Top PDF Forest landscape ecology and global change: an introduction

Forest landscape ecology and global change: an introduction

Forest landscape ecology and global change: an introduction

can have larger-than-expected effects on the structure, and concomitantly on the functioning, of forest landscapes. We will briefly discuss several land-use change processes that have affected forest landscapes in recent decades: agricultural expansion and intensification, agricultural abandonment, deforestation, and forestry intensification. The expansion of agriculture has affected forest landscapes more strongly than just about any other factor during the last 10 000 years. The majority of agricultural land has been established on forest soils, leading to a decrease in forest area from 6×10 9 ha to the current level of 4×10 9 ha (FAO 2012). In Europe and parts of North America and Asia, this transition occurred in historical times and is largely finished, but the process continues in the rest of the world. Although the rate of expansion of agriculture is decreasing (FAO 2002), the pressure from agriculture on forest ecosystems remains high. Agricultural areas are expected to increase by 120×10 6 ha in developing countries by 2030, mostly due to the establishment or expansion of intensive cultivation of major food crops (FAO 2002). In regions such as East Asia, South Asia, the Near East, and North Africa that have already reached full use of their existing arable soil, agriculture will expand into forest landscapes that have survived previous expansion cycles. In the coming decades, the predicted expansion and intensification of agriculture is expected to affect the atmosphere, climate, soil, water, and biodiversity, and these effects may be cumulative.
Show more

39 Read more

Global change, parasite transmission and disease control: lessons from ecology

Global change, parasite transmission and disease control: lessons from ecology

Other forms of pollution are less well studied with regard to disease transmission. While it is known that light pollution can impact the structure and function of ecosystems via cas- cading effects [55], and that natural light cycles govern both relevant parasite life-history traits (e.g. egg hatching; [56]) and intermediate host behaviours (e.g. zooplankton diel migration; [57]), studies on the effects of light pollution on human parasite transmission remain limited [58]. Although the introduction of electricity to socio-economically develop- ing communities has overall human health benefits, night lighting inevitably attracts certain insect vectors and increases human night-time activity. Thus vulnerability to being bitten by a vector is increased, which is implicated in higher inci- dences of leishmaniasis and malaria in some regions [58]. In other insect-vectored diseases, artificial lighting may have a less overt effect on transmission dynamics: triatome bugs, the vectors of Chagas’ disease, typically avoid well-lit areas and artificial lighting may be driving Chagas transmission towards a sylvatic cycle [58]. Noise pollution, a known stress- induced modulator of the immune response [59] that can sig- nificantly affect behaviour and predator–prey interactions [60], has not yet been considered in terms of infectious diseases, even though it could have a major influence on farmed ani- mals. The gaps in knowledge concerning the impacts of all types of pollution on parasite transmission are considerable, and without this information it is challenging to assess its importance across host–parasite systems.
Show more

17 Read more

Environment Workshops 2013. Oak forests coping with global change: ecology and management

Environment Workshops 2013. Oak forests coping with global change: ecology and management

Oak forests and woodlands are important ecosystems in the Mediterranean region, in North America (USA and Mexico), and in Central Asia (China). They are vital providing a variety of ecosystem services. They provide with raw materials like cork (from Q. suber), wood and fuel, and fodder for wild and domestic animals. In Spain and Portugal the silvopastoral system known as “dehesa” provides habitats for wild animals and contributes to a higher biodiversity at the landscape scale. Oak trees provide a climate regulating service by their capacity to sequester carbon and therefore to mitigate the effects of climatic change; they regulate air and water quality and contribute to soil formation and protection.Cultural services are important for local populations: there is an increasing demand for recreation, ecotourism, and to enjoy their aesthetic and spiritual values. However, Global Change is affecting negatively oak forests and therefore diminishing their ecosystem services and in consequence human well-being. Main drivers are: land use change, introduction of exotic pathogens, air and soil pollution deteriorating oak health, and climatic change, in particular the reduction of rainfall.
Show more

59 Read more

Transforming forest landscape conflicts: the promises and perils of global forest management initiatives such as REDD+

Transforming forest landscape conflicts: the promises and perils of global forest management initiatives such as REDD+

