Agriculture sector plays significant role in the economy of each and every country. Agriculture occupies central position in Pakistan and contributes nearly 20.9% to the GDP and about 43.5% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture (Pakistan Economic Survey, 2014-2015). Agriculture sector contributes significantly in the economy of Pakistan and also considered as the largest sector as well as the hub of economic activities. With the increase in the growth rate of population, it was found to be slowed down i.e. over 3% in 1980’s, while, during the year 2012-13, it was reported to be 2% which was still comparatively high. Moreover, It was reported that in the scenario of current rate of increase in the population growth, it can be expected that Pakistan will attain fifth position from current running status of sixth most populous country in the world ranking by the year 2050 (Government of Pakistan, 2013).
Collection, preservation and identification: The present study was conducted between March 2009 - April 2010, to explore and document the local flora and their local uses of Jandool valley, Dir lower, KhyberPakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. Regular trips were made to the selected area and plants specimens were collected, dried and preserved in the Herbarium of University of Malakand. The plants specimens were identified with the help of taxonomists, previous available literature [22, 23] and flora of Pakistan [24, 25]. A questionnaire was design to interview the local inhabitants during field trips and ethanobotanical information were gathered. Normally, the elderly people including men and women, who were familiar with traditional uses of indigenous plants, were interviewed for the extraction of folk knowledge.
Five years forecast values of maize area and production in KhyberPakhtunkhwa were presented Table-3. The forecast values of maize area were 428.9, 414.3, 398.6, 381.9 and 364.2 thousand hectares and production 814.1, 801.0, 786.5, 770.5, 753.1 thousand tones for the year 2012-13 to 2016-17 respectively. The results indicated that the area under maize crop is declining gradually till 2016-17. It may be due to the shifting of maize area to other Kharif crops in the province. The production of maize is also decreasing due the corresponding decrease of maize area in KhyberPakhtunkhwa. The same results were found by Tahir and Habib (2013) to forecast the area and production of maize crop in Pakistan. Results showed that Quadratic trend model was fit well to the maize data of KhyberPakhtunkhwa.
In Pakistan, our knowledge on the preva- lence and distribution of EP in different equids (horse, donkeys and mules) is very lim- ited (22, 23, 16) and most of these studies, ex- cept (16), were based on conventional blood smear examination of T. equi and B. caballi which is less sensitive method and can give false negative results. Recently, cELISAs was used to determine the seroprevalence of B. caballi and T. equi in donkey, horses, and mules in five major metropolises of Punjab province and found that 52.6% (226/430) equids were seropositive for EP (16). We extended our studies on EP in other parts of Pakistan and the present project was as designed to deter- mine the seroprevalence and risk factors asso- ciated with T. equi employing cELISA in two equine populated districts (Peshawar and Charsadda) of KhyberPakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan.
Minimum Temperature, Maximum Temperature, Relative Humidity at 8:00 am, and Relative Humidity at 5:00pm were examined. For this purposes five different weather stations located at different regions of KhyberPakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were selected. The weather stations are located at Peshawar, Abbottabad, Dir, Swat, and Chitral. The past 32 years (January 1985 to December 2016) data were taken from Peshawar Meteorological Department for this study. Various statistical parameters; minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and coefficient of skewness were calculated. Also to visualize the properties of climatic data various plots; line plots, box plots, and time series plots were drowned by using R-Statistics and R-Studio. From study it is observed that the trend of mean monthly minimum temperature for Peshawar weather station is increasing by 0.4
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity like other infectious diseases globally. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in Manglawar Swat KhyberPakhtunkhwaPakistan. The study was conducted in the period of August 2013 to November 2013. Data was collected along with Performa from 310 TB patients in which 173 (55.80%) were female and 137 (44.19%) were male. High occurrence of TB was recorded in the 15-60 years of age (82.08%).
Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Pakistan ranking fifth amongst the twenty two en- demic countries. Historically, TB has been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES). This study focuses on the association of SES with prevalence of TB in general population of district Buner, KhyberPakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Government and Private health care centers during 2010-2013 in district Buner, KPK. TB rates were calculated in relation to SES. Result: The data analysis resulted in 1079 posi- tive cases consisting male (n = 445, 41.24%) and female n = (634); 58.8%. The highest occurrence of TB (306/1079: 28.4%) was observed in the group 15 - 45 years followed by the group below 15 years (85/1079:7.9%) in males. The female group in range of 15 - 45 years (251/1079: 23.3%) had maximum TB followed by the group above 45 years (235/1079: 21.8%). The male patients with no education were more in number (152/445: 34.16%) to TB infection as compared to pa- tients with primary (124/445: 27.9%), secondary (111/445: 34.16%) and higher education (58/ 445: 13%). Likewise the highly qualified female patients suffered only 3.5% from TB where as those having no education had maximum infection (49%) followed by primary educated (37.85%) patients. The minimum number of patients (300/1079: 27.8%) suffering from TB were reported in high income family followed by middle (325/1079: 30%) and low income (454/1079: 42%) families. The maximum incidence of TB (320/1079: 28.7%) was found in 2010 followed by 2011 (289/1079: 26.8%), 2012 (268/1079: 24.7%) and 2013 (213/1079: 19.7%) respectively. Conclu-
Maize is widely grown in the tropical regions of the world and ranked third after wheat and rice. In Pakistan, province of KhyberPakhtunkhwa is one of the leading maize producing region however the production in this region is very low due to many reasons. One of the dynamic reason for low yield in KP is lack of modern cultural practices. The developed countries attain many fold grain yield of maize as compared to developing countries, like Pakistan. The main reason for low yield in developing countries might be absence of modern production technology, with unavailability of quality seed and misfield management. The main aim of this review article to identify the low yield causes and how to overcome on the yield gap between developed and developing countries. To overcome on yield gap and to increase food security, the only way might be the true type seed sowing having vigorous germination and growth characters with high viability along modern production technology. The area under maize here is over one million hectare and production 3.5 million metric tons. All district and province wise statistical calculation is presented in the text body of the review. Maize has a variety of uses. Its grain is a rich source of starch, vitamins, proteins and minerals.
research to investigate the floristic composition and phytosociology of the Hazar Nao hills, District Malakand, KhyberPakhtunkhwa. Ghafoor et al. (1987) documented ten highly competitive weeds in Pakistan. Hassan et al. (2003) recognized 15 plant species as the highly harmful weeds in field of wheat in KPK. If the unwanted plants are left untouched the competition with crops increases and growth and yield decreases up to 35-70% (Khan et al., 2012). Jan et al. (2010) presented their findings on ethno-botanical survey of weeds of Dir, Kohistan valley, KhyberPakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Farooq et al. (2010) investigated phytosociology of Push Ziarat area (Shawal) in South Waziristan, Pakistan. Khan et al. (2013) conducted a field experiment during Rabi season to highlight the most important and problematic weeds of chickpea crop at Karak district, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Hassan et al. (2010) reported the phytosociology of chickpea in Lakki- Marwat, NWFP. Ullah et al. (2014) explored thirty one taxa of weeds in 30 genera and 18 families for their therapeutically active ingredients. Muhammad et al. (2009) concluded the presence of weeds in maize, wheat and potato fields of Gojra, district Toba-Tek- Singh, Punjab. Keeping in view the importance of weeds, studies were undertaken in Tehsil Charsadda to highlight the phystosociology and ecological attributes of the flora infesting wheat, for the guidance of weed managers to effectively take care of weeds and minimize yield losses in wheat crop.
Economic structure of the province reflects that 30 percent of provincial GDP is derived from agriculture. Agriculture is not only an important source of employment and income generation for the rural population but also critical from nutritional perspective. Wheat is the main staple food for most of the population and largest grain source of Pakistan as well as of KhyberPakhtunkhwa. It occupies the central position in formulating agricultural policies. The wheat area in KhyberPakhtunkhwa is 729271 hectares with production of 1130263 tonnes, respectively during 2011-12. Maize is the second most important crop after wheat in the KhyberPakhtunkhwa, and for much of the province, it is the dominant crop in the farming system. The maize area in KhyberPakhtunkhwa is 475342 hectares with production of 887787 tonnes during 2011-12. The area under rice in KhyberPakhtunkhwa is estimated around 50081 hectares with a production of about 94695 tonnes during 2011-12 (Government of KhyberPakhtunkhwa, 2013).
Invasive weeds are one of the greatest threats to the local biodiversity as invasive weeds reduce the abundance and diversity of native flora and fauna and adversely affect ecosystem processes. Once alien weeds become established in a new region, they are extremely difficult to manage. Therefore, need an urgent and pro-active development of early preventative plans including early detection of alien species, their population size, residence time, number of introduction attempts, ecology, seed spread mechanisms, previously documented invasions and evaluation of similar types of species and possible cost effective management methods. In this regard, an attempt was made to identify invasive weeds in the southern part of KhyberPakhtunkhwa, conducting a survey in four southern districts i.e. Bannu, Lakki Marwat, Tank and Dera Ismail Khan, during March 2002 to September 2003. Among the total of 50 problematic weeds 12 weeds were reported as highly invasive. These were Avena fatua, Carthamus oxyacantha, Prosopis juliflora, Conyza bonariensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Phragmites austrailis, Xanthium strumarium, Galium aparine, Asphodelus tenuifolius, Amaranthus viridis, Imperata cylindrica and Trianthema portulacastrum. Among these Prosopis juliflora and E. camaldulensis were purposely introduced, while rest of the species were introduced accidentally or were present in the local flora, but due to ecotypic changes these became aggressive, invasive and suppressed the local flora. Therefore, proactive plan of weed management is required through prevention of new introductions, vigilant detection of new populations and constant efforts to manage the worst invaders.
