Peatswampforestconservationwithstandspervasivelandconversion to oilpalmplantation in NorthSelangor, Malaysia
Abstract: Tropical deforestation remains one of the major global challenges of
the 21 st Century driven to a large extent by the conversion of land for agricultural purposes, such as palmoil production. Malaysia is one of the world’s largest palmoil producers and has seen widespread conversion to oilpalm from primary forest, including peatswampforest (PSF). This study investigates the rate and extent of pervasiveoilpalm expansion in and around NorthSelangorPeatSwampForest (NSPSF) over the last three decades, exploring how landconversion has affected the region’s tropical forests, and assessing the relative success of PSF conservation measures. Time-series Landsat imagery was used to assess thematic land cover change and improvement in vegetation condition since NSPSF was given protected status in 1990. The results show a near tripling in oilpalm cover throughout NorthSelangor, from 24,930 ha in 1989 to 70,070 ha in 2016; while at the same time tropical forest cover shrank from 145,570 ha to 88,400 ha. Despite concerns over the sustainability and environmental impact of such rapid oilpalmconversion at a regional level, at the local scale NSPSF represents a relative conservation success story. Effective land stewardship by government and non-governmental organisation (NGO) management actors has limited illegal encroachment of oilpalm around the reserve boundary. PSF rehabilitation measures have also markedly improved vegetation condition in NSPFS’s interior. These findings have broad significance for how oilpalm agriculture is managed and especially for PSF stewardship and conservation, and the approaches described here may be usefully adopted elsewhere in Southeast Asia and around the world.
purposes, such as palmoil production. Malaysia is one of the world’s largest palmoil producers and has seen widespread conversion to oilpalm from primary forest, including peatswampforest (PSF). This study investigates the rate and extent of pervasiveoilpalm expansion in and around NorthSelangorPeatSwampForest (NSPSF) over the last three decades, exploring how landconversion has affected the region’s tropical forests, and assessing the relative success of PSF conservation measures. Time-series Landsat imagery was used to assess thematic land cover change and improvement in vegetation condition since NSPSF was given protected status in 1990. The results show a near tripling in oilpalm cover throughout NorthSelangor, from 24,930 ha in 1989 to 70,070 ha in 2016; while at the same time tropical forest cover shrank from 145,570 ha to 88,400 ha. Despite concerns over the sustainability and environmental impact of such rapid oilpalmconversion at a regional level, at the local scale NSPSF represents a relative conservation success story. Effective land stewardship by government and non-governmental organisation (NGO) management actors has limited illegal encroachment of oilpalm around the reserve boundary. PSF rehabilitation measures have also markedly improved vegetation condition in NSPFS’s interior. These findings have broad significance for how oilpalm agriculture is managed and especially for PSF stewardship and conservation, and the approaches described here may be usefully adopted elsewhere in Southeast Asia and around the world.
Field data and sample collection was conducted in November–De- cember 2014 in NorthSelangorPeatSwampForest, Malaysia. The NorthSelangorPeatSwampForest comprises Raja Musa Forest Reserve, Sun- gai Karang Forest Reserve, Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve and part of Bukit Belata Forest Reserve Extension, and overall covers an area of 81,304ha. The central area of the reserve is secondary mixed forest; the majority of the area was selectively logged from the 19th century up until the 1980s, and a significant area of the northern edge of the re- serve has already undergone oilpalmconversion (Kumari, 1996). Four stages or classes of landconversion were identified (forest, drained for- est, young oilpalmplantation and mature oilpalmplantation), and five replicate study sites were sampled in each class (Figs. 1 and 2). The forest sites chosen for this study had not been subject to logging for approximately 40years; as a result the forest sites were in areas of high canopy density (trees >25m, canopy coverage >80% (Global Environment Centre, 2014).
