Table two above was drafted based on the laws above to guide resettlement officials in the compensation process. However, evidence from the field in relation to the above issue of land infertility suggests otherwise. A respondent from Gyama New Settlement said: “If we have been paid the cash compensation for our crops which were destroyed we could even use that to buy insecticides and fertilizers for our farms, but look it’s over two years now and we have not been paid”. Another farmer commented: “With the nature of the land even if you go in for loan to help you farm you will run at a loss and your lenders will come after you”. An elder of Gyama Host Community on the issue of land, eminent domain and compensation said: “Obtaining an area to be resettled has been very easy for the displaced now in Gyama New Settlement because they just approached us that in view of the dam construction and the destruction of their homes they would like to be resettled with us. They chose the area they want but could not specify the actual size of land they would need. After discussing this we came to an agreement to give them the land, so we gave out the land free of charge and there was no time limits attached as well. Therefore, there is no condition whatsoever attached to the land by way of payment, size, and distribution. They therefore acquired the land just by asking. I understand the government has acquired vast portions of land in this area including here but until now the lands have not been surveyed for us to know how much of our land has been acquired so that in the future we can get the due compensation. What I was told broadly is that it’s being worked on but how it is being done we don’t know and frankly we have been telling BPA officials that we are just living in the dark”. Section four of the RPF resettlement entitlement matrix in appendix two explains how compensation will be paid to stools 7 , “equivalent land provided in the new area, land titles
Ghana for instance, the implementation, planning and management of compulsory acquisition have also been occupied with underestimation and undervaluation of compensation packages mainly because the processes and standards for undertaking land acquisition activities have been undermined (Larbi 2008), as a result even after a period of forty five years that compulsory acquisition involving involuntary resettlement began, there are still some challenges between displaced persons, host communities and implementing organisations unresolved (Raschid-Sally et.al 2008). These challenges ranges from dilapidated and lack of infrastructural facilities, huge outstanding compensation, tenure insecurity, lack of employment, economic hardship, lack of access to investment and credit opportunities, rural-urban migration, conflict over community resources and quarrels over community leadership (Raschid-Sally et.al 2008). Particularly, these involuntary resettlement failures have occurred as a result of lack of funding, weak administrative and legal framework, political restructuring and land tenure arrangements (Gordon 2006). These challenges have different manifestation on the lives of projectaffectedpeople as it hinders the socio-economic development. Considering the above challenges in various resettlement schemes across the country, the government has therefore adopted a lot of preventive and mitigation measures, among them include preparation of environmental and social impact assessment and resettlement action plans, commissioning of involuntary resettlement research and establishment of public multi-stakeholder consultation forum. In spite of the efforts made by government, civil society organisations, researchers and non-government organisations to address resettlement challenges, after the implementation of the Buidam involuntary resettlement which took place recently these problems have emerged again. Therefore, the volume of this paper seeks to highlight some of the important aspect-implementation, planning and management of involuntary resettlement in Ghana.
The construction of hydroelectric dams such as Ghana’s Buidam is crucial for both domestic use and industrial development however, the unintended socio-economic implications for livelihoods for resettled communities has the potential of minimizing the intended benefits of securing them. Cooke et al (2017) used an extended environmental justice framework to make sense of the resettlement and compensation schemes for Indigenous peoples who were resettled for the construction of the Bakun dam in Borneo, East Malaysia. They analyzed the social protection measures designed for the protection of Indigenous peoples and their livelihoods qualitatively using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with local communities, institutional actors in Malaysia, Chinese actors and dam builders. The study concludes that social protection policies did not protect Indigenous people and their land sufficiently, but it facilitated a commodification process of both land and people. Their results showed that neither the redistributive nor the procedural dimension of the damproject has been satisfactory, but there is a deeper and more worrisome dimension of breaking the bond between Indigenous people and their ancestral land. This is not just a case of land grabbing but also removing the entitlement to both land and a traditional life style.
From the planning of the project to its implementation phase, CPI Yunnan International completed more than 20 topical assessments and studies relating to survey and design and to environmental and social impacts. The company also arranged expert consultations and investigations through Myanmar's Ministry of Electric Power. During the planning of the project, the company also organised and conducted a survey of the wishes of displaced people, which showed: that 80% of them believe that the development of hydroelectricity can bring many benefits; that the public is more concerned about the resettlement of displaced people and problems of development; that the development of hydroelectricity can promote the protection of ethnic culture; and that the public expresses widespread support for the Upper Irrawaddy hydroelectricity project. At the same time, the company also consulted international standards and requirements and arranged for Myanmar professionals to conduct three questionnaire surveys on the impact of Upper Irrawaddy hydroelectric development. The surveys were directly mainly at local government departments, local residents, the public at large, and Myanmar environmental scholars. The company also solicited the views and recommendations of local elders and religious leaders several times, and the company interviewed religious leaders, experts, scholars, and officials on 26 occasions.
