Top PDF Forests of the future: ecosystem services in a forest landscape facing significant changes

Forests of the future: ecosystem services in a forest landscape facing significant changes

Forests of the future: ecosystem services in a forest landscape facing significant changes

171 species richness (e.g. 333,402–405 ). At the level of individual subcompartments I used occurrence rather than abundance, because subcompartments were small and so abundances were low and there was high zero inflation. It is possible that a presence/absence metric was not a sensitive enough discriminator of habitat quality, particularly given that there was low variation in some structural attributes such as vertical evenness and shrub density (Figure 7.1). Furthermore, the relatively small sizes of the stands in combination with bird mobility means that detection of bird species in a subcompartment does not necessarily reflect meaningful habitat associations. Nevertheless, the results were based on an extensive dataset involving a large number of bird observations and high- resolution habitat quality data over contiguous areas, so it is notable that habitat attributes explained so little variation. It seems likely that using the scale of forest subcompartments was insufficient to capture broader habitat information of importance, such as wider landscape heterogeneity, particularly in a large continuous forest environment. Given that many studies take place at the scale of forest stands, for practical and ecological reasons, this is an important conclusion 338,353 . It is interesting that the ranked order of variable importance changed once birds were grouped by either conservation or migratory status. This has implications for management objectives that may be targeted at either group. Top canopy height became the most important variable (other than area) for red- and amber-listed birds (Figure 7.4). This is probably because a greater proportion of the red- and amber-listed birds in this study were open habitat specialists. 82% of red- and 67% of amber-listed birds recorded in this study were classified as ground or low vegetation foragers, compared with 52% of green-listed birds
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The use of scenarios and models to evaluate the future of nature values and ecosystem services in Mediterranean forests

The use of scenarios and models to evaluate the future of nature values and ecosystem services in Mediterranean forests

‘provisioning’, ‘regulating & maintenance’ or ‘cultural’ services following the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES V4.3; www.cices.eu). We also evaluated fire risk as an ES indicator due to its importance in Mediterranean forests to regulate and maintain other ecosystem functions and processes (therefore included within the category ‘regulating and maintenance’).

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Business attitudes towards funding ecosystem services provided by urban forests

Business attitudes towards funding ecosystem services provided by urban forests

There are a number of limitations to our study: problems in re- cruiting respondents resulted in a small sample size, contributing to a lack of significant statistical results. Almost half of the businesses were located outside the target city, generally in less urbanised areas, whilst the business size segmentation of the sample also di ffered from the known enterprise demographics, with micro businesses particularly lacking. Future studies should aim for a much larger and more re- presentative sample, with more emphasis placed on engaging with smaller businesses. Identifying the saliency of the significant and non- significant relationships reported here (via further studies) will be im- portant for the marketing of urban forest-PES schemes. An additional issue is potential non-response bias: 70% of those contacted directly did not take part, whilst very few businesses responded to the advertising of the study in local business newsletters; perhaps the subject-matter was not perceived as su fficiently salient to respond. However, it is also possible that non-respondents may have had less positive – even ne- gative – attitudes towards (paying for) trees. Such views could under- mine the feasibility of an urban forest-PES scheme. Future studies should seek to identify these, for example by randomised visits or phone calls to non-respondents.
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A Landscape Approach to Ecosystem Services in Oregon's Southern Willamette Valley Agricultural Landscape

A Landscape Approach to Ecosystem Services in Oregon's Southern Willamette Valley Agricultural Landscape

and value assignment (Daniel et al. 2012). The task is easier where cultural ecosystem services have a tangible aspect, for example sacred or culturally significant sites that can be located and mapped by a community (Raymond et al. 2009, Bryan et al. 2010). It is more difficult to characterize cultural services within an ecosystem services framework when they lack specific spatial and physical qualities. Perhaps future research will develop adequate characterizations for the more elusive cultural services such as spiritual and aesthetic but, at present, they are more conceptual than operational. Although a case could be made for the aesthetic and spiritual qualities of floodplain forests, the case for its contribution to a sense of place as an ecosystem service (Harrison et al. 2010) is perhaps less vague and more persuasive. At a landscape scale, floodplain forest is a physical reference to the environment. This is a particular assemblage of species that is adapted to the climate and geology of the Willamette Valley floodplain. The sense of place does not necessarily come from a logical thought progression linking the specifics of the environment to the vegetation. Rather, it is a visceral connection to place that can be felt but not necessarily articulated. Floodplain forest also provides a sense of place in the experience of landscape at a human scale. In this particular landscape there is a temporal aspect to the sense of place. The frequent transitions from agricultural field to floodplain forest to river are not just locational cues but speak to the evolution of this place since the mid-nineteenth century.
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Monetary valuation of forest ecosystem services in China : A literature review and identification of future research needs