a b s t r a c t
Deforestation of tropical peatswamp forests is rapidly taking place across Southeast Asia to make way for agricultural expansion. Within forest ecosystems, macrofungi play a vital role, including wood decomposition and nutrient cycles. To reveal the effects of defores- tation and land cover conversion on macrofungi in Southeast Asian tropical forests we assessed the relationship between environmental variables such as air temperature, relative air humidity, soil pH, soil moisture, canopy cover, canopy closure, habitat type (i.e., peatswampforest, large-scale plantation, monoculture smallholding, and polyculture smallholding) and available substrata with macrofungal species richness and abundance. We sample macrofungi across four habitats on Peninsula Malaysia including peatswampforest, large-scale plantations, monoculture smallholding and polyculture smallholding. We found that substrate richness had a positive effect on macrofungal morphospecies richness, while soil pH and air temperature had a negative effect. For macrofungal abun- dance, canopy closure and soil moisture had negative effects, whereas substrate richness and relative air humidity had positive effects. Our data showed considerable variation in functional group responses to environmental variables. The abundance of wood-inhabiting fungi was driven primarily by substrate richness, while relative air humidity, soil moisture, and habitat type play minor roles. The abundance of terricolous saprotrophic fungi was determined principally by habitat type, substrate richness, and relative air humidity. Macrofungal community structure was mainly in ﬂuenced by substrate richness, followed by microclimates and soil characteristics. Our results can provides critical ecological data to support conservation stakeholders conserve macrofungi in natural and agricultural peatlands. Our study suggests that the expansion of oilpalm monocultures, to the detri- ment of peatswamp forests, is likely to have negative effects on macrofungal biodiversity and further agricultural expansion should be prevented.
101 around the palmoil trees. By this activity, worker able to collect and spot the loose fruits on the ground easily. Other than that, harvesting and application of fertilizers can be more efficiency. Weeding can be divided into manual weeding and chemical weeding. Manual weeding is carried out by using chisel, spade and rake. Weeding that using chemical and knapsack sprayer would be the chemical spraying. Glyphosate is one of the examples of the chemical. Generally, chemical weeding is more efficient than manual weeding. However, some unwanted plant is not easily removed by using chemical weeding and the chemical may cause some damages to the palmoil trees. Therefore, proper planning of this program is high indeed. The last main activity is oryctes spraying. As we all know, pests may cause damage to our plants where palmoil trees can’t be an exception as well. For palmoilplantation, there are few pests existing, such as scales, mealybugs, leaf webworm, psychid, slug caterpillar and rhinoceros beetle. Therefore, oryctes spraying is one of the effective ways of facing pests. The worker usually spraying the chemical such as hexa cyper and bulldoze by using a knapsack sprayer. Same as weeding, the chemical used in oryctes spraying may cause some damages to the palmoil trees. So, it is very important to have proper planning for this program.
Key message Shorea albida trees, which grow in oligotrophic tropical peatswamp forests, invest less in defense than growth, and therefore develop tall hollow stems that regrow after breakage.
Abstract The tropical peatswamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysia are low-nutrient soils, but nonetheless have tall Shorea albida trees. Most of these large trees have hollow stems and broken crowns. We examined tree morphology to determine how this species develops and maintains tall above-ground parts in oligotrophic peat soils. We measured hollow diameter at breast height (D hollow ), tree diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and height of breakage of 81 trees. Destructive sampling was also conducted for seven trees, and these data were used to determine wood density and both hollow diameter and stem diameter per meter height. All sampled trees developed hollow trunks before they reach the canopy layer. Linear regression of D hollow on DBH indicated that the radial expansion rate of the hollow was slightly less than the thickening growth. Stem
The Nkazana PSF site (28 ◦ 10.176 0 S, 32 ◦ 30.070 0 E) lies on the western boundary of the Mfabeni Mire and runs in a north–south direction for approximately 7 km. A detailed vegetation survey of the PSF has been described by Ven- ter (2003). Wessels (1997) classified the swamp forests of the area into three logical subgroupings based on dominant species, stand density and basal areas. The Syzygium corda- tum subgroup is characterised by an irregular, broken canopy of predominantly Syzygium cordatum trees (known locally as the Water Berry) of up to 30 m, emerging above an inter- mediate canopy of approximately 6–15 m. The Nkazana PSF site posed several challenges due to general inaccessibility as well as the dense Nephrolepis biserrata fern that covers the forest floor to a height of 2.5 m and the Stenochlaena tenuifolia (Blechnaceae) fern that festoons the tree stems. The ground at the PSF site was wet and soft with a 0.3 m layer of peat over sand. However, the peat is over 2 m thick in places within the Nkazana PSF (hereafter referred to as PSF only). The two trees instrumented for monitoring sap flow were located within this widely spread Syzygium cor- datum subgroup of the PSF at its broadest point (approx- imately 1 km) to minimise edge effects. An overstory tree (Syzygium cordatum) and a mid-canopy tree (Shirakiopsis el- liptica) were instrumented. Syzygium cordatum is the most common swampforest tree across Maputaland, likely due to its fire and hydroperiod tolerance (Wessels, 1997). Other tree species found in the immediate vicinity of the moni- tored trees included: Macaranga capensis, Bridelia micran- tha, Tarenna pavettoides and Stenochlaena tenuifolia. The leaf area index (LAI) beneath the ferns and trees was approx- imately 7.2 and below the trees approximately 3.3 (suggest- ing a near-closed canopy) throughout the year (Fig. 2). The depth to water table was <1.0 m and the trees had permanent access to groundwater.
