulaelo and (57.69% and 39.74%) respondents from Atsbi-Wenberta owns 0.1 to 4.5 and 4.6 to 9 TLU of livestock respectively. Income is one of the main resources of a household that describes the decision of a farmer to participate in farming activities and to use improved farm inputs. As the data summarized in table 2, respondents have got an annual income ranges of 200 to 15700 birr per annum in the period of 2013/14 from off/none farm activities, 1000 to 40000 birr from farm activates and 1000 to 49000 from all activities done with the average annual income of 4872.27 and 11107.04 birr from off/non farm and farm activity respectively.
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Strengthening Forage Seed Multiplication and Supply Systems through Farmers’-Based Seed Production in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

Strengthening Forage Seed Multiplication and Supply Systems through Farmers’-Based Seed Production in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

In many developing countries, livestock play an important role in the livelihoods of most small-scale farmers, viz, sources of food in the form of meat and milk, services (transport and draught power), cash income, manure (for soil fertility management and fuel) and serve as store of wealth and hedge against inflation (Sere et al., 2008). Despite enormous contribution of livestock to the livelihood of farmers, scarcity of feeds in both quantity and quality is a common problem for the development of viable livestock industries in the developing world (Sere et al., 2008). Traditional livestock production system mainly depends upon poor pasturelands and crop residues which are usually inadequate to support reasonable livestock production (Assefa, 2005). Currently, with the rapid increase in human population and increasing demand of food, grazing lands are steadily shrinking being converted to arable lands (Muriuki, 2003). Moreover, poor grazing management has resulted in very low carrying capacities brought about by replacement of productive and nutritious flora by unpalatable species such as Pennisetum shemperi is a common situation in the highlands of Ethiopia. Crop residues provide on average about 50% of the total feed source for ruminant livestock and its contribution reach up to 80% during the dry seasons of the year in the highlands of Ethiopia (Adugna, 2007). These feed resources are high in fiber, with low to moderate digestibility and low levels of nitrogen (Tsige, 2000), thus resulting in insufficient nutrient supply, low productivity and even the animals’ loss their weight (Hindrichsen et al., 2004).
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Overview of Improved Forage and Forage Seed Production in Ethiopia: Lessons from Fourth Livestock Development Project

Overview of Improved Forage and Forage Seed Production in Ethiopia: Lessons from Fourth Livestock Development Project

This paper summarizes the forage production program of the fourth livestock development project implemented in Ethiopia. Various promising improved forage production strategies were developed and successfully implemented in project areas. The strategies were evolved from experiences of other countries and an understanding of the importance of matching forage systems to different agro-ecological zones of the country. Moreover, the project involved in producing forage seed under contractual basis with individual farmers and cooperatives to enable the production of larger amount of seed per unit area with lower cost of production. Generation of different forage seed production technologies which are feasible for different agro-ecologies are extremely important for better quality forage and forage seed production but the technologies are not yet well demonstrated for most forage species. Therefore, identification of suitable sites, land preparation, seeding rate, sowing date, sowing methods, weeding management, fertilizer rate, forage and seed harvesting stages and others agronomic managements were considered for successful establishment and productivity of each introduced forage species. So, the project demonstrated different promising and high yielding forage species with recommended production packages for large number of farmers in different regions and the project farmers were well acquainted and successfully produced forage and forage seeds of the introduced improved forage species. Improved forage production program must be adapted to the economic, social and environmental conditions of each intervention region. Due to this, some fundamental requirements were included in the program for successful implementation of forage and forage seed production. Active farmer participation at all stages of production, strong institutional support, a planning approach to implementation, motivated technicians located throughout the project area to extend forage strategies and conduct adaptive research, initial importation of improved forage seed, financial mechanisms to enable contract seed growing, secure land tenure for farmers and monitoring and evaluation were some of the major requirements considered for successful implementation of the project. Generally, the project was the first of its kind in Ethiopia in implementing extensive forage development interventions which are specifically suitable to the smallholder mixed crop-livestock farmers and generated valuable lessons for similar livestock development programs in the country.
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Motorcycle safety: a scoping study

Motorcycle safety: a scoping study

satisfy sensation-seeking motives which may lead to behaviours such as high acceleration, fast cornering and overtaking. There is a wide spectrum of motorcycle type and performance, and several categories of motorcycle use that may be associated with different types of accident and levels of risk. This, together with interactions with variables like rider age, sex, motivation, and level of exposure, implies that the ‘motorcycle safety problem’ is probably much more heterogeneous than the car safety problem, and that subsets of the problem may have to be addressed separately. One example here is that of despatch riders. An unpublished TRL research study focused on the accident liability of a particular subgroup, that of despatch riders. Again based on a self-reported accident survey, this research showed that once the effects of annual mileage, age, riding experience and training have been controlled for, despatch riders appear to have between about 3 and 6.5 times as many accidents as other motorcyclists, and between about 3 and 10 times as many injury accidents. A recommendation for follow-up work to gather information from despatch riders about a range of factors not explored in the postal questionnaire is included in Section 2.4.
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Challenges and Opportunities of Seed Multiplication in Eastern Tigray Ethiopia

