Top PDF Fowl beasts, the chicken and the egg

Fowl beasts, the chicken and the egg

Fowl beasts, the chicken and the egg

August 1979; Pre-Thesis Ideas FOWL BEASTS THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG A month of chicken Un de mois poulet The illustrated The chicken and Chicken how to eat it the egg chicken and spreads C[r]

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Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Powered Chicken Egg Incubator

Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Powered Chicken Egg Incubator

Abstract – In this study, a solar photovoltaic powered chicken egg incubator was designed, fabricated and tested to evaluate its performance. The major components of this design are the incubating unit, automatic temperature device and solar PV system. The incubating chamber was generally maintained throughout the incubating period at a temperature range of 36.8 o C to 37.9 o C and an average relative humidity of 67.3%. The results showed that the percentage fertility and hatchability of eggs were 43.3% and 23.1%, respectively. This low hatchability rate could have resulted from many factors including an overcast weather experienced on day three of the incubating period, poor storage of the eggs prior to loading in the incubator, time and energy wasted in the turning of the eggs, or maybe most of the eggs were faulty from the on-set. Engineering equations involving heat and mass balances were used to estimate the components elements of the incubator.
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A proposed solution for the chicken-egg dilemma in pricing currency options

A proposed solution for the chicken-egg dilemma in pricing currency options

The implied volatility (IV) estimation process suffers from an obvious chicken-egg dilemma: obtaining an unbiased IV requires the options to be priced correctly and calculating an accurate option price (OP) requires an unbiased IV. We address this critical issue in two steps. First, the Granger causality test is employed, which confirms the chicken-and-egg problem in the IV computing process. Secondly, the concept of “moneyness volatility (MV)” is introduced as an alternative to IV. MV is modelled based on an option’s moneyness (OM) during the life of the option’s contract. The F-test, Granger-Newbold test and Diebold- Mariano test results consistently show that MV outperforms IV in estimating the exchange rate volatility for pricing options. Further, these series of tests across six major currency options substantiate the validity as well as the reliability of the results. We posit that MV offers a unique solution for pricing currency options accurately.
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EFFECTS OF GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ON EGG PRODUCTION IN INDIGENOUS NOI CHICKEN

EFFECTS OF GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ON EGG PRODUCTION IN INDIGENOUS NOI CHICKEN

Various researches based on the increasing egg productivity have found that candidate genes such as DRD2 (Dopamine D2 Receptor), IGF-I (Insulin-like Growth Factor I), NPY (Neuropeptide Y), VIP (Vasoactive intestinal peptide) and VIPR-1 (Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1) had significant effects on egg productivity. Chaiseha et al. (2003) cloned cDNA of the DRD2 gene in turkeys and pointed out the associations between DRD2 gene and production and hatching traits. Similarly, Xu et al. (2011a; 2011b) studied the g.5841629T>C polymorphism on DRD2 gene and found a significant association between first laying age and total egg production in chickens at 300 days of age. For IGF-1 gene, Li et al. (2009) suggested that IGF-1 genetic polymorphism at position 5'UTR was related to egg production at 300 and 400 days of age and the number of continuous laying days. In addition, Xu et al. (2011b) also demonstrated the relationship between g.31394761C>T polymorphism of NPY gene and first-laying age in Ningdu Sanhuang chickens, followed by the publication of Fatemi et al. (2012) on the association between NPY gene and production traits as well as growth ability in many different chicken traits. Similarly, for VIP and VIPR-1 receptor genes, El Halawani et al. (2000) found that injecting VIP into 25 week and 54 week-old chickens resulted in an increase in egg production.
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Mantle melting versus mantle metasomatism   “the chicken or the egg” dilemma

Mantle melting versus mantle metasomatism “the chicken or the egg” dilemma

Interestingly, although all recovered mantle xenoliths are interpreted to have been metasomatised by an external agent, there are few reports in the literature on the source of the agent itself, i.e. which lithology partially melted, dehydrated or decarbonated to pro- duce a melt or a fl uid capable of metasomatising the surrounding man- tle? This represents a classic “ chicken or the egg ” dilemma: how do we recognise a mantle rock, which was a source of metasomatising melt/ fl uid, and why was this particular rock not a subject of prior alteration? To address these questions, we undertook a detailed petrological study of primary and secondary phases of an eclogite xenolith from the Roberts Victor kimberlite pipe (South Africa). We evaluate the pos- sible role of incipient eclogite melting in producing in-situ secondary mineral assemblages. Additionally, we suggest that altered oceanic ⁎ Corresponding author.
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On the evaluation of chicken egg shape variability

On the evaluation of chicken egg shape variability

HAVLÍČEK, M., NEDOMOVÁ, Š., SIMEONOVOVÁ, J., SEVERA, L., KŘIVÁNEK, I.: On the evaluation of chicken egg shape variability. Acta univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2008, LVI, No. 5, pp. 69–74 Although recently reported models for determining egg shape are highly accurate, certain com pli ca- ted measurements or computations are to be performed. Thus relatively simple and attainable analysis methods of chicken egg shape variability were chosen and used for the purpose of presented research. Sample of 250 eggs of ISA BROWN strain was examined. Geometrical parameters were measured and calculated with following expression of their coeffi cient of variation – namely egg length 3.56 %, egg maximum width 2.84 %, shape index 3.80 %, surface area 5.08 %, and egg volume 7.23 %. The second method consisted in shape quantitative measuring by the score of the principal components of ellip- tic Fourier descriptors (EFDs). The fi rst four principles components which could explain over 99 % of the egg shape variations were found to be very good measures of the monitored phenomenon. It was found that 87.41 % of the total shape variation can be accounted to length to width ratio. Usefulness and relevance of the shape index usage was confi rmed.
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Gastrointestinal motility and glycemic control 
in diabetes: the chicken and the egg revisited?