First, to policy makers, following experiences from other countries, it can be noted the passage of legislative laws have been a very good reason why there has been an increasing number of whistleblowing cases reported. This is because, people now feel they are protected by the law even when they blow the whistle against their superiors and their co-workers. This is buttressed by Domfeh and Bawole (2011), where to them, the passage of laws that support whistleblowing have been proven to be very useful. However, in places like Ghana where the laws are in existence but are seen to be illusionary or partial to people, the laws should be seen to be working across all facets to motivate people to blow the whistle. However, to whistleblowers, they should also not see these laws as just illusionary but rather in existence to protective them. By so doing, they will blow the whistle and put these laws to test when their rights are trampled upon. For instance, as according to Ofori- Kwarfo (December, 2014), she revealed at a workshop that since the passage of the Whistleblowers Act in 2006, only 10 people had put it to test. Therefore, to whistleblowers, they should have the courage to blow the whistle and when their rights are trampled upon, they should put the Whistleblowers Act to test to protect them.
factor is as necessary as investment in the physical capital. Article 38 Sub-Section 2 of the constitution expresses: "The Government should in two years after parliament initially meets subsequent to coming into power of this constitution draw up a project for the usage inside the accompanying ten years for the arrangement of a free, compulsory inclusive basic education" (Fielmua & Boye Bandie, 2012). The 1992 Constitution of Ghana offers catalyst to the fundamental rights of children to basic education. Ghana’s dream is to ensure all citizens regardless of gender or social status is functionally literate and productive at the minimum. Therefore, primary training is seen as a required amenity that must be given to the masses, independent of the cost. In this light, the study focused on assessing the effects of the educational interventions of World Vision Ghana by providing an overview as well as indicating the need underpinning the study. World Vision Ghana intervention in the Saboba district was justifiable considering the state of the educational status of the district as at the time of the project. The arrangement of primary training, as most other public sector Programs experiences serious insufficiencies in its scope, adequacy and quality (Shah, Bari, & Ejaz, 2005). As per (De Siqueira, 2000; Nsamenang & Tchombé, 2012) noticed that there is a universal agreement among all parties on the need for primary education.
the Earth's crust is 0.25. The model of vertical movement of the study region is shown in Figure 3.5. The results show that the strongest rising rate of 1.8 mm/year belong to the sub- blocks of Chieng Khuong, Muong Ang, Muong Lat, Moc Chau, Hoa Binh, Da Bac, Tram Tau, Mu Cang Chai, Phan Si Pang and Phong Tho. In contrast, a strong subsidence rate of - 1.8 mm/year occurs at the following sub-blocks: Muong Mo, Phu Si Lung, Muong Cha, Sin Ho, Thuan Chau, Quynh Nhai, Than Uyen, Hat Lot, Ta Khoa, Ninh Binh, Van Chan and Thanh Son. The prominent feature in the vertical movement of the Earth's crust is the contrast between blocks and sub-blocks. The strong subsidence block of Son La – Song Da sandwiches between two blocks of Ma River - Thanh Hoa and Phong Tho - Tu Le. Similarly, the sub-blocks: Muong Nhe, Muong Ang, Sin Ho raise, buMuong Mo, Phu Si Lung, Muong Cha subsides. The upward and downward movement of blocks is the cause of earthquake occurrence along their boundaries. Simulation model of horizontal movement is shown in Figure 3.7. The results show that: The faults developed in the northwest - southeast and northeast - southwest are mostly right lateral strike-slip faults. Meantime, latitude faults are mostly left lateral strike-slip faults. The highest slip rate is 1.1 mm/year at Lai Chau-Dien Bien grade I fault. For grade II faults, the rate is weaker about 0.5 mm/year, especially, Song Da and Tuan Giao faults have slip rate of 0.9 and 1.0 mm/year. Risks of strongest earthquake in Da Ladder of hydroelectricDam: In Vietnam, there are many accepted methods to determine M max [2-9, 12-15] such as: Combination
CPM is one of several operations research techniques developed in the late 1950s to assist project managers in planning, scheduling and controlling their projects. It is a visual and mathematical algorithm that gives managers the ability to effectively plan, schedule and evaluate their projects and largely viewed as the representation of a project plan by a schematic diagram or network that depicts the sequence and interrelation of all the component parts of a project, and the logical analysis and manipulation of this network in determining the best overall program of operation or the best project completion time. The study looks at the possibility of application of CPM as a planning tool in the BuiProject which is aimed at minimizing the project completion time subject to the available resources. It is also aimed at producing a project network subject to a developed algorithm to visually display the relationships between activities and their predecessors using Activity-on-Node network, where each activity is represented by a node.