From the analyzed data of the each selected majorfood crop i.e. wheat, maize, sugarcane and rice, the best model for each was calculated on the basis of best fitted trend line and accuracy measures. The best fitted model for majorfood crop was cubic growth model, power growth model, cubic growth model and cubic growth model respectively. Based on the parameter estimate of best selected model of each majorfood crop, the growth rates were calculated and found to be 10.97%, 8.00%, 45.31% and 1.19% respectively. Moreover, the variability measure for wheat crop production was recorded higher i.e. 1.53%, as compared to other foodcrops under study and sugarcane possess least variability i.e. 0.44% which was may be due to fluctuating crop acreage, area and productivity. Also, variability measure for maize and rice were calculated to be 1.23% and 0.44% respectively. Therefore, it can be suggested that these selected models could be used for evaluating growth rate of majorfoodcropsproduction and hence useful for researchers, business men, policy makers for planning their resources as well as decision making regarding foodcropsproduction in KhyberPakhtunkhwa. References
Relative density of weeds, found in different fields of cereal crops (wheat, rice and maize) and sugarcane (a cash crop) of District Bannu was determined by using the Oosting scale method during 2013. In this research work, a total of 135 weeds belonging to 37 families were collected, identified botanically, preserved and documented. Results showed that 20 species belonged to Asteraceae which comprised 54% of the whole collected weeds followed by 19 species of Poaceae (51%), eight species each of Solanaceae, Amaranthaceae and Boraginaceae (21%). Seven species were recorded each from Papilionaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Brassicaceae (18.9%), five species from Polygonaceae and Malvaceae (13.5%), four from Chenopodiaceae and three from Plantaginaceae which were 10.8 and 8%, respectively. About 5.4% contribution was made by Asclepiadaceae, Convolvulacea, Caryophyllaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Genetaceae, Apiaceae, and Verbenaceae with two species each. The remaining seventeen families (Aizoaceae, Cyperaceae etc.) were represented by 2.7% with only one species each. There were seven weeds found in all of the above mentioned crops which were Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Conyza bonariensis, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Parthenium hysterophorus, and Sonchus aspera. According to the Oosting Scale, the very abundant weeds in sugarcane fields were Leptochloa panicea, Enneapogon avrnuceus, E. alba, E. crus-galli and C. dactylon; while abundant weeds were S. halepense, P. hysterophorus, C. rotundus, C. arvense, Carduus argentatus, and A. viridis. Wheat, rice and maize fields were dominated by C. dactylon, C. rotundus, Asphodelus tenuifolius, Astragalus hamosus, C. arvensis, and E. helioscopia.
Present study was designed to check prevalence of cancer in residents of District Bannu, KhyberPakhtunkhwa. Patients data were collected from three consulted Institutes during year 2005-09. The data was analyzed for different parameters; year wise, age wise prevalence, gender wise, occupation wise and marital status wise prevalence, addiction status, type of cancer, site affected, diagnostic tests performed and treatment of cancer. Results revealed that during 2005, a high number of cancer patients were present. A total of 172 patients were in the age group of 51-60 years, while only 11 patients were in age group of 80 plus year. Female patients were more as compared to male. Married people were highly affected than unmarried. Patients addicted to smoking were highly affected than non-addicted patients. Malignancy was high in patients as compared to benign cancer. The most affected site was blood system. The most affected people occupation wise were house wives followed by farmer. Biopsy was mostly conducted for diagnosis of cancer. Most of the patients were treated with chemotherapeutic agents. It has been revealed that the number of cancer patients decreased per annum. Moreover, the study should be conducted on general population of Bannu as well as of the KhyberPakhtunKhwa to sort out the total number of patients. Government should launch preventive, diagnostic programs so that prevalence may be minimized.