Drawing on an analysis of case studies in four countries (Cambodia, Myanmar, Nepal and Vietnam), the paper aims to examine why and how REDD+ can be a driver for forest conflict and how it also has the potential to simultaneously transform these conflicts. The paper expects to flag several critical conflict-related issues that need greater attention in the development and implementation of REDD+, which may help provide crucial information to prevent and transform conflicts. Additionally, the work will also put forward recommendations to ensure that REDD+, and other related international initiatives, such as the European Union’s Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPA) can deliver on its transformative potential particularly for the forest landscape conflict. “Conflict transformation” here is defined as a process for addressing conflict which promotes long-term cooperation and justice (see Dhiaulhaq et al., 2015; Kane et al., 2016). Conflict, if transformed effectively, can serve as an opportunity and catalyst for social change in which parties are empowered and structural inequalities are addressed (Reimann, 2004; Bush and Folger, 2005; Dhiaulhaq et al., 2015).
Show more

17 Read more

Assessment Capability Forest Regeneration in Different Geographical Aspects Approach Landscape Ecology

Assessment Capability Forest Regeneration in Different Geographical Aspects Approach Landscape Ecology

The studies which have been done in Iran with regard to regeneration patches have been more qualitative and they take the quantitative and spatial properties of patches into account less. Limited research carried out has used more than one or two indices for introduction and the analysis of patches [28]. However, in the present research, several metrics have been taken to quantify the spatial properties of the patches and its interpretation with the landscape ecology ap- proach [29]. In fact, in this study the principles of the landscape ecology, a sub- set of ecology and geography; have been used to distribute and to disperse patches in different geographical directions, to change and to interpret in each direction.
Show more

19 Read more

Explorations in discursive ecology : addressing landscape change with rural North Carolinians

Explorations in discursive ecology : addressing landscape change with rural North Carolinians

Gupta (1998) lays the theoretical groundwork for resurrecting a localized, discursive concept of community. The globalizing discourses of modernity are commonly deemed so overwhelming that they render location irrelevant: the same meanings, according to this view, are circulated throughout all “modern” societies. Gupta challenges this assumption through his theory of “alternative modernities” (9). He argues that every community experiences modernity, but each in its own way. How modernity is encountered in a given community depends on how national or global discourses are adapted, reconfigured, or resisted in the context of local realities. The negotiation between globalizing discourses and local socio-cultural complexes leads to a unique, hybrid local-global discourse in each case. One “version” of this discourse should not be privileged over others; all are equally “true” and “modern” (6, 9). Just as a habitat types are heterogeneously distributed across a landscape, so discursive formations are heterogeneously distributed across social space, with each community constructing its own “truths.” If communities are seen as the sites in which groups of people interactively negotiate discursive fields, then they emerge as crucial units of analysis for understanding the role of discourse in day-to-day social life.
Show more

472 Read more

Spatio-temporal Ecology of Forest Birds

Spatio-temporal Ecology of Forest Birds

relatively small patches in the landscape compared with historic conditions, the consequences of landscape change in managed forests are likely to differ from highly fragmented systems. For example, Andren (1994) suggests negative area effects are more likely to be observed in landscapes having less than approximately 30% of suitable habitat, although this threshold varies depending on the landscape context (Monkkönen and Reunamen, 1999). Further, many studies in highly fragmented landscapes have focused on the negative effects of edge as related to an increase in nest predators and nest parasites (Flaspohler et al. 2001, Manolis et al. 2002, Mattsson et al. 2006). These factors generally lower the breeding success and increase the probability of local extinction of some forest songbirds (Ambuel and Temple 1983, Wilcove et al. 1986, Small and Hunter 1988). However, Hanski et al. (1996) found no evidence that nesting success for 33 bird species was influenced by proximity to the edge in forested landscapes. A complex landscape composed of a variety of habitats and edges may be beneficial for some bird species in a forested landscape (Hawrot and Niemi 1996).
Show more