Monetary valuation of forest ecosystem services in China : A literature review and identification of future research needs

Soil conservation and nutrient cycling The valuation methods employed for soil conservation are perhaps the most varied across different studies in China. The methods to assess ecological functions include equations modelling soil properties (bulk density, soil depth) (Xie et al., 2010), estimating the soil erosion difference in forest and non-forestland (Guo et al., 2001; Guo et al., 2008; Xue and Tisdel, 2001) and deriving the difference between potential and actual soil erosion based on rain pattern, soil erosion and soil conservation rates, slope and vegetation cover (Li et al., 2006). The cost of artificial sediment removal was employed to obtain the monetary value of erosion control in forestland (Guo et al., 2001; Guo et al., 2008; Xie et al., 2010). For example, Guo et al. (2008) used the cost for digging and transporting a unit volume of soil. Instead, Li et al. (2006) used the cost for artificial water storage as a proxy of sediment accumulation, based on the fact that in major Chinese valleys 24% of sediments accumulate in reservoirs. Some authors also took into account the ‘avoided abandoned land’ as in the beneficial effect that forests have in maintaining soil and avoiding land disuse, calculated as the area of land conserved and the average thickness of surface soil multiplied by the opportunity cost of forest. However, it is not always clear what proxy is used for the opportunity cost. Xie et al. (2010) used the ‘replacement price method for forestland’, while Guo et al. (2001) used ‘forestry economic profit’. Xue and Tisdel (2001) specify opportunity cost as the net profit for timber production in forestland. Several authors estimated the value of nutrient maintenance or accumulation by forest systems based on the nutrient content in soil or even in timber (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium) multiplied by the price of synthetic nutrients or fertilizers. It is therefore worth noticing that estimating the nutrient value in timber might lead to double counting with the production value of timber.
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Integrating beneficiaries into assessment of ecosystem services from managed forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, USA

Integrating beneficiaries into assessment of ecosystem services from managed forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, USA

maximize the welfare of all beneficiaries at once and therefore difficult to make management decisions that are equitable. Quantified measures of relative service im- portance have the potential to greatly improve efforts to prioritize or select among different management deci- sions with differing ecosystem service outcomes. For ex- ample, Schwenk et al. (2012) demonstrated the use of importance weighting within a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) framework to assess the performance of several forest harvest systems in terms of three different ecosys- tem services: timber production, greenhouse gas mitiga- tion, and biodiversity. A range of importance values was adopted for each service, and selection of these values largely dictated which of the forest harvest systems best optimized the overall utility function. Although the im- portance values themselves were hypothetical, Schwenk et al.’ s (2012) methods could easily be adapted to incorp- orate empirically-derived measures of service import- ance into efforts to compare possible future outcomes in terms of multiple services and multiple beneficiary groups. Schwenk et al.’s (2012) study – like most imple- mentations of MCA (e.g. Buchholz et al. 2009) – are aimed at making an optimal decision at a single point in time. The relationships among individual ecosystem ser- vices, however, as well as the capacity of ecosystems’ to provide multiple services, change over time (Renard et al. 2015). The use of empirical measures of ecosystem service value to parameterize an MCA over multiple years – the focus of the current investigation – is a sig- nificant step forward in understanding how management decisions influence tradeoffs among ecosystem service benefits to different social groups over ecologically- relevant time periods.
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Quantifying resilience of multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity in a temperate forest landscape