From Table 1, the results of the survey analysis showed a significant percentage of FAHP other methods. This method is widely used in a problem of land clearing using FMCDM. All papers obtained use more than one method in completing land clearing problem. For the method can be used in comparing each criteria and sub-criteria on the method used and other method for decision making. The method has different weight of interest level, so that in completing the problem related to the environmental effect can be accepted by stakeholders in decision making. Some research also shows the research result that integrates FMCDM into GIS to show the location of land clearing. The technique of method combination is very good for the problem of decision making in land clearing so that it is efficient for the output data of map visualization. The research using the method might solve the problem of decision making for land clearing for palmplantation that involves multi-stakeholder which might have different parameter-criteria in the decision making. For the next research, it needs to develop integration model collaborating model FMCDM into multi-spatial data model. The technique of weighting mentioned is involving multi-stakeholder in assessing multi- criteria for decision making so that it can develop theory of FMCDM into the theory of Fuzzy Multi- Spatial Decision Making (FMSDM). Multi-spatial models are used as input and output geographically for decision making. The use of this model will show the results of the ranking with such multi-map visualization.
The biodiversity paramere focused on the population dynamics of tigers and orang-utans, because the survival of these two iconic and endangered species is intimately linked to the preservation of forests  . The dy- namics of each population is based on the forests capacity to support species food, dispersal and reproductive needs as well as resilience against poaching pressure parameters. The survival of each species depends on a large enough territory and a sufficient amount of food within this range, specifically other mammals and fruit trees, respectively  . The quantities of each type of food together with the size of the territory available were directly calculated from forest cover. At each time step, the maximum number of individuals that the environment could support was estimated by the model. During periods when forests are not under stress for the requirements of resident animal/biodiversity populations, the animals’ reproduction rates increased while mortality decreased, and vice versa. In addition to natural death, the poaching parameter puts anthropogenic pressure on both species. Poaching was negatively correlated to the Malaysian economic performance since subsistence or commercial poaching was consequence of reduced gross domestic product per capita (GDP) during economic depression pe- riods, and forest-neighbourhood communities resort to poaching for alternative sustenance.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------***------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Abstract-Calculation of forest biomass is an ongoing requirement. It is in view of monitoring the changes that occur as one of the particular assessment in the forest especially in PSF Pekan. The study was conducted in Compartment 75. The results estimated the total biomass is 415.18 t ha-1, the value of which is almost the same compared to the Compartment 100 in another study which is 414.57 t ha -1 . This situation may change in the next 10 to 30 years, because in Compartment 75
Melling et al.  reported that in comparison to the mixed swampforest type which is generally mostly decomposed peat, the Alan forest types are woody. The Alan Batu forest type is generally found on a more stressful environment of the peatswamp. This may have led to physiological adaptation of the tree whereby it has a bigger buttress and are almost invariably hollow, whereby the shell of the timber remaining is very dense. Due to its harsh environment, the roots of the Alan Batu forest type are also more extensive creating the existence of a vacant layer in the peat profile which is about 20-30 cm within the top 100 cm of the peat profile. The inorganic nutrient of Alan forest type is significantly lower than the mixed swampforest type. These present an extreme limiting conditions for plant growth as shown by the yield of oilpalm planted on such peat.