227 Read more

Forest Service Global Change Research Strategy,

Forest Service Global Change Research Strategy,

Plants and animals are adapted to local climates . Paleoeco- logical and historical ecological studies have documented that plants and animals have responded and adapted to past changes in these local climates . Natural adaptation can mean adapting to the local climate or migrating to reach a more favorable climate . These adaptations often result in new combinations of species redefining ecosys- tems . Because the climate changes in the 21st century are likely to be uniquely rapid and coupled with other stresses, including a landscape fragmented by urban and industrial development, natural adaptation processes may be limited . The capacity of forests and grasslands to maintain current health, productivity, diversity, and resilience will likely be compromised under this changing climate . The efficacy of current management practices applied under a chang- ing climate will depend upon the nature of the climatic changes (spatial, temporal), the vulnerability of ecosystems to these changes, and the current status and degree of hu- man alteration of the ecosystems (i .e ., presence of inva- sives, departure from historical fire regimes, condition of watersheds) . Species, varieties, and even whole ecosystems that are adapted to the climate of the past centuries may become progressively more stressed and dysfunctional . At the same time, plants and animals that may be appropriate to future climate in any given locale may currently exist in other locations, for example, at lower latitudes or at lower elevations in mountainous terrain . Developing an adapta- tion strategy to maintain and enhance forest and range- land sustainability will involve evaluating different types of
Show more

20 Read more

An assessment of global forest change datasets for national forest monitoring and reporting.

An assessment of global forest change datasets for national forest monitoring and reporting.

1. Introduction It is estimated that 12%–20% of global greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2000 were from forest loss, primarily in tropical regions [ 1 ]. Estimations of CO 2 emissions and removals show large differences and high levels of uncertainty. For example, in tropical regions, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission estimated the annual carbon loss during 2000–2010 as 0.81 to 1.24 10 9 tC year −1 using a systematic sample design based on 30 m resolution satellite imagery [ 2 ], while Tyukavina et al. [ 3 ] estimated gross carbon emissions as 1.22 and 1.38 10 9 tC year −1 for 2000–2012 based on a random sample-based estimate stratified using the University of Maryland Global Forest Change dataset. Federici et al. [ 4 ] estimated a global forest-related emissions value of 1.10 10 9 tC year −1 for forest-related emissions from 1991 to 2015 based on modelling of country data derived from the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). This compares favourably with a study by Le Quéré et al. that quantifies all major fluxes of the global carbon cycle and reports an annual emission value of 1.0 ± 0.5 10 9 tC year −1 for land use change between 2000 to 2014 [ 5 ]. The reader should note the large uncertainty attached to the estimates of annual carbon loss and of annual global emissions; the differences in quantitative estimates are essentially due to the quantity, quality and global availability of reliable land cover change data, which are the focus of this paper.
Show more

21 Read more

Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

Chapter 7 Focus on a limited set of ecosystem functions I used 5 biogeochemical ecosystem functions: biomass, primary production, litter production, wood decomposition and leaf decomposition. These quantify major fluxes in energy and matter, and underlie important regulating services like climate regulation, topsoil protection, soil fertility and nutrient cycling (MA 2005). This type of biogeochemical functions dominates the literature on ecosystem functioning (e.g. Isbell et al. 2011, Maestre et al. 2012b, Gamfeldt et al. 2013), are of global relevance in terms of the ecosystem services they underlie, and are thought to respond strongly to changes in biodiversity (MA 2005). Nevertheless, they represent only a limited subset of all functions that an ecosystem manifests. In my study, the ecosystem functions are treated as additive, which means that the effect of species in a mixed assemblage can be predicted from the effect of each of the species when aggregated (Reiss et al. 2009). This assumption was necessary for enabling the quantification of ecosystem functions at the species and at the landscape level. Indeed many ecosystem functions are additive (Fox 2005), though this ignores any interspecific interaction which are thought to underpin the diversity effect (e.g. Finn et al. 2013). It is important to realize that by definition dominant species contribute more to additive ecosystem functions (Norberg 2004) and that therefore broadening the subset of ecosystem functions to include functions that are not additive will generate considerably different results. Examples of ecosystem functions that may depend on less common species are the accumulation of particular nutrients (Lyons et al. 2005). Maybe it is not so much ecosystem functions (here defined as fluxes of matter and energy over time and space) but rather ecosystem services that depend on less common species, such as invasion resistance (Zavaleta and Hulvey 2004) and presence of culturally important species (Díaz et al. 2011). Typically, those functions and services that depend on rare species are also most vulnerable to species loss (Mouillot et al. 2013). I thereby stress that for evaluating whether biodiversity matters for ecosystem functioning and services, or in contrast, whether truly redundant species exist, there is need to include a much wider range of ecosystem functions (and services).
Show more