Challenges and Opportunities of Seed Multiplication in Eastern Tigray Ethiopia

A study by Boussard et al. (2005) found that 99% of the food in Sub-Saharan Africa is grown under rain fed agriculture. Hence, food production is vulnerable to adverse weather conditions. The reason behind is that there was an over decline in farm input investment including fertilizers, seeds, and technology adoptions. In Ethiopia, as in many other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the informal seed system is still the dominant system for seed supply. It is the system in which farmers select their crops and varieties, produce their own seed, and/or locally exchange and purchase seed. Annual potential seed requirement of Ethiopia is estimated to be 150,000 tons, but the formal sector supply does not exceed 20,000, or only about 13%. The formal sector plays a role in more accessible areas and mainly for a few cereal crops (Marjia, 2008). Despite the huge demand, there is a great shortage of seed supply from this formal sector. Farmer-based seed production is the cornerstone to fill the gap between the demand and supply of seed for most of the crops (ibid.).
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scoping study cr pdf

scoping study cr pdf

La renuncia voluntaria del derecho de autor sobre ciertas obras y su dedicación al dominio público debería reconocerse como un ejercicio legítimo de la paternidad de la obra y de exclusi[r]

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The Scoping Review of Integration of Heterogeneous Healthcare Systems

The Scoping Review of Integration of Heterogeneous Healthcare Systems

engines: Springer retrieved 400, IEEE Xplore retrieved 3250, ACM retrieved 1270, and Google scholar 1080. Studies not published in English were excluded, including studies which avail only abstracts only, and those which do not include integration studies or review in health information systems were also excluded. The included articles were scrutinized to extract information about health integration systems, paradigms and outcomes from different perspectives, including experiences. Articles that met inclusion criteria were retained for scoping review.
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Effects of Certain Fungicides on Seed Germination and Seedling Establishment of Range Forage Plants.

Effects of Certain Fungicides on Seed Germination and Seedling Establishment of Range Forage Plants.

In the flats of field soils, fungi- tidal seed treatment was more effective with the warm-season grasses than with the cool-season grasses or the legumes.. and Rhizoctonia[r]

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\u3cem\u3eBrachiaria\u3c/em\u3e Hybrids: Potential, Forage Use and Seed Yield

\u3cem\u3eBrachiaria\u3c/em\u3e Hybrids: Potential, Forage Use and Seed Yield

Germplasm Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Danzhou, Hainan 571737 People’s Republic of China Contact email: eapizarro@gmail.com Abstract. A brachiaria breeding program initiated in 1988 at CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical) combined desirable attributes found in accessions of Brachiaria brizantha and B. decumbens. Three apomictic hybrids have been released (cvs. Mulato, Mulato II and Cayman). Mulato showed agronomic potential but seed yields were low. Trials in Central America demonstrated the superiority of Mulato II, a vigorous grass with very deep and branched roots, giving it excellent drought resistance in the Brazilian Cerrado and Mexico. Mulato II has excellent nutritional value. Following trials in Mexico and Thailand, evaluating 155 new hybrids for 7 years, cv. Cayman was released due to strong waterlogging tolerance. Research conducted on growth, quality, production, persistence and seed yields of brachiaria hybrids in Asia, Central America and Africa from 2003 to 2013 is summarized in the paper.
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Least-cost seed potato production in Ethiopia

Least-cost seed potato production in Ethiopia

Storage Method Seed potatoes are stored using traditional local storage methods or DLS. Local seed potato storage methods include bed-like structures situated under a roof outside or inside a residential house, residential house, and postponed harvesting. For the sake of simplicity, all local storage methods were assumed to have the same storage characteristics and their costs were set at zero. For DLS, it was assumed that additional costs for construction had to be made. In both districts, DLSs varied in their sizes and economic lives. During field observations made in 2011, DLSs were found to vary in size from 12 –160 m 2 and in economic life from 5 to 20 years. Overload was one of the reasons for the short economic lives of some of the DLSs. Farmers loaded 0.12 to 0.20 Mg seed potato per square metre against a recommended load of 0.10 Mg seed potato per square metre shelf space. A DLS of average economic life of 10 years that has a size of 30 m 2 floor space was used to estimate cost of storage. This is an ideal size Table 2 (continued)
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