potential for the sustainability of agricultural practices in these soils. Plants require nutrients from soil microbial decomposition activities, but the fact that undisturbed peatlands represent significant carbon sinks suggests that decomposition activity is generally low in these soils. Zech et al.  described 2 phases of decomposition; firstly, the dominant process of mineralization of labile components and secondly, a slower mineralization due to the accumulation of refractory molecules. Nitrogen, one of the main plant growth nutrient is released during the decomposistion of organic matter. Nitrate concentrations in the agricultural soil samples (with no known records of fertilizer addition) were significantly higher (2 - 5 times) compared with the NF soil samples (Table 2, p < 0.05). The increased levels of soil nitrate may be due to greater availability of nitrification substrates derived from local peat substances. Aerobic nitrification represents an important process in wetlands, although in peat- land soils this process is far slower than seen in mineral soil due to limiting nitrifying microorganisms as a result of low low pH and oxygen availability. Nurulita et al.  reported that agricultural soils such as the ones used for this study exhibited reduced soil moisture content (10% - 20%) and a greater depth of water table (61 - 78 cm). Low moisture content and drier soil can result in increased nitrification  , as observed in the more oxidized agricultural areas compared with natural forest peatland soils. With regards to the concentration of phosphate in agricultural soils, these were no significantly differences compared with the natural forest (average 66.5 mg·kg −1 ) (p < 0.05).
Most of the plantation workers especially local youth those who work in plantation and still working in plantation left this work and migrated to the urban area and work in the manufacturing sector and servicing sector which more conducive. Based on Kabita (2014), most of the Indian local youth work in oilpalmplantation left the plantation and shifted the job in servicing sector. In addition most of Indian local youths left the plantation pursue the higher education in urban area. Thus this study provides the recommendation to oilpalm industry based on the result analysis within this two groups of local youth which still working and those who left from this job. This will assist the industry to sustain especially those who are still working in oilpalmplantation based on level of job satisfaction.
As mentioned before, to tackle these problems, RSPO has been made to facilitate dialog among stakeholders while in the meantime promoting sustainable production of the palmoil throughout environmental regards. The new in- stitutional order was designed as a win-win solution for both NGOs that have been critiquing the case and the producers themselves. RSPO has main priority in devel- oping certification or standard on the production. Its de- velopment shows the issue is going into a global debate where environmentalists seem to have strong opposing arguments. For such reasons, they argue that the roundtable is no more than a party to consolidate the industries’ po- litical interest maintaining economic benefits in the name of ‘green club’ (Orsato et al., 2013). However, the problem
Although in palm field the fertilizer inputs could be different from time to time depend on plant age, environmental issues, price, as well as local regulation (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007), to reduce fertilizer application in palm field is not easy. Intensive cultivation could lead to intensive soil degradation under oil palms. According to Guillaume et al. (2016) 10% of soils under oil palms had very low C content (<1%). Thus, field improvement could be made to reduce nutrient leaching. In rubber plantation, Rusli and Heryana (2015) revealed that silt pit (rorak) construction enables to conserve N-P-K nutritions from sinking to waterbody. Furthermore, Tarigan et al. (2016) demonstrated that application of frond pile management, and its combination with silt pit construction reduce run-off water by 10% and 31% in palm field, respectively. Utilization of ground cover Nephrolepis biserrata as a cover crop in combination with ridge terracing reduces the rate of water loss by percolation and run-off by 36% and 80%, respectively according to Ariyanti et al. (2016). Comte et al. (2012) demonstrated that although oilplantation receives high fertilizer application, nutrient losses especially Mg + into the waterbody is equal fluxes from forest if EFB is applied as mulch. These facts exhibite that better field management reduce grey WF in the oilpalm field.
“The RSPO is exemplary of thousands of similar initiatives that have emerged in the past three decades,... the RSPO, which has helped to protect the reputation of the industry in the recent past.... As a result, it is estimated that 60–90 million people derive their livelihoods from land classiûed as ‘State Forest Areas,’ which cover 70% of Indonesia’s terri- tory. Many of its rural lands consist of primary and second- ary forests, in which there are agroforestry systems with rota- tions of 30 years or more, including community planted rub- ber forests or other cash crops, fruit groves, as well as commu- nity-protected sites of cultural signiûcance, such as burial sites in forest groves, in addition to homesteads. Local communi- ties adjacent to palmoil production are remote and frag- mented, in terms of their relations with government and cor- porations. Unsurprisingly, such asymmetry in power distribu- tion leads to a history of bad practices. Local communities are often impoverished and displaced. Palmoil is labour in- tensive. Its cultivation in what were previously forestlands that have been cleared means that its expansion takes place in what have become relatively unpopulated or low-popula- tion density areas” (Orsato et al., 2013).
OE ) was calculated based on CPO extraction. Thus, total WF CPO = WF FFB + WF OE .
The water was classified as green, blue and grey water (Hoekstra et al., 2011), WF CPO = WF green +WF blue +WF grey . The green WF FFB referred to the volume of rainwater consumed for FFB production including transpiration of oilpalm tree stand, below vegetation and weed-free area, and harvested biomass (Table 1). Green WF was calculated by dividing the green water use (m 3 ha -1 ) by the crop yield (Y, tonne ha -1 ). Blue WF referred to the volume of surface and ground water consumed including water for irrigation to FFB production, CPO extraction and domestic labor; it was calculated by dividing the blue water use (m 3 ha -1 ) by the crop yield (Y, tonne ha -1 ). Due to no irrigation was applied in the study site, water for irrigation was setted as zero; thus Blue WF for oilpalm was calculated from difference between water of palm consumption and rainfall. Rainfall interception of palm tree was calculated according to Tanjung (2013) for TBM to TM-3, and according to Pasaribu et al. (2012) for TM-4 to TM-20, i.e., 11.6% and 21.2%, respectively.
Abstract— The increasing need for vegetable oil about 5 million a year accompanied by the human population growth with the average increase 0.9% requires a consistent effort for Indonesia as the top CPO producer in the world. The efforts to increase the palmoilplantation production faces not only the constraint of the low plantation product but also the lack of downstream palmoil industry development. Also, there is not any specific fund for the plantation. Because of that reason, it is necessary to make an improvement effort for the revitalization of the palmoilplantation in North Sumatera-Indonesian through the huge potential benefits of North Sumatera by modelling palmoilplantation revitalization, to facilitate the relevant parties to find the solution of the constraints of palmoilplantation revitalization so that it can support the CPO agroindustry development in North Sumatera. The implementation of palmoilplantation revitalization in North Sumatera is not high, that is only 17.5 % out of the planned one. It indicates that it becomes the constraint of the palmoilplantation revitalization in North Sumatera. The result of the research shows that several dominant factors influencing the success of the regeneration are among others the land availability and the replanting, the increased productivity of plantation and CPO agroindustry, and the plantation financing. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that the relevant parties such as government, plantation companies, banks and-and farming community be able to synergize so that various influencing factors can be optimized and the maximum increase in the revitalization.
The methodological foundation is based on well-characterized, parametric statistical models and offers computational simplicity. Large-area land cover mapping or change detection often requires intensive human involvement or automation, which entails sophisticated algorithm parameterization, substantial computing facilities or both. Our method follows established statistical theory with little parameter fine-tuning. It includes (i) careful screening of cloud, cloud shadow and haze to prevent false positive and (ii) adaptive detection of candidate change pixels to provide the algorithm the initial values. Further, this method captures continuous natural and anthropogenic changes in land cover at fine spatial resolution and has the potential to capture subtle and long-term changes, such as forest degradation in the absence of a universal, definite method designed for forest degradation and in light of the rapid but uncharacterized forest degradation in Southeast Asia (Miettinen et al., 2014). This application to a dense, cloudy tropical peatswampforest provides the exact location, the timing and the mode of disturbance for an area understudied in current global environmental change research, under-reported in national forest inventory but that has been undergoing fast and substantial disturbances. This method can contribute to current efforts in monitoring for both Deforestation and Degradation in the context of REDD+.