228 Read more

Forest Ecology and Management

Forest Ecology and Management

Despite concern over a putative ‘‘global pollination crisis’’, we still have an incomplete understanding of how bee communities respond to land-use change. I studied the responses of social stingless (or ‘‘meliponine’’) bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) to surrounding forest cover and floral resources in 35 sites in a largely deforested landscape in Costa Rica over three years, sampling bees with a standardized netting protocol. I recorded a diverse fauna of meliponines, comprised of 20 species and nine genera. I found that meliponine species richness and abundance are strongly related to forest cover, but not floral resource variables (blooming plant species richness and abundance). The effect of forest on meliponine abundance, but not diversity, disappeared when the most common meliponine species, Trigona fulviventris (which comprised 45% of sampled individuals), was excluded from analyses. Meliponine community composition, by contrast, was related most strongly to plant species richness, only weakly to forest cover, and not related to blooming plant abundance. This work differs from past work in the same landscape, which did not find evidence of changes in species richness or abundance of meliponines and forest-related variables (distance to forest or forest fragment size), but did find shifts toward meliponine-dominated communities near forests, especially larger ones. The larger true sample size (i.e. number of sample sites) of the present work likely improved the statistical power to detect these relationships. While meliponines are forest dependent, I recorded some species in the smallest forest fragments in the landscape, and as a group they respond strongly to overall forest cover in the landscape (i.e. including both small and large patches of forest). Both of these observations support arguments for preserving even small fragments of forest in agricultural landscapes. Given the ecological and economic importance of meliponine bees, it is imperative that we better understand their long-term conservation needs in the changing tropical landscapes of the world.
Show more

8 Read more

Global, Landsat-based forest-cover change from 1990 to 2000

Global, Landsat-based forest-cover change from 1990 to 2000

2.5. Accuracy assessment 2.5.1. Accuracy assessment for the conterminous United States A sample of nine Landsat World Reference System 2 (WRS-2) scenes across the conterminous United States was selected to assess the accuracy of 1990 forest-cover and 1990 –2000 forest-cover change estimates ( Fig. 4 ). These scenes were originally used as reference data for the North American Forest Disturbance (NAFD) program of the North American Carbon Program. Collection of reference data for accuracy assessment was described by Thomas et al. (2011) . A design- based, strati fied random sample for the four classes of forest cover change detection (FF, NN, NF and FN) was gathered to represent rare change classes (FN and NF) as well as the more common stable classes (FF and NN). Strati fication was based on initial classes identified by the Vegetation Change Tracker algorithm (VCT) ( Huang et al., 2010b ), and selection probabilities were used to remove sampling biases in the error matrix. Each sample pixel was examined by expert inter- preters and labeled as changed or persistent forest/non-forest pixel after a visual evaluation of Landsat time series imagery and high resolu- tion imagery from TerraServer ( www.terraserver.com ) and/or Google Earth ( www.earth.google.com ). Knowledge of the spectral properties, temporal changes, and spatial context of the pixel within the context of the surrounding landscape over time was used together to label each sample pixel.
Show more

16 Read more

How Landscape Ecology Informs Global Land-Change Science and Policy

How Landscape Ecology Informs Global Land-Change Science and Policy

The landscape configuration of monocultures can be designed to mitigate their negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functions, mainly through land-use policy (Table 1). Early work in agricultural landscapes focused on creating corridors for species persistence and movement (Wegner and Merriam 1979), examining the edge effects on species diversity (Fry and SarlovHerlin 1997) and install- ing riparian buffers to limit nutrient runoff (Peterjohn and Correll 1984). More recent research has quantified landscape structure, such as the diversity of crop types (Fahrig et  al. 2011), to better understand how agriculture affects terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Results from this research have informed the policies of the US Department of Agriculture’s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). These insights have also been integrated and extensively applied at a multinational scale via European Union agricultural and landscape policy, particularly through payment for ecosys- tem services programs (e.g., the 2000 European Landscape Convention; Cassatella and Peano 2011, Conrad et al. 2011, Prager et al. 2012). However, agroenvironmental programs in the US Farm Bill (e.g., CRP, the Grasslands Reserve Program, and the Wetlands Reserve Program) are primar- ily enacted at the farm scale, suggesting an obvious gap in addressing processes that take place within a broader land- scape context. Landscape-ecology research can inform these agricultural policy gaps for regional, large-scale biodiversity conservation and preservation of ecosystem services, such as pollination and the biocontrol of pests (Kennedy et al. 2013, Office of the Press Secretary 2014).
Show more