This study was conducted in order to assess project management practice or processes in groundwater construction projects. The focus of the assessment was on the project management life cycle: project initiation, planning, executing, monitoring/controlling, closing/evaluating processes of the project. In order to analyse project management practices in the groundwater projects, a set of questions based on the project life cycle were employed in this study. The study focus on the three main groups who manage/implement groundwater construction projects in Ghana. The groups comprise owners (the government agency responsible for the projects, the private organisation and the individuals), consultants (consulting offices) and contractors working in the construction of groundwater projects. The profile of this groups are Project Managers, Assistant Project Managers, Project Coordinators, Project Directors, Consultants, Project Team Members, and Construction Manager in both public and private organisations with a huge responsible for the management of construction of the groundwater projects. The questionnaire was aimed to obtain
Any infrastructural development project such as irrigation dams are the symbol of national progress, though they bring economic prosperity but at the same time they create an unpleasant and undesirable displacement of section of population from their ancestral habitat, uprooting them from their immovable properties, their live stock wealth, religious and educational institutions etc. This makes rehabilitation the most sensitive yet important aspect of that development project which should be properly handled, that‘s why many times success of a project depends on quality Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R&R) work. Displacement is a painful process and every effort should be taken to avoid or minimize hardships to disturbing people‘s lives to the extent possible.
This paper evaluated the effect of credit facility on the productivity of participants of the Hunger Project in Ghana. Primary data was collected from randomly sampled 170 beneficiary and non-beneficiary smallholder maize farmers of the project in the Kwahu West Municipality. Descriptive statistics and the endogenous switching regression model were used to analyse the data. The results showed that gender, number of livestock owned by the farmer, previous year’s maize income, farmers’ perception of lending procedures of the Project and farmers’ perception of the distance between residence and the epicenter (loan center) were the factors influencing farmers’ decision to take part in the Hunger Project credit programme. The study also revealed that farmers who benefited from the programme had a significant increase in maize output: thus, the credit facility significantly influenced farm productivity. In addition to maize farming, farmers should be encouraged to keep livestock, and the project management should open loan centres close to the farmers to improve access to loan by the farmers, particularly current non- beneficiaries, to improve their productivity. This should be supported by an extension of education and training.
A good number of cocoa sector reforms have led to a more liberal cocoa sector    which has impacted positively on production and export performance in Ghana    , Nigeria    and Cote d’Ivoire  leading to an increase in exports and thus impacting GDP and GDP growth rate positively   . Others such as  by applying the comparative cost theory by  concluded that a positive relationship between production and exports led to fewer taxes on producers and reduction in costs. References    identified real exchange rate as an important driver of cocoa exports in Nigeria during the period of the structural adjustment programs (SAPs) in the 1980s through to the early 2000s. Reference  also found a positive relationship be- tween cocoa export and world cocoa prices in Nigeria. However, high trade defi- cits and international debts as a result of the performance of the Cedi against major trade partners result in a fall in cocoa production and exports.
Across our 27 months of data collection, the core goal was to construct an overall understanding of our 31 informants, specifically their approaches to cooperation. In building these 31 histories, the first author conducted 175 interviews averaging 53 minutes each. Initially, we were interested in a variety of relationships informants had with business people in the same business, in other businesses, and with customers, suppliers, employees, and family. Once the emerging findings became clearer, we narrowed our focus to informants’ interactions with business colleagues and customers, as these pieces were core to the cooperative puzzle. Simultaneously, we focused our questioning around the practices contained in those relationships, and the norms underpinning them, the protocol of which is in Appendix A of this paper. We used this semi-structured protocol to guide our informants through topics of interest, while also giving them the latitude to tell their stories. Furthermore, question specifics, especially follow-ups and prompts, changed with the stories they guided us through (Charmaz, 2006). Follow-up interviews allowed us to revisit important elements of the protocol, to delve into emerging points of interest, question informants about our observations, and to track cooperation in real time.
The cost factor is a highly essential element of international trade; with costs related to transport and time being the most damaging. Trade facilitation programmes are aimed at exploiting plausible benefits that exist for all stakeholders should they become successful; however administrative and transaction costs associated with the trade process can erode any chance of meeting such an objective. In Ghana, trade facilitation initiatives like the Ghana Gateway Project (GGWP) led to privatization of handling operations at the port of Tema. Interviews granted the author by importers indicated that the levying of illegal charges by stevedores has led to drastic increase in the cost of doing business at the port. Most of the literature that was perused on this subject did not give information about ‘hidden’ costs which are paid at the ports of several West African countries including Ghana, as a result of bribery and corruption, ignorance, etc.
