The pH of various gel formulations were determined by using digital pH meter. 2.0gm of cream was accurately weighed and dispersed in 20 ml of distilled water and stored for two hours. The measurement of pH was carried out. The pH values are represented. The pH of dispersions was measured using pH meter.
formulations produce uniform distribution of extracts in cream. This was confirmed by visual appearance and touch. Emolliency, slipperiness, and amount of residue left after the application of fixed amount of cream was found [Table 2]. The dye test confirms that all formulations were O/W type emulsion cream. However, formulation (F2) shows more stability in O/W type emulsion.
www.wjpr.net Vol 8, Issue 6, 2019. 838 The antimicrobial potency of the formulations is in the order G2>N2>L2. The formulation N2 which contains only the aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica, and G2 contains a Psidium guajava, and L2 contains a Glycyrrhiza glabra showed the highest level of antimicrobial activities and aqueous extract of showed the level of antimicrobial activities could be attributed to the presence of potent bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activities. Thus, the use of aqueous extract of P. guajava as mouthwash and gargles against oral infections could be effective.
Ziziphus spina Crist leaves extract is well known by its antimicrobial activity and its uses in skin diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of the plant leaves against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli species. Also, to formulate effective, stable herbalantibacterialcream and evaluate its physical & antibacterial properties. Disk diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial activity of aqueous extract using reference disks of antibiotics. The antibacterialcream was prepared by incorporating different amount of ingredients together, and a certain amount of the herbal extract. The prepared cream was evaluated for their Physical, rheological and antibacterial properties. Finally, the efficacy of the herbalantibacterialcreamformulation was compared to two commercial products. The antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract was found to be effective against both S. aureus and E. coli especially when the extract concentration increased. All physical and rheological properties of all the preparation were nearly the same as commercial products. Stability studies showed a stable, homogenous appearance and effective during three months storage period at room temperature. It can be concluded that the aqueous extract of Ziziphus S.Crist leaves exhibited strong antibacterial activity especially with increase of the extract concentration. The prepared cream was found to be natural, stable and safe. Ziziphus S. Crist cream could be used topically in order to treat skin infection. The Present investigation suggests that this cream is a suitable candidate for further clinical trials.
The most noticeable change towards herbal medicine in the developed countries of this century has been because of the interest shown by the ordinary people. From being regarded as "old fashioned" and distrusted, herbs such as ginseng and guarana which are now hailed as wonder drugs. The change in attitude began in the 1960s, when the 'hippie' movement advocated a nature living, initiating "alternative"' medicine and therapies. The growth of the conservation movement and the founding of companies using only natural products in an environmentally friendly way were also major factors. As a result, increasingly wide ranges of herbs are now available as fresh, dried, as ingredients of cosmetics, perfumes, and over-the-counter medicines.
The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the herbal face cream containing extracts of Cyperus rotundus, Cucumis sativus and almond oil. Different types of formulations oil in water (O/W) herbal creams namely F1 to F7 were formulated from the ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus (roots), Cucumis sativus (fruits) and almond oil in varied concentrations. All the seven formulations (F1 to F7) was evaluated for various parametrs like pH, viscosity, spreadability, rheological study, and stability along with irritancy test were examined. Formulations F4 and F5 showed good spreadability, good consistency, homogeneity, appearance, pH, ease of removal, spreadibilty and no evidence of phase separation. The formulation F4 and F5 shows no redness, edema, inflammation and irritation during irritancy studies. These formulations are safe to use for skin.
The present study was to prepare and evaluate the herbal cosmetic cream comprising extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Cucumis sativus and almond oil. Different types of formulations oil in water (O/W) herbal creams namely F1 to F7 were formulated from the ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (rhizomes), Cucumis sativus (fruits) and almond oil in varied concentrations. The evaluation of all formulations (F1 to F7) was done on different parametrs like pH, viscosity, spreadability, rheological study, and stability along with irritancy test were examined. Formulations F5 and F6 showed good spreadability, good consistency, homogeneity, appearance, pH, ease of removal, spreadibilty and no evidence of phase separation. The formulation F5 and F6 shows no redness, edema, inflammation and irritation during irritancy studies. These formulations are safe to use for skin. These studies suggest that composition of extracts and base of cream of F5 and F6 are more stable and also it may produce synergistic action.
25. Rao PK, Khaliq K, Kharat SS, Sagare P, Patil SK. Preparation and evaluation o/w cream for skin psoriasis. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2010;1:1-11. 26. Mishra AP, Saklani S, Milella L, Tiwari P. Formulation and evaluation of herbal antioxidant face cream of Nardostachys jatamansi collected from Indian Himalayan region. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;4:S679-82. 27. Ali A, Akhtar N, Khan HM. Assessment of physical stability and
The herbal vanishing cream was prepared by using o/w emulsion method using mixture of alcoholic extract of crude drugs, including Peppermint, Green tea leaves, Clove bud, Ginger, Mustard, Turmeric, Cinnamon, Cumin, Nutmeg, Drumstick Bark, Liquorice, Linseed and Wheat grains and the extract were used and formulated 3 different formulations named C1, C2 and C3 but only C3 pass all evaluation test.
The spreadability was expressed in terms of time in seconds taken by two slides to slip off from the cream, placed in between the slides, under certain load. Lesser the time taken for separation of the two slides, better the spreadability. Two sets of glass slides of standard dimensions were taken. The herbalcreamformulation was placed over one of the slides. The other slide was placed on the top of the formulation, such that the cream was sandwiched between the two slides weight was placed upon the upper slides so that the cream between the two slides was pressed uniformly to form a thin layer. The weight was removed and the excess of formulation adhering to the slides was scrapped off. The upper slide allowed slipping off freely by the force of weight tied to it. The time taken for the upper slide was noted. 14-18
Cashew tree has been used medicinally worldwide. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoan, antihelminthic and antiviral activities of various part extract of cashew were recorded. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale was evaluated by agar well diffusion method. The extract shows best and promising activity. Now a day’s topical agents are widely used to treat skin conditions. Here an attempt is made to formulate and evaluate herbal gel containing ethanolic leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale. Extraction is done by soxhlet hot continuous method. MIC of extract is evaluated. Optimization of gel is done by 3 2 full factorial design. Gel was subjected to evaluations such as pH, viscosity, extrudability, spreadability, drug
The aim of this work was to formulate lomefloxacin HCl as a semisolid dosage form appropriate for topical dermatological application.Five empirical semisolid formulations were prepared with 1% drug strength in each. Three of those formulations contained hydrophilic bases (w/o cream , hydrophilic gel and a water soluble ointment) while the other two (simple ointment, lanolin ointment) were hydrophobic. The hydrophilic formulations showed better in vitro drug release than the hydrophobic ones. Among hydrophilic formulations, the cream and the water-soluble ointment showed excellent drug release. However, the ointment blank base showed antibacterial activity and was therefore excluded. For optimization of the drug strength in the creamformulation, the cream was reformulated so as to contain lower drug strength including(0.75, 0.5,0.2. & 0.125%)and their antibacterial activities were evaluated. The lowest effective strength of the drug in the prepared cream was 0.125%. Upon comparing with two commercial brands of topical antibacterials, lomefloxacin 0.125% creamformulation was be more potent and more effective antibacterial activity than those brands. Thespreadability, pH and of the creamformulation was accepted. Furthermore, theformulation caused no significant skin irritation on lab animals and its predicted isothermal shelf-life was quite long.
Azadirachta indica (Neem) has powerful antibacterial activity due to its histamine, kinin and prostaglandin inhibitory activity. Berberine found in Berberis aristata (Dauhaldi) affects cell DNA putting break on cellular proliferation and have significant antibacterial activity against S. pyrogens. Hemidesmus indicus (Sarsaparilla) induces perspiration eliminating waste products and acts as blood purifier. Psoralea corylifolia (Bakuchi) is known to decrease cellular proliferation. Yet no work has been done using all these four herbs together and this prompted us to make an attempt to prepare O/W antipsoriatic cream using combination of above mentioned herbs in the present research.
Curcuma longa is Used as a key ingredient for making curries, turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a plant native to southwest India and a member of the ginger family. Curcumin – one of the most important active compounds found in turmeric – is an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral powerhouse. Curcumin has the following benefits it Hasten Healing, Correct Oily Skin (turmeric contains fatty acids and phytosterols, which have been observed in other studies to reduce excess skin oils). Sun Damage Protection, Anti- Aging Treatment, Skin Cancer Prevention(Curcumin has also been recognized as an impressive anti-cancer treatment, able to selectively kill tumor cells while leaving the normal cells intact), Treat Chronic Skin Conditions. curcumin helps increase connective tissue formation and promotes blood flow.
Traditional medicinal plants often offer suitable drug candidates as an alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Plant extracts may be formulated to a suitable dosage form to treat the disease in an effective way. In the present study, we report the antibacterial activities of the ethanol extract of M. koenegii leaves against few selected Staphylococcus spp. such as S. aureus and S. epidermidis, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and S. epidermidis (MRSE) together with formulation and evaluation of a topical cream containing M. koenigii extract. The antibacterial activity of the extract was performed by disc diffusion assay using vancomycin (30 µg) as the standard. The extract revealed good antibacterial activity against tested organisms in a concentration dependant manner. The cream was formulated by incorporating 10% w/w of the ethanol extract in the base. Physical evaluation of the cream revealed ideal characteristics of an ideal cream. Further studies may be recommended to isolate the bioactive principles from the leaves to develop newer drug moiety against MRSA and MRSE.
Niosomes are vesicular drug delivery system; it acts as a carrier and protects the drug from the internal environment. It has been also used because of its higher diffusivity in skin for promoting dermal delivery of drug which has to act topically. The aim of present study is to developed and characterise topical drug delivery system containing niosome by using antifungal agent. The antifungal agent widely used for the treatment of infection due to fungal species like Trichophyton rubum, Trichophyton mentagrophyts, Malassezia furfur etc. most of the antifungal drug are poorly water soluble. Sustained release of Niosomes can be applied to drugs with low water solubility since those could be maintained in the circulation via niosomal encapsulation. Niosomes were formulated by rotary evaporation hydration method by using phospholipids, cholesterol and Non ionic surfactant such as span and Tween. Primary placebo batches of niosome were prepared and evaluated for particle size and shape. Then octopirox loaded batches of niosome were prepared and evaluated for size, shape and Entrapment efficiency. For the delivery of niosome through skin topical dosage form i.e. cream was prepared. Evaluation of cream containing niosome was carried out for viscosity, measurement of pH, spreadability etc. the results obtained are shown in the present work. From the results it can be concluded that the formulation evaluated for the drug release of the optimized batch i.e. V- using o/w cream base, it was concluded that the drug release rate increases with its increasing concentration.
In this study, post laser treatment cream was constructed with highest moisturizing effect. Based on the study, the aqueous extracts of B. vulgaris and G. glabra were selected as suitable moisturizing agents for post laser treatment creamformulation and provide cure for all side effects of laser treatment. Herbal active-based creamformulation with high thermodyanmic stability was achieved. The formulated cream F3 containing both aqueous extracts of B. vulgaris and G. glabra was much better as compared to the available marketed products for post laser treatments.
Spreading coefficient was determined by apparatus suggested by Mutimer et al (1956). It consists of wooden block, which is attached to a pulley at one end. Spreading coefficient was measured on the basis of ‘Slip’ and ‘Drag’ characteristics of gel. A ground glass slide was fixed on the wooden block. An excess of gel-cream (about 2 gm) under study was placed on this ground slide. Gel-cream preparation was then sandwiched between two slides of which the second glass slide has same dimension as that of the fixed ground slide. The second slide is provided with the hook, the pan is attached to the pulley with the help of hook. Weight of 1 g was placed on the top of the two slides for 5 min to expel air and to provide a uniform film of gel-cream between the two slides. Known weight was placed in the pan attached to the pulley with the help of hook. The time (in sec) required by the top slide to separate from
Volatile oil isolated from C. longa also exhibits antibacterial and potent anti-inflammatory activity. Curcuma longa also contains protein, fats, vitamins (A, B, C etc) all of which have an important role in would healing and regeneration. Turmeric has been used for treating the wounds in the rats . The anti-inflammatory property and the presence of vitamin A & proteins in turmeric result in the early synthesis of collagen fibers by mimicking fibroblastic activity . Juice of the fresh rhizome is commonly applied to recent wounds, bruises & leech bites. A paste of turmeric & leaves of Justicaadhatoda with cow urine is rubbed on skin affected with prurigo& eczema. It can also be mixed with ginger oil to prevent skin eruptions.
Currently available synthetic anti acne formulation have been associated with number of side effects. On the basis of various literature survey, it was concluded that plants are not only used as preservatives and flavouring agents for food preparation, but also used for various pathological conditions which exhibits strong antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, sebum regulation and anti-inflammatory properties. On the basis of plant‟s antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, sebum regulation, anti-inflammatory properties, the prepared new formulations were found to very effective against acne.