14 Read more

Forest landscapes and global change. New frontiers in management, conservation and restoration. Proceedings of the IUFRO Landscape Ecology Working Group International Conference

Forest landscapes and global change. New frontiers in management, conservation and restoration. Proceedings of the IUFRO Landscape Ecology Working Group International Conference

Euclidean) suggest that seed dispersal is favoured from species-rich patches occurring at higher altitude towards lower situated pine plantations. Secondly, patch geometry might affect seed permeability and therefore the overall regeneration dynamic of the patch. According to our results, fragmentation of pine plantations (i.e. patch area reduction) increases overall plant diversity. Thus, increasing edge effects in pine plantations will facilitate higher rates of plant diversity. Patch geometry effects on natural processes are based on the delimitation of isolated discrete units or patches. However some types of landscapes do not present clear patch delimitation (Gustafson 1998). In our study site, landscape is better depicted as a continuum of patches with different perturbation rate and following a belt structure. This limitation was overcome selecting isolated patches across the study site. This approach allowed the study of the effect of geometry on regeneration and plant diversity but also pointed out the complexity of vegetation pattern at landscape scale that eventually might be better depicted as a continuous gradient of point-data (Gustafson 1998). Thirdly, once propagules are trapped in pine plantation patches, seeds will require special conditions to germinate and establish. This study has proven that internal vegetation structure measured in terms of texture indices, might be useful to estimate regeneration and plant diversity. All plant diversity indices but for fleshly-fruited woody species were higher in plots of higher heterogeneity. Areas with higher microhabitat diversity might have a higher abundance of niches for different species that in turns will influence positively plant diversity. This finding agrees with the extensive literature that points the positive relationship between habitat heterogeneity and species abundance and distribution (Noss 1990) . Nevertheless, this effect proved to be species-dependent. Q. ilex responded in an opposite manner with higher regeneration rates in structurally homogeneous plantation patches. Despite these promising findings and the theoretical usefulness of texture indices as heterogeneity quantification techniques (Turner 1991), further research is needed to test this methodology in other landscapes and at different scales to firmly confirm their reliability.
Show more

762 Read more

How Landscape Ecology Informs Global Land-Change Science and Policy

How Landscape Ecology Informs Global Land-Change Science and Policy

The landscape configuration of monocultures can be designed to mitigate their negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functions, mainly through land-use policy (Table 1). Early work in agricultural landscapes focused on creating corridors for species persistence and movement (Wegner and Merriam 1979), examining the edge effects on species diversity (Fry and SarlovHerlin 1997) and install- ing riparian buffers to limit nutrient runoff (Peterjohn and Correll 1984). More recent research has quantified landscape structure, such as the diversity of crop types (Fahrig et  al. 2011), to better understand how agriculture affects terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Results from this research have informed the policies of the US Department of Agriculture’s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). These insights have also been integrated and extensively applied at a multinational scale via European Union agricultural and landscape policy, particularly through payment for ecosys- tem services programs (e.g., the 2000 European Landscape Convention; Cassatella and Peano 2011, Conrad et al. 2011, Prager et al. 2012). However, agroenvironmental programs in the US Farm Bill (e.g., CRP, the Grasslands Reserve Program, and the Wetlands Reserve Program) are primar- ily enacted at the farm scale, suggesting an obvious gap in addressing processes that take place within a broader land- scape context. Landscape-ecology research can inform these agricultural policy gaps for regional, large-scale biodiversity conservation and preservation of ecosystem services, such as pollination and the biocontrol of pests (Kennedy et al. 2013, Office of the Press Secretary 2014).
Show more