It is shown that flow acceleration region depends on water depth, location of intake, and intake size. The location of the peak velocity can deviate away from the centerline of the (2014) presents a study on the flow structure and turbulence characteristics of a horizontal water (1998) developed a numerical flow model for evaluating different fish by pass systems at the Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River, Wash. But, the importance of this work is reflected in some other studies Gerges and Mc Corquodale, 1997; Shammaa and Zhu, 2010) analyzing flow upstream of intakes is important in many engineering applications, e.g., fish study, flow in sedimentation tank, flow induced by sluice gates, skimmer wall, and temperature control curtain. When it comes to larger pipes, other approaches can be used; this is because the measurements are more difficult. C. Wang conduct their study on accuracy of the ultrasonic flow meter used in the hydro turbine intake penstock of the Three Gorges Power Station. This is the case of many Lai and Khan, 2011). Following upstream of our intake, studies on the facing step have been of great support. This is particularly the case of the works of Moss et Baker (2009). This study is a contribution INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH
statistically significant principal components analysis for streams in the US (Olden & Poff 2003). Slight modifications from the calculations in Olden & Poff (2003) were sometimes necessary to suit study and data availability (Table 2.1.) For example, flow indices were calculated for the growing season (June 1 st to September 30 th ) of each year in the study, rather than for the entire period of record. As well, the absolute rate of change of discharge was calculated in this study instead of a separate calculation for the rate of increase and the rate of decrease. Discharge data used to calculate the nine hydrologic indices were taken from the data logger 2.5 km below SHF in the Magpie River and from the Water Survey of Canada station 02BF001 in the Batchawana River. Multi-collinearities were identified and removed by running the model using a correlation matrix based on the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (R Core Team 2014). The Akaike information criterion (AIC) (Hirogutu 1974) was used to refine the linear model, balancing goodness of fit and prediction power (R package MASS; Venables & Ripley 2002). The relative importance of each of the variables included in the final model was approximated following Lindeman et al. (1980) using a ranking based on standardized regression coefficients (R package relaimpo; Grömping 2006).
Hydropower dam projects have performed better in terms o f meeting their technical and economic targets. Hydroelectric projects are often recognised as providing the most economic, least polluting and preferred source o f electricity by comparison o f India’s primary commercial energy sources: coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel [anti-dam activists such as Dharmadhikary (1997) argue that gas-based power generation is relatively clean considering the environmental costs associated with large dams]. Due to the high price o f power, the hydropower element o f multi-purpose large dam projects offers the most financial returns. Thus, large dam projects built for irrigation purposes often include hydropower generation as an objective. Although only 4.2 per cent o f large dams in India have power generation as one o f the objectives (Rangachari et al. 2000) the capacity to generate hydro-electricity will be expanded to address the fact that the country has to meet ‘nearly 25 per cent o f its total energy needs through imports’ (Rangachari et al. 2000: 177) and forecasts o f increased power shortages unless urgent steps are taken to rectify the situation. But again, critics o f India’s big dam approach, such as Dharmadhikary (1997) argue that instead o f responding to severe shortfalls o f power by planning more large-scale capacity additions, the government ought to focus on more cost-effective efficiency measures. These include maximising the performance o f installed dams and preventing leakage in the power distribution network.
Based on this view, it seems from this case study that the company’s approach to assessing and addressing landlessness, largely endorsed by government regulation, was partly configured by its own evaluation of capital risks – in this case – access to land for mining. The company’s bottom- line interest, coupled with the government’s focus on FDI meant the option of ‘avoidance’ was not on the table. Unlike people, the mineral resource was unmovable. Neither the company nor the government was interested in avoiding displacement. Thus, dispossession, leading to landlessness, became a planned process designed to enable the mine. This process gives rise to what some scholars describe as “dispossession by accumulation”, whereby household livelihood assets are subjected to ‘forced’ expropriation by corporations and state authorities (Harvey, 2003 as cited in Bebbington et al., 2008; p.2890). Even when avoidance is an available option, research establishes that there is always the tendency for mine operations to incrementally adjust land requirements which end up encroaching on local livelihood systems (Downing, 2014). In Akyem, some households wondered why they were not permitted to farm parcels of land that the company acquired but had not put to use. As inhabited institutions, the convergence of corporate utilitarianism combined with government revenue targets resulted in a situation where the risk assessment process downgraded the risk of households becoming landless. When a senior government official explained the glaring weakness of the country’s laws for protecting displaced people, he did so knowing that the livelihoods concerns of local people were ultimately being compromised. He said: