Top PDF Foreign Language Teaching: A Problem in Turkish Education

Foreign Language Teaching: A Problem in Turkish Education

Foreign Language Teaching: A Problem in Turkish Education

As the table 1 illustrates, the instructors and students in research, according to their sexes, were accumulated at “very often” and “sometimes” choices. Total percentages of those who pointed out the “very often” accumulated between 82,4 and 61,1 percentages. The problem of “the policy of foreign language teaching is not good enough” was taken the first place. But, the point of the “foreign language teaching policies in Turkey have been changed, till today” was taken place the first place, with the highest degree. The other first six problems followed this item were the “teacher centred foreign language courses ( 75,0%), “Heavy grammar oriented (73,1%),”Students not reserving enough time (64,8%), “too crowded classes (63,9%),”Not having suitable learning conditions at schools” (61,1%),”Not starting foreign language teaching at the earlier ages (61,1%). Those who marked the answer of the “I have never faced these problems” was 2,8%. But, at the end, we can point out those problems as the “system’s problems” which are faced very often, they are quite general and illustrate the reasons for “failures” at the foreign language teaching. Because of not having a policy for foreign language teaching, its faults and insufficiency seemed as the main reason for not being able to learn a foreign language.
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A Study on Choosing Tales for Utilising as Teaching Materials in Turkish Language Education

A Study on Choosing Tales for Utilising as Teaching Materials in Turkish Language Education

This research’s model is descriptive. Semi-structured interview is a data collection tool. Qualitative research is a method that interprets the problem with an interdisciplinary understanding (Altunışık et al., 2010: 302). Interviewing is a powerful method of revealing the subjective expressions of people about a subjective expressions. Supporting interview process with data increases validity and reliability of the research (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2008: 40‐41). Content analysis was done to analyse the data. Participant opinions are systematically defined with content analysis (Altunışık & Others, 2010: 322). Before the interviews of 10 teachers who were kept out of the working group, the question "What is your opinion about the place of tales and selection of tales in Turkish education?” a 10-question interview form is prepared within the framework of answering this question. Interview form was presented to two experts in the field of Turkish Language Education in terms of scope validity. While preparing the questions, it was considered that the subject is appropriate and understandable. As a result of the opinions of experts that some questions were not related to the subject, 2 questions were drawn out from the interview form. For interview forms including 8 questions, opinions from same experts were taken again and final interview form was prepared. Thus, the researcher also prepares 8 key questions for semi-structured interview form and key questions that provide explanation of answers. Clarity of questions were tried with people in similar characteristics outside of actual interviewers.
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Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

Furthermore, constructivist teaching practices, influenced by Vygotsky’s emphasis on social interaction in learning and devel- opment, helped learners to internalize and reshape new informa- tion. The theoretical underpinnings of Vygotsky’s (1978) view of language learning that maintained contextualized input in cooperative, meaningful interactions with others formed a basis for Sociocultural Theory (SCT), which has enhanced language acquisition and taken hold in classrooms around the globe. Ac- cording to Lantolf and Pavlenko (1995), the goal of SCT is to understand how people organize and use their mind in the daily process of living. From a sociocultural stance, acquiring language amounts to more than just mastery of the linguistic properties of the L2. It involves the “dialectic interaction of two ways of creat- ing meaning in the world” (p. 110). The interaction between an expert (teacher) and novice (learner) in a problem-solving task (scaffolding) in which the expert’s role was to provide the novice with instructional support then became the model for commu- nicative tasks in the foreign language classrooms. Based on Vy- gotsky’s concept of a Zone of Proximal Development (the dis- tance between the actual developmental level and the level of potential development), the expert’s and teacher’s role was to gain the learner’s interest in the task, simplify the task, keep the learner motivated, point out important features, reduce anxiety and frustration during problem solving, and model appropriate form. In accordance with the new responsibilities, the role of the classroom teacher shifted to that of an architect, creating mean- ingful, interactive, and cooperative learning tasks designed to en- gage the learner actively in negotiating language meaning in au- thentic contexts that are co-constructed.
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An Overall Analysis of Teaching Compulsory Foreign Language at Turkish State Universities

An Overall Analysis of Teaching Compulsory Foreign Language at Turkish State Universities

university has an option to decide on which teaching materials to be used in line with the syllabus specified by YÖK. However, having no unity among the universities and being flexible in choosing course materials do not enable learners to learn efficiently. Some of the course books are not suitable for the length of the course as well as the contents they include. While deciding on the course book learners’ needs and interests are usually disregarded. However, Breen and Candlin (1987) suggest that learner needs and interests, their approaches to language teaching, the teaching/learning process in the classroom should be taken into consideration in determining the course syllabus and electing the textbooks to be followed. That is why, to figure out the learners’ interests and needs what should be done before starting a teaching and learning process is to prepare a needs analysis survey form and ask the students to fill it in as mentioned earlier.
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Creative approach to development of competence “writing” in foreign language classes

Creative approach to development of competence “writing” in foreign language classes

The recent trends towards globalization and internationalization have increased functional significance of foreign languages. In this connection, issues of teaching the communicative aspect of a foreign language have become especially important in the system of professional education. Teaching a foreign language is aimed at developing the foreign language communicative competence of a future specialist who is to use a foreign language in all its forms for professional communication in the scientific, technical, production and educational spheres.
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Comparison of speaking activities in Turkish and English language teaching coursebooks regarding  self-assesment grid of CEFR

Comparison of speaking activities in Turkish and English language teaching coursebooks regarding self-assesment grid of CEFR

language teaching to catch standardization in education throughout countries. For instance, Alavinia and Siyadat (2013) conducted a research and compared four English textbooks (American English File 1, American Cutting Edge 1, American Headway 1, and New Interchange 1) in terms students‟ attitudes in Iranian context to find out similarities and differences. Jafarigohar and Ghaderi (2013) investigated two EFL course books (Topnotch and Total English) to elicit whether or not teachers were satisfied with on the criteria such as language components, tasks, activities, exercises, and critical discourse analysis features. Ünlü (2015) compared Hitit (older version of Yeni Hitit) and Yeni Hitit1 Turkish teaching course books regarding their presentation of grammar and grammar exercises. Beyleri and Basogul (2013) investigated the comprehension activities included in the „Yeni Hitit1‟ (Turkish) and the „New Headway‟ (English) series, which are designed as foreign/second language teaching course books. Taking into comparative surveys in this field, this study aims to evaluate speaking parts of Yeni Hitit1 (Turkish) and Success (English) across self-assessment grid of CEFR and compare them to what extent they are covered in both books.
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2019_12_04_13 - XLinguae

2019_12_04_13 - XLinguae

The relevance of the work is determined by the need for a theoretical understanding of the problem of cultural interaction in the modern world. The process of globalization, which is underway, leads to the expansion of interrelationships and interdependencies of different peoples, including the problem of learning the specifics of cultures in the context of building an efficient local and global dialog based on the soft power policy. The purpose of the article is to analyze the crisis of the soft power policy in the spread of the Russian language as the most important tool of ethnic self-preservation. The methodological basis of the study consists of theoretical methods: the synthesis method is applied to study the problematic area of interaction between language and culture, in particular when considering the soft power policy. The combination of descriptive, comparative, and historical methods, as well as methods of classification and analytical reading, contributed to the formation of the author's understanding of the problem. The article presents the author's study of the soft power policy in the Russian education system. It discusses the signs of a crisis in the implementation of the soft power policy that has manifested themselves, on the one hand, through the changes of the main state documents regulating the education process, and on the other hand, the real results of the Russian language study are revealed. Upon analysis, the authors have identified and formulated a number of contradictions in the practice of the Russian language teaching in terms of the soft power policy application and also have come to the conclusion that, to overcome the crisis in the Russian language teaching, some viable options should be taken into account such as strong intellectual potential, experience and traditions of the national school.
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The investigation into prospective teachers’ Turkish metalinguistic awareness

The investigation into prospective teachers’ Turkish metalinguistic awareness

Relying on the literature related to the importance and purpose of teaching grammar, Dolunay (2010) considers “grammar teaching as an area that can be used to help students acquire four basic language skills, not a prime target”. In other words, teaching grammar should not aim to teach the rules of the language itself but to acquire the ability to use the language correctly and effectively. However, when the studies carried out on grammar teaching are examined, it is seen that “grammar studies focus just on terms and grammar rules are memorized” (Kilic & Akcay, 2011); students memorize grammar rules during their learning experiences in primary education (Demir & Yapici, 2007), and grammar is not taught consciously to students (Aytas & Cecen, 2010). Language teachers have important responsibilities in overcoming these problems because they are the practitioners of teaching process. Many problems in language teaching process can be solved if teachers can help their students learn strategies, methods, and techniques to acquire language skills adequately during their undergraduate education. To do this, first of all, undergraduate programs should be reviewed and updated, after determining the problems in practices based on prospective teachers’ opinions. For example, as in this study, prospective teachers' Turkish metalinguistic awareness can be revealed, since metalinguistic awareness is about recognizing, knowing the sub-dimensions of language as a system/arrangement and producing new texts. In a more holistic approach, language awareness is the ability to know the social life and thinking the style of the language community, the relationship between language and thought, bilingualism, children’s language acquisition and the principles of polysemy (Karaagac, 2013, p. 841) in learning of language units and their functions. In concrete terms, separating the sentence into words, syllables, and phonemes, deciding whether the sentence is correct in terms of the components of the language, forming words by combining the sounds, finding rhyming words, figures of speech are some points related to metalinguistic awareness (Sayar & Turan, 2012, p. 50)
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Autonomous Learning and Teaching in Foreign Language Education

Autonomous Learning and Teaching in Foreign Language Education

All learning is ultimately autonomous in the sense that learning de- pends on the efforts of the learners themselves, so autonomous way of thinking should be cultivated and developed among foreign language learners and teachers. It is important to know and understand the prin- ciples of learner autonomy before refuting or supporting it. New roles for teachers and learners are emerging and teaching has to be adapted to them. Autonomy requires a fundamental change in educational prac- tices, and teachers and learners need to generate new developmental plans, based on continuous learning and reflection on their learning needs and goals. Exercising autonomy in teaching contexts is contingent upon teachers’ preparation as well as students’ evolution of their own learning process. Although it is a demanding task, the benefits obtained are long lasting and can be applied not only to language learning contexts, but to all kinds of learning. Autonomy equips students with the power to deal with everyday situations and find solutions to the problems they encounter.
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Intercomprendersi a teacher training experience

Intercomprendersi a teacher training experience

a respect for the plurilingualism of others and the value of languages and varieties irrespective of their perceived status in society, a respect for the cultures embodied in languages and the cultural identities of others, an ability to perceive and mediate the relationship which exist among languages and cultures, a global integrated approach to language education in the curriculum”. Then the so-called language of schooling is not always the national language of the host country, like in South Tyrol, an Italian province, where possible languages of schooling are three (Italian, German and Ladin) and where two of them are not belonging to the same language family, or like in Catalunya in Spain, where Catalan, although a Romance language, is not automatically easy to be learned by people with Latin-American origins. So plurilingual learners require teachers who take their linguistic repertoire and diversity into account to avoid exclusion. If for all this the concept itself of “foreign languages” must be reviewed, then even more that of language education and language teaching, must be reconsidered, in their pedagogical, organizational and technical dimension. Assumed that language education is part of a wider educational program (curriculum) and that is not only based on mere language acquisition theories or only addressed to pursue high language performances, then its pedagogical dimension is really to be retrieved.
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Teaching case suffixes with the aid of the usage of Turkish folk literature in teaching Turkish to the foreign students

Teaching case suffixes with the aid of the usage of Turkish folk literature in teaching Turkish to the foreign students

The texts chosen to teach cultural elements are of a high importance. It is especially important to choose suitable texts for student taking into consideration their age and language level. The main purpose of this work is teaching case suffixes. Consequently, it will have modestly been contributed in teaching grammar topics. Grammar topics have to be taught properly without being underestimated because in order to communicate correctly one needs to build a sentence correctly.

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Diary Keeping in Writing Education

Diary Keeping in Writing Education

One of the many types of texts that can be used in writing education is the diary. In this study, the opinions of the Turkish language teacher candidates about diary keeping and their diaries kept for two months in which they could freely express their thoughts were analyzed. It is a qualitative study in which thirty-four participants' diaries were examined, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with seventeen randomly selected candidates. It is observed that the topics dealt by the teacher candidates in their diaries mainly focused on themes such as education-teaching activities, life, feelings, thoughts, relatives, nature, important days, diary, problems, personal development, and writing skills. The emerging codes from these interviews were grouped as: Diary, problems, personal development, and writing skills. The results of this research reveal that candidates who regularly keep a diary begin to question their lives and try to manage them better. Moreover, it was shown that diary keeping, which is regular writing, has an important role in the development of writing ability.
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Teacher Education Curriculum for Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language

Teacher Education Curriculum for Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language

With the increasing number of speakers and users of Chinese around the world, learning Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) has become a global trend. According to Zhao and Huang (2010), more than 100 million people worldwide were expected to be learning Chinese as a foreign language in 2011. Even though Chinese language is an ancient language, teaching Chinese as a foreign language is a new field to explore. In order to meet the increasing demand for CFL teachers (teachers who teach Chinese as a foreign language), the discipline of teaching Chinese as a foreign language to speakers of other languages (TCSOL), had been established in Chinese higher education since 1985. The principal aim of the programs in this discipline is to prepare qualified CFL teachers (Zhao & Huang, 2010). By 2012, 285 universities in China were officially recognized for preparing qualified CFL teachers in undergraduate degree level or master degree level programs (Wang, Moloney, & Li, 2013). Nevertheless, many studies reported that one of the major factors hindering worldwide CFL learning is the shortage of qualified CFL teachers (Orton, 2011; Zhao & Huang, 2010). Moloney (2013) said CFL teachers trained in these programs have found it difficult to teach foreign learners effectively. The core challenge for CFL teachers is the disjunction between the training curriculum of CFL teachers and the requirements of overseas educational contexts (Duff & Lester, 2008; Wang et al., 2013).
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Instructors' Problems and Solution Suggestions in the Process of Teaching Turkish Language to Foreign Students

Instructors' Problems and Solution Suggestions in the Process of Teaching Turkish Language to Foreign Students

This study was designed according to the qualitative research method aiming to determine the problems of instructors faced in the process of teaching Turkish to foreigners and the solutions proposed by them. Seven instructors working at YYU TÖMER have been participated in the study. Some of the instructors have experience of Turkish teaching to foreigners in different institutions and in different countries. The data were collected by interview technique, which is a qualitative data collection tool, analyzed by descriptive analysis and exemplified by the opinions of the participants. When examining the problems of instructors faced in the process of Turkish teaching to foreigners and the sources of these problems, it is confronted that these problems are conduced from students, the mother tongue of target group, the structure of Turkish, materials and learning environments. The most difficult skills that instructors encounter during the teaching Turkish to foreigners are grammar, writing, speaking and reading. Considering the most difficult subjects in teaching, metaphor, idioms and proverbs are in the lead. When the suggestions that the instructors have developed for furthering the success of teaching Turkish to foreigners are examined, these suggestions are directed to centers of teaching Turkish, textbooks, texts, other teaching materials, institutions, academicians, instructors conducting the courses and applied methodologies.
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The Examination of Listening Anxiety Level of the Students Who Learn Turkish as a Foreign Language

The Examination of Listening Anxiety Level of the Students Who Learn Turkish as a Foreign Language

There can be several reasons why an individual wants to learn a foreign language. Reasons such as curiosity, education, business, personal interest can motivate a person to learn a foreign language. The most common reasons to learn a foreign language is education and business. From this perspective, the position of English is remarkable. English has turned into a world language from being the language of a small society. It has reached this position by the economic, military and cultural success of the countries which speak English. British people have been aiming to spread their language and culture to the world with the help of British Council. This aim has created an opportunity for English to become a worldwide communication language. With the increasing worth and number of students that are being taught Turkish as a foreign language, some problems have occurred during the process of teaching language skills to individuals who learn Turkish. When language teaching and psychological aspects are mentioned, the first thing that comes to mind is anxiety. Anxiety has been the most common psychological condition humanity had to face throughout history. This notion has first been introduced in the first half of the century and studies that concern this area have started being conducted by the end of 1940’s [4].
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Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Oman: An Exploration of English Language Teaching Pedagogy in Tertiary Education

Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Oman: An Exploration of English Language Teaching Pedagogy in Tertiary Education

However, I now try to pay more attention to the weaker students and the unwilling learners by listening to their language problems and understanding their point that English is difficult to learn and that for these students, I should use some Arabic in the classroom, despite my personal feeling is that I use Arabic if I feel the students will be incapable of learning in English only. I now I explain my points in English and then check the number of students who got my points and follow what I was saying. However, when I find some students were not following me and therefore could not understand what I was trying to say, I switch to explain the same points in Arabic. I usually follow this technique now with my students. If the class is doing well in English only and there is no complaints from them with regards to Arabic use, it is fine with me. In fact, some students like to study in English only. They often ask me to do everything in English and at the same time I am aware that there are slower learners alongside the brighter ones. So at times I speak bilingually to satisfy all students and so there is always a place for Arabic usage and there is no harm in including a bit of Arabic in the English lesson now and then.
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Listening Skills Development in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language and The Usage of Metacognitive Strategies

Listening Skills Development in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language and The Usage of Metacognitive Strategies

Listening, which plays quite a significant role in the process of establishing communication and language learning, is the most frequently used language skill both in daily life and school life (Chou, 2017). Listening is the most frequently used language skill (Scarcella & Oxford, 1992). Listening contributes to the development of other language skills in the process of language learning, in addition to being the language skill that develops first. In the process of learning a new language, it develops quicker than the speaking skill and becomes an indispensable skill that affects the development of the reading and writing skills (Oxford, 1993). Despite this importance, listening skill was not regarded as a significant part of language teaching programs until the 1970s (Rost, 2001), and it was a neglected language skill by researchers and teachers (Oxford, 1993). Most teachers believed that listening was developed by children themselves in a natural way, just as walking, therefore, they accepted listening as a natural skill and thought that there was no need to teach listening (Landry, 1969). Nevertheless, listening is more than what a student hears with two ears. Listening is a conscious effort based on perceiving and understanding, evaluating and reacting, which requires an active mental process.
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Culture in Foreign Language Teaching

Culture in Foreign Language Teaching

other; of interaction; individual and societal); savoir apprendre/faire (skills to discover and/or interact); savoir comprendre (skills to interpret and relate); savoir s’engager (critical cultural awareness, political education); savoir être (attitudes: relativising self, valuing others). Recently some European educators (see e.g., Hu & Byram, 2008) have used various ways to evaluate intercultural competence, based on the Common European Framework of Reference and on Milton Bennett’s model of intercultural relativity (Bennett, Bennett & Allen, 2003). In the U.S. the development of intercultural competence is at the core of genre-based literacy curricula (Byrnes, 2002) and online telecollaboration (Ware & Kramsch, 2005) at the college level. It has been recently promoted in foreign language departments as an organizing principle of the curriculum (Kramsch, Skogmo, Warner & Wellmon, 2007; Schulz & Tschirner, 2008). In all these cases, culture is tied to the characteristics of native members of a national community who speak the national language and share in its national culture. But such a modernist definition of culture is being challenged by a lingua franca like English that knows no national boundaries and by global social actors who contest the supremacy of the native speaker as well as the notion of neatly bounded speech communities. A post modernist view of culture manages not to lose the historicity of local national speech communities while attending to the subjectivity of speakers and writers who participate in multiple global communities.
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Analysis of problems encountered by instructors teaching Turkish as a foreign language to Syrian children and their opinions on their participation in the certification program for teaching Turkish as a foreign language

Analysis of problems encountered by instructors teaching Turkish as a foreign language to Syrian children and their opinions on their participation in the certification program for teaching Turkish as a foreign language

Besides, some problems regarding the Syrian students in teaching Turkish as a foreign language to the Syrian children are present. One of the most common problems is the lack of interest to learn Turkish. The underlying reason may be the loss of motivation among the students to learn Turkish (Moralı, 2018). In their study on the students learning Turkish as a foreign language, Fatih Yılmaz and Sevtap Buzlukluoğlu Arslan (2014) conclude on the aspect of motivation: “The most important external factor that affects students is teachers. For that reason, it is a must that teachers make the lesson fun to provide motivation in teaching Turkish to foreigners. Otherwise, the lesson becomes a chore and students lose their motivation. It is pivotal to provide motivation while teaching Turkish to foreigners. The reason why a foreigner wants to learn your language is as important as your approach towards him/her and your effort to make the lesson fun and interesting in order to ensure that students do not become uninterested in the course. In this regard, the role of the lecturer is primary. The behaviors and approach of the lecturer towards students affect the interest of foreign students in Turkish either in a positive or negative way.” (Yılmaz & Buzlukluoğlu Arslan,2014, p. 1185). According to Çiftçi (2011, p. 339), no matter which subject area is concerned, no matter which tools are used in the course, none of them is as effective as the teacher factor in achieving the learning outcomes. On the importance of the approach of the teacher, Soodak & Podell (1997) argue that the perception and belief of the lecturer towards the course directly affect students and influence the acquired behavior or attitude of students towards the course and learning. Kara (2010) point to that some games played by the foreign students learning Turkish in the courses of writing, speaking, comprehension and grammar enabled them to learn Turkish faster and easier, to enjoy the course they willingly participate in and to ensure more permanent learning. The greatest contribution of this to teaching Turkish as a foreign language is that the feelings of fear and anxiety, which are the main obstacles in student dimension, are relieved through the provision of authentic and natural learning environments.
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Using Films in Vocabulary Teaching of Turkish as a Foreign Language

Using Films in Vocabulary Teaching of Turkish as a Foreign Language

Movies undertake the task of conveying the meaning of words through contexts. Context is an important framework for embodying the meaning of the word. The presenting the meaning of a word in a film is easier than it is read and understood from the book or any text. Students have a number of difficulties learning target words. Students do not only have any difficulty in knowing the meaning of words alone. They also have difficulty in correct pronunciation of the word. Moreover, the students may forget the meaning of the word after a while. The meaning of words can be learned through a dictionary. But after a while, students may forget that meaning again. There are many ways of teaching vocabulary on foreign languages. But interaction in class is very important. Many students do not engage in learning vocabulary in the class and this is a serious problem. In this process, however, the student must deal with this issue seriously and must actively participate in it.
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