13 Read more

Introduction to Landscape Ecology

Introduction to Landscape Ecology

Unrelenting demand for more and more commodities and services from global ecosystems has led to numerous ecological crises. Staggering losses of topsoil each year from many of America’s farmlands demonstrate that these ecosystems are being exploited. Failure of certain tropical humid forests to rebound after clearcutting dramatically illustrates their vulnerability to radical disturbance. Equally compelling evidence of ecosystem limits is seen in the altered flooding regimes, increased suspended loads, chemical contamination, and community structure changes in virtually every temperate river in the world. The degradation of Earth’s ecosystems is further signaled by the unprecedented decline of thousands of species, many of which have become extinct. Many of these crises are the result of
Show more

16 Read more

Landscape change and forest dynamics: multi-scale pattern analysis and biodiversity issues

Landscape change and forest dynamics: multi-scale pattern analysis and biodiversity issues

1995 ) and useful to describe habitat spatial patterns: largest patch index (LPI), mean patch size (MPS), area weighted mean shape index (AWMSI), and aggregation index (AI) (ESM1 see the supplementary material for details and formulae). The NP, MPS, and LPI metrics were selected because they are strongly related to habitat fragmentation (Forman 1995 ; Batistella et al. 2003 ), that is, the breaking up of one large suitable area into many smaller patches (Forman and Godron 1986 ; Shafer 1990 ; Fahrig 2003 ). The largest patch index (LPI) quantifies the percentage of total landscape area comprised by the largest patch of the suitable class and decreases in fragmented landscapes (Batistella et al. 2003 ). MPS is the average of the size in ha of all patches and corresponds to the ratio between the total area covered by each category and the number of patches in that suitability class; it decreases with landscape fragmentation. AWMSI measures the complexity of a suitable patch shape compared to a standard shape, which in raster format attains its minimum
Show more

237 Read more

Impact of institutions on land cover change and landscape fragmentation in an Indian dry tropical forest landscapes

Impact of institutions on land cover change and landscape fragmentation in an Indian dry tropical forest landscapes

The study found that forests of this landscape have been subjected to “institutional enclosure”, with strict rules on access and extraction, and an increase in the number of PAs as well as forest administrative units and forest staff involved in management. The number of PAs has increased, from four in 1975 to nine at present. Five Wildlife Sanctuaries (WLSs): Mansinghdeo, Umred- Karhandl, Koka, New-Nagzira, and Navegaon; were formed between 2010 and 2013. There is also a transition of some PAs to stricter management categories. Tadoba-Andhari WLS became a TR in 1993, and Pench NP was declared a TR in 1999. Similarly, there has been an increase in the numbers of forest administrative sub-units—forest ranges, rounds, and beats—outside PAs. Ranges have increased from 45 to 70, rounds from 235 to 304, and beats from 1060 to 1243 in the past four decades. Each range, round, and beat has an associated range officer, round officer, and beat office, with a proportional number of forest guards. Thus, a larger number of FD staff now monitors smaller areas of forests. The restrictions have also increased through various plantation projects, regular monitoring by forest guards, buffer zone establishment, rise in number of administrative sub-units, and also through policies of the Joint Forest Management (JFM). Despite increase in restriction on forest use by the FD, the forest fragmentation and loss of dense forest outside PAs was found to have increased. At the regional level, RS methods were used to map and analyse forest cover change and forest fragmentation in the landscape between 1977 and 2011. Landsat satellite images from 1977, 1990, 1999, and 2011 were used to perform supervised classification to classify the images into dense forest, open forest and non-forest categories. The change analysis showed that the landscape has lost 1478km 2 of dense forest cover between 1977
Show more

192 Read more

Three studies in forest ecology

Three studies in forest ecology

If the stocking is marginal of between 20 and 40 per cent it Recommended survey practice for young regeneration Regeneration surveys of 1 to 2 year old may be necessary to run further st[r]

230 Read more

CHALLENGES TO THE FOREST MACHINE BUSINESS AS A RESULT OF GLOBAL ECONOMIC CHANGE

CHALLENGES TO THE FOREST MACHINE BUSINESS AS A RESULT OF GLOBAL ECONOMIC CHANGE

Praha, 16-18.4.2009 Arto RUMMUKAINEN* Bo DAHLIN** Markku PENTTINEN* Ashley SELBY* Jarmo MIKKOLA*.. * Finnish Forest Research Institute.[r]

23 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...