Maidan valleyis located in Dir Lower, KhyberPakhtunkhwa covering an area of 300 km 2 lying between 34 0 37 / to 35 0 07 / N Latitudes and 71 0 31 / to 72 0 14 / E longitudes. It is boundried in east by Upper Dir, north by Barwal Banda, south by Haji Abad and Koto and in the west by Jandool. The topography of the valley is dominated by Hindukush Mountains and hills. Mostly the crops are depending upon on rain. The summer season is moderate and hot, June and July are hottest months and in June maximum and minimum temperature has been recorded as 32.52 0 C and 15.67 0 C respectively. A chilly wind
quadrates sampled. Therefore major weeds were recorded and reported. Finally a decrease in IVI was observed and it was noted that Medicago denticulata and Phalaris minor which gave the IVI value of 47.05 and 38.07, respectively. It was also observed that the IVI of Convolvulus arvensis, Silybum marianum and a Fumaria Indica were found to be 23.42, 16.69 and 20.94, respectively which are in lower range than the former discussed species of weeds. The minimum IVI of 10.01 was observed in Lathyrus. Avena fatua can become troublesome in agriculture when wheat is planted consecutively in the same field and thus lowers the quality of a field crop, or competes for resources with the crop plants. Rumix crispus is also a broad leaf weed and due to its higher population many flowers and seeds are produced in clusters on branched stems, with the largest cluster being found at the apex. It affect yield of crops, especially wheat due to bigger biomass under moist conditions. Therefore proper management of this weed needs to be addressed. These results are in consistency with Taylor et al. (1995), who reported that these weeds establish in crops and effect yield. Moreover Jalis (1987) studied the predominating influence of Phalaris minor and Avena fatua in wheat. Similar results were also found by Whish et al. (2002). Apart from the above mentioned weeds, few other weeds were also recorded. However, due to inconsistency and low density, their density was not included in the study. The seeds of these two species of Avena fatua and Rumex crispus were also selected at maturity and stored at room temperature as there is drastic shift from vegetables to crops and vice-versa. Therefore the weeds are also changed. Therefore it was observed that many weeds reported by earlier scientists are no more problematic weeds; while, new weeds have resulted in a threat to wheat production.
Shahid Mena Deposit: The deposit is located along Peshawar-Mullaghori road near Shahid Mena village, Khyber Agency (Fig. 1). The marble occurs as layers and lenses in a thick sequence of recrystallized limestone, phyllite and schists of Silurian-Devonian sequence. The general trend of the rock sequence is nearly east-west with varying dips from 45 o S to 85 o S. The marble deposit is covered at places by overburden which ranges from 2 to 5 meters. The marble is 200 meters thick on an average and extends for about 1,000 meters in length and its reserves up to a dip depth of 50 meters are estimated as 10 million cubic meters (Asrarullah and Hussain, 1985). This marble has bulk specific gravity of 2.72, water absorption 0.16% and flexural strength of 2,227 psi. Large blocks upto 1.5m x 1.2m x 1m can also be obtained (Bilqees et al., 2017).
Weeds are undesirable on account of their competitive and allelopathic behavior and providing habitats for harmful organisms. The yield per acre of wheat can be increased by agronomic practices including weed control. However, the authentic identification and distribution has always been a pre-requisite for weed management (Sher et al., 2011). Beside addition of organic matter to the soil and conservation of soil gene bank weeds often offer competition with the existing standing crops and thus reduce the productivity. Majority of the weeds release allelochemicals and create problems during harvesting and threshing. The present study concluded that Asteraceae, Papilionaceae and Poaceae were dominant families with maximum number of plant species. The weeds need proper pre- reproductive management for the better yield of wheat in the research area.
and the temperature is severe and extreme. Charsadda is a part of the fertile plain of Peshawar valley. The majorcrops of the area are sugarcane, tobacco, wheat, rice, maize, vegetable and orchards and various weed species are distributed in these crops. Weed is a plant growing where it is not desired or any plant that is objectionable and interferes with man’s activities or welfare or a more complete definition can perhaps be “Weeds are plants growing in places where, and at time when, man wants either some other plants to grow or no plant to grow at all” (Tanveer and Asghar, 2003). It has been noticed that some weeds are poisonous and injurious to animals e.g. blue pimpernel, sun spurge and Johnson grass (Marti et al., 1990). Weeds are a supplement feed for farm animals e.g. Convolvulus arvensis, Melilotus indica, Phalaris minor and Vicia sativa (Tanveer and Asghar, 2003). Weed reduces the yield by competing with crop plants for different environmental resources. It is said that with each kg of weeds produced, one kg of wheat grains is reduced (Rao, 1992). Wild onion bulbs and wild mustard seed lower the wheat grain quality. Creeping thistle, Bermuda grass and common purslane release allelochemicals which inhibit germination of wheat (Khalid and Shad, 1987). Khan et al. (2012 and 2013) reported that weeds greatly reduce the agricultural productivity due to competition. The CO 2
Motivation is the main determinant of action in organization, and the moderating variable which inspire the employee performance (Bahrija, H & Mirela, 2013). Research revealed that inspirational workings reflections at divergent and emergent situation and review of the belongings, dissatisfaction and in addition to achievement, the association between employment assignment and the appraisal to crave honed the fragment of basic mediators and the circumstance supporting, the generating costume of a self-reward strategy is the areas of motivation (Muhammad, 2014). In Pakistan, there are number of banks that utilize the performance management system (PMS) for improving their employee's performance.