Quantifying resilience of multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity in a temperate forest landscape

site showed that over a period of 50 years, basal area declined by 33% and juvenile tree densities were reduced by ~70% (Martin et al., 2015). The threshold in AGB observed here was less pronounced than in tim- ber volume, as the species important for timber production coincided with the dominant species that were extirpated by the disturbances. As disturbance intensifies, relatively shade- tolerant dominant tree species are replaced by pioneer species (Newton, 2010), allowing AGB to recover more quickly compared to timber volume. The threshold observed in ECM richness could be attributable to the decline in tree root density associated with the loss of AGB and supports the findings of Treu et al. (2014) who showed ECM richness declining along a gra- dient of tree mortality. ECM richness is found to be dependent on tree root density, leaf area, and a sufficient supply of carbohydrate from the tree host (Yarwood, Myrold, & Hogberg, 2009) and can decrease following tree harvesting and insect attacks (Teste, Lieffers, & Strelkov, 2012; Treu et al., 2014). In the presence of an ECM richness decline, tree species may suffer significant reduction in growth and regenera- tion, resulting in a positive feedback between ECM and AGB decline (Simard et al., 2012). The thresholds in ground flora richness can be explained by well- known patterns of successional changes in forest ecosystems (Bormann & Likens, 1979). For example, Zenner, Kabrick, Jensen, Peck, and Grabner (2006) demonstrated that ground flora richness increased proportionally along a gradient of harvest intensity, in accordance with the results found in our study.
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Freshwater Swamp Forest Ecosystem in the Niger Delta: Ecology, Disturbance and Ecosystem Services

Freshwater Swamp Forest Ecosystem in the Niger Delta: Ecology, Disturbance and Ecosystem Services

6.2 Introduction Tropical forest ecosystems are hosts to rich biological diversity and critical for global carbon storage and climatic processes. While tropical forests are known to store as much as 40-50% carbon in its terrestrial vegetation, the contribution of the African forests to this trajectory only started receiving attention more recently (Lewis et al. 2009). Such insights will become more beneficial with more improved and specific assessment of the different forest types within the tropics, especially those ones (such as the freshwater swamp forests) for which much is not known. Freshwater swamp forests supports high levels of important biodiversity for which the Niger Delta is renowned. Located between the mangrove swamp forest and the lowland forest ecosystems in the region, freshwater swamp forests provides a corridor for the migration of flora and fauna between the ecosystems and is floristically varied from the other ecosystems. Swamp forests contributes to the provision of ecosystem services across the Nigerian state and like other tropical forests, are potential stores of carbon and important for climate regulation and biogeochemical cycling (Lewis, 2006; Keith et al. 2009; Lewis, 2013; Cavaleri et al. 2015). Supporting the majority of households across the region that depend on it for subsistence and livelihood (UNDP, 2006), swamp forest has provided a resource base over the last 400 years (Fund, 2014). However, this ecosystem has been steadily exploited, its extent has reduced, been degraded and is now confined to small pockets across the Niger Delta. As a result, its species like in most other old growth forests across the tropics, are not only threatened and fragmented, but the ecosystem services they provide are reduced (Laurance and Peres, 2006; Sodhi and Ehrlich, 2010; Laurance et al. 2011; Kessler et al. 2012; Hansen et al. 2013). These changes have impacted the forest landscape adversely and reduced the former extensive ecosystem into mosaics of forest islands.
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Key factors affecting the future provision of tree-based forest ecosystem goods and services

Key factors affecting the future provision of tree-based forest ecosystem goods and services

Numerous publications on the effects of climate change on forest ecosystems (e.g. Dale et al. 2010 ; Huo et al. 2010 ; Lindner 2000 ) and on how to adapt to these changes (e.g. Badeck et al. 2005 ; Kellomäki et al. 2008 ; Noss 2001 ) focus on specific EGS, often in a specific region, and intend to provide practical suggestions for adaptation. Instead of trying to answer the question of how climate change will affect forest ecosystems, we tackled the questions of to what extent climate change will influence the provision of EGS, and whether the magnitude of the effect is significant. Furthermore, we aimed at determining which factor —species diversity or type of management —influenced the magnitude of the effect most and whether the decisive factors differed when different indicators were considered. Lastly, we assessed whether different scenarios of climate change lead to significantly different simulation results.
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Local Perspectives on Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs in a Forest Frontier Landscape in Myanmar

Local Perspectives on Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs in a Forest Frontier Landscape in Myanmar

While the study area has seen no oil palm expansion in the last two decades, forests and mixed plantations are still being converted into rubber plantations. This is causing a strong decrease in the supply of water flow regulation, microclimate, and biodiversity services: developments that local land users fear will have a negative impact on their future well-being. In our study, they assigned high demand to the ES of water flow and microclimate and expressed concern about the overall loss of intact forests. On the other hand, the financial opportunities for farmers gained by converting forests into rubber plantations cannot be underestimated. Increased income can have multiple positive effects on local communities’ livelihoods and well-being. However, the results clearly show that there is one unresolved issue connected with the trade-offs: the regulation of water flows. Each of the three most prominent land use changes leads to a significant decline in this ES. Local communities feel that only intact forest ecosystems are fully able to maintain a healthy water flow (Figure 4 ). However, they fear that because of their limited land use decision-making power, more forests in the upland water catchment area could be converted in the future. An additional concern is that interruptions to the hydrological cycle are usually not recognized straight away but only become evident over a longer period.
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Changes and drivers of afro-alpine forest ecosystem: future trajectories and management strategies in Bale eco-region, Ethiopia

Changes and drivers of afro-alpine forest ecosystem: future trajectories and management strategies in Bale eco-region, Ethiopia

Simulation of the future afro-alpine ecosystem was made by using cellular automata modeling technique on Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). With this technique, weights of evi- dence method (Soares-Filho et al. 2004; Soares-Filho et al. 2006) were used where static and dynamic biophysical and anthropogenic factors were accounted as independ- ent variables at the systems loop either to foster or hin- der landscape transition. In this regard, we have used population pressure, distance from road and settlement, slope, elevation, soil type, agro-ecological zone, distance from previously cultivated and rural settlement as simu- lation model predictor variables. For future probabilistic modeling, it undertakes account of historical change and influence of significant biophysical and anthropogenic variables during calibration phase. Spatial variables that were suspected to derive landscape change were pre- pared from various sources. Simulation has passed series of procedures. These were a generation of gross and an- nual transition matrix, derivation of weights of skeleton ranges, quantification of weights of coefficients, and mapping of probability transition maps. During gener- ation of weights of coefficients, spatially autocorrelated variables were screened by using Crammer’s coefficients and Entropy technique where one variable is selected for modeling purpose from autocorrelated pairs. Simu- lation model calibration was trained by using 1996 Table 1 Landsat satellite series used for landscape change
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Conservation of forest biodiversity and ecosystem services in a pastoral landscape of the Ecuadorian Andes

Conservation of forest biodiversity and ecosystem services in a pastoral landscape of the Ecuadorian Andes

There are also indirect impacts on adjacent areas of remaining forest, caused by the influences of the pasture environment on the edges of the forests. These are termed 'edge effects', and include a variety of changes in the physical and biotic environments (Murcia, 1995; Lopez-Barrera et al., 2007). These differences in conditions and resources favour the growth of different sets of plants, and plant community composition is often found to vary between the edges and interiors of habitat patches (Young, 1993; Oosterhorn and Kapelle, 2000; Gehlhausen et al., 2000). Commonly reported edge effects caused by open areas adjacent to forests are an increase in light levels, an increase in wind, and an increase in the variation of temperature and humidity (Saunders et al., 1991; Young, 1993; Murcia, 1995; Gehlhausen, 2000; Lopez-Barrera et al., 2007). These effects tend to shift forest communities towards pioneer communities, so that edges become dominated by a less diverse group of relatively fast-growing and short-lived species (Saunders et al., 1991; Laurance et al., 2006; Tabarelli, 2008; Broadbent et al., 2008). Forest fragments that are small relative to the extent to which light can penetrate into the edge can have their original community entirely
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Local Perspectives on Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs in a Forest Frontier Landscape in Myanmar

Local Perspectives on Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs in a Forest Frontier Landscape in Myanmar

While the study area has seen no oil palm expansion in the last two decades, forests and mixed plantations are still being converted into rubber plantations. This is causing a strong decrease in the supply of water flow regulation, microclimate, and biodiversity services: developments that local land users fear will have a negative impact on their future well-being. In our study, they assigned high demand to the ES of water flow and microclimate and expressed concern about the overall loss of intact forests. On the other hand, the financial opportunities for farmers gained by converting forests into rubber plantations cannot be underestimated. Increased income can have multiple positive effects on local communities’ livelihoods and well-being. However, the results clearly show that there is one unresolved issue connected with the trade-offs: the regulation of water flows. Each of the three most prominent land use changes leads to a significant decline in this ES. Local communities feel that only intact forest ecosystems are fully able to maintain a healthy water flow (Figure 4 ). However, they fear that because of their limited land use decision-making power, more forests in the upland water catchment area could be converted in the future. An additional concern is that interruptions to the hydrological cycle are usually not recognized straight away but only become evident over a longer period.
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The Status of Forest Ecosystem Services and Their Management: The Case of Uzigua Forest Reserve in Tanzanian Coastal Forests

The Status of Forest Ecosystem Services and Their Management: The Case of Uzigua Forest Reserve in Tanzanian Coastal Forests

Because of dwindling government support, stakeholders are heavily dependent on foreign non-governmental organizations for financial resources. That is why these organizations are active in activities for management of forests, a situation considered as the most benefiting components in the name of forests management. To create a good forests management atmosphere and allow a wide range of stakeholders to manage forests, there is a need to stick into suggestions made by [17] those governments and external actors must take advantage of already existing strategies in management of natural resources and strengthen the link between them. But what is happening under different forest management systems in Tanzania is that the interests of local governments merely lie in activities that enhance generating revenue, where by a component of environmental conservation for ecological value is not emphasized unlike the interest of NGOs and CBOs [29].Therefore, it is important to address the priorities of local interests, agencies and capacities for the successful management of forests [30] while taking into account new knowledge and understandings of social-ecological management strategies of forest resources hence making all stakeholders responsible for management of forests.
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The future of ecosystem services: Global and national scenarios.

The future of ecosystem services: Global and national scenarios.

which was used as the original base data. For each scenario, the landcover base was grown or shrunken based on the percentage changes of that landcover scenario projection. All growth and loss were adjacent to the existing original extent of that landcover. The order of precedence for these landcover changes was as follows: Urban, Wetland, Cropland, Forest, Rangeland/Grassland, and Desert. This precedence worked in such a way that all previous landcover transitions are excluded from subsequent conversion (e.g., cropland can not replace urban or wetlands). The results of these models can be presented as tables and as maps for any country or region in the world, and this chapter presents an example of Kenya.
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Landscape-scale drivers of glacial ecosystem change in the montane forests of the eastern Andean flank

Landscape-scale drivers of glacial ecosystem change in the montane forests of the eastern Andean flank

fossil pollen assemblages are compositionally unlike any comparable modern pollen assemblage from the region ( Cárdenas et al., 2014; Marchant et al., 2001; Rull, 2006; Weng et al., 2004b ). This no-ana- logue pollen assemblage (sensu Williams and Jackson, 2007 ), indicates that a novel vegetation community existed at Vinillos during the late Pleistocene. The high abundance and association of typical Andean arboreal pollen taxa (e.g. Alnus, Weinmannia, Hedyosmum), presence of large wood macro-fossils and low levels of Poaceae throughout the section (mean 13.5%) are used to suggest a montane forest community was present during the deposition of the Vinillos sediments. Three pollen zones provide evidence for dynamic changes to the glacial forest pollen assemblage characterised by the dominance of Poaceae-Aster- aceae-Solanaceae in VIN 1, Melastomataceae-Weinmannia-Ilex in VIN 2, and Alnus-Hedyosmum-Myrica in VIN 3. These changes in pollen as- semblage through the Vinillos section are due to shifts in the abundance of particular pollen taxa and not the wholescale replacement of parti- cular species, indeed every taxon except Myrtaceae and Cecropia can be found in each of the three pollen zones ( Fig. 5 ). This change in pollen abundance between assemblages within a closed canopy moist tropical forests can indicate distinct changes in vegetation structure ( Gosling et al., 2005, 2009 ). Pollen analysis from glacial Neotropical sedimen- tary archives have previously been used to conclude that millennial scale changes in temperature and moisture balance have driven vege- tation change through the Quaternary ( Baker et al., 2001; Bogotá-A et al., 2011; Bush et al., 2004; Colinvaux et al., 2000; Gosling et al., 2008; Groot et al., 2011; Mourguiart and Ledru, 2003; Urrego et al., 2005, 2010, 2016 ). However, the cumulative e ffect of climate change on landscape-scale drivers such as increased precipitation leading to more frequent landslides is rarely discussed ( Stern, 1995; Bussmann
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Essays on Deforestation and Forest Ecosystem Services: An Economic Perspective.

Essays on Deforestation and Forest Ecosystem Services: An Economic Perspective.

The objective of the empirical analysis is to estimate the marginal effect of market access – distance to urban center—on deforestation and to identify whether and how the relationship between market access and deforestation has changed over time. In the empirical model, the dependent variable is deforestation, measured by annual loss of primary forest cover (deforestation of old-growth forest). Thus, the dependent variable is non-negative, and the larger the dependent variable, the more deforestation. As postulated by the theoretical framework, deforestation is a function of labor allocated to forest clearance, which is determined by the farm-gate price of agricultural products, the shadow cost of illegal deforestation, the wage for off-farm work, land area, and characteristics of the land and household. All of the price variables are functions of distance to an urban center, which is measured as the road distance to the nearest urban center 7 . Since the extent of the road system did not change for most of our study period and study region, distance is a time-invariant variable. To incorporate the dynamic characteristics of urban centers, we include the level of urban development (as represented by the amount of nighttime light observed from outer space) and its interaction term with distance. Guided by previous studies, the characteristics of land include age of the property 8 , land slope, soil quality,
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Payments for Ecosystem Services: Past, Present and Future

Payments for Ecosystem Services: Past, Present and Future

Once one realizes the importance of ecosystem services, three points quickly emerge: (1) landscapes provide a stream of services ranging from water quality and flood control to climate stability—the economic value of which can be significant; (2) the vast majority of these services are public goods and not exchanged in markets, so land- owners have little incentive to provide these positive externalities; and (3) we, therefore, need to think creatively about creating markets for these services so they are not under-provided. This is the basis of the policy approach known as Payments for Ecosystem Services (“PES”). In its simplest form, PES is a transaction between landholders and the beneficiaries of the services their land provides. Thus, downstream communities might pay upper-watershed landowners to plant riparian vegetation to ensure water quality or to halt deforestation to ensure flood protection. Duck hunters might pay land owners to conserve wetland habitat to support ducks and geese. Groups concerned about climate change might pay Costa Rica to plant trees to sequester carbon.
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Valuation of Forest Environmental Benefits with Payment of Ecosystem Services

Valuation of Forest Environmental Benefits with Payment of Ecosystem Services

Forest revegetation stage • Completion of revegetation • Beginning of forest management Initial stage of sustainable management • Introduction of ecologica forestation • Intensive for[r]

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Fagus sylvatica L.) provide higher ecosystem services than monospecific forests. Mixed forests

Fagus sylvatica L.) provide higher ecosystem services than monospecific forests. Mixed forests

Overall, respondents’ perceptions on all four types of ecosystem services were influenced by their feeling that mixed forests harbour higher number of old and big trees. Edwards et al. [55] had done a survey using the Delphi technique in Great Britain, Nordic Region, Central Europe and Iberian Peninsula and found that “size of trees within stand” was the most important variable influencing peoples’ preferences for the potential forest types. Gundersen and Frivold [54] had reviewed 53 studies (published from 1972 to 2004) on forest landscape preferences in Fennoscandia. They found people prefer forests with an irregular structure constituted of smaller as well as big trees, due to their provision of higher recreation values in contrast to regular even aged forests. In addition, Ribe [56] listed 14 studies (published from 1967 to 1986) which showed tree size was an important factor for people’s preferences to visit urban parks, national parks and other recreational forests. Old and big trees sustain wider range of ecosystem functions and services, such as carbon storage, soil
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