Gastrointestinal motility and glycemic control in diabetes: the chicken and the egg revisited?

glycemia  (the  chicken  and  the  egg)  is  a  concept of profound relevance to manage- ment  strategies  for  diabetes,  given  that  postprandial  glycemia  is  probably  the  major determinant of “average” glycemic  control, as assessed by glycated hemoglo- bin, the traditional marker of the risk of  diabetic complications (i.e., retinopathy,  neuropathy, and nephropathy) (9). Inter- ventions that slow gastric emptying are  likely to benefit glycemic control in type 2  diabetes patients managed by diet or oral  hypoglycemic drugs, who have impaired  early, but intact late, postprandial insu- lin responses, while prokinetic drugs may  allow more predictable entry of carbohy- drate  into  the  small  intestine  in  type  1  diabetes patients and thereby optimize the  coordination between glucose absorption  and the action of exogenous insulin. Slow- ing of gastric emptying is likely to contrib- ute to the efficacy of the GLP-1 agonist  exenatide and the amylin analog pram- lintide in reducing glycated hemoglobin  in diabetes; both drugs have recently been  approved for use in the United States. Clues to the pathogenesis of disordered motility in animal models of diabetes
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Self efficacy and academic performance: a chicken and egg conundrum

Self efficacy and academic performance: a chicken and egg conundrum

Self-efficacy (SE) refers to one’s perception of their capability to follow the required courses of action to achieve particular outcomes; it is a ‘can do’ belief (Bandura, 1997). Meta- analyses consistently identify positive relationships between SE and academic success (e.g., Richardson, Abraham, & Bond, 2012; Schneider & Preckel, 2017). As such, strong SE beliefs are considered an end in themselves in educational settings (e.g., Ritchie, 2015). However, a focus on unidirectional interpretations (i.e., “believe and you will achieve”) has meant that the chicken-and-egg conundrum regarding the direction of causality between SE and academic performance (AP) has only recently begun to be explored (e.g., Talsma, Schüz, Schwarzer & Norris, 2018). SE is a key construct in educational research, which in turn is an important driver of educational policy (Pajares & Usher, 2008; Zimmerman, 1995). Thus, it is important to understand that the relationship between SE and AP is more complex than much of the existing literature might suggest (Vancouver, Alicke, & Halper, 2018).
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Chicken  or  the  Egg -  Computational  Data  Attacks  or  Physical  Attacks

Chicken or the Egg - Computational Data Attacks or Physical Attacks

Abstract. Side-channel and fault injection analyses are well-known domains that have been used for years to evaluate the resistance of hardware based prod- ucts. These techniques remain a threat for the secret assets embedded in prod- ucts like smart cards or System On Chip. But most of these products contain nowadays several strong protections rendering side-channel and fault attacks difficult or inefficient. For two decades embedded cryptography for payment, pay tv, identity areas have relied a lot on secure elements. Nowadays more al- ternative solutions on mobile phones appear with the aim to offer software-based security services including payment and security solutions as the HCE and DRM products. Cryptographic operations running in such applications are then exe- cuted most often on unprotected hardware devices. Therefore the binary code is often accessible to attackers who can use static and dynamic reverse engineer- ing techniques to extract and analyse operations including data modification as faults. Hence, hiding or obfuscating secrets and/or whitebox cryptography becomes a strong alternative to secure element storage for assets. We explain in this paper how directly from the binary or with the extracted source code we can perform statistical and fault analyses using similar techniques as those used in hardware-based security. This concerns particularly side-channel or fault injections techniques. Using our tool and virtualization technique, an attacker can emulate and trace and modify any chosen computational data (memory or register manipulation, any machine language operation) executed in the mobile application. It means the attacker is not no longer restricted by any physical limitations imposing a leakage model (and additional noise) or making fault injection tied with physical limitations. Hence statistical and fault attacks can go potentially further in software-based implementation compared to hardware- based devices. As a consequence, complex techniques like high order, collision and horizontal statistical attacks become very efficient and can be easily per- formed on the computational data execution traces. A similar consequence ap- plies for fault injection attacks. Hence the word statistical and fault analysis on computational data becomes more appropriate and one can wonder who has been the first between computational data or physical attack techniques? Chicken or the Egg?
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Identification and Extraction of Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin from Egg by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation

Identification and Extraction of Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin from Egg by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation

Recently, the utilization of antibodies from the eggs of chickens which were immunized with pathogens has been the focus of attention in immunotherapy and diagnosis (3). A major advantage of using birds is that the antibodies can be harvested from the egg yolk instead of serum. In addition, Purification of immunoglobulin from mammalian blood is time-consuming and expensive. Today, hens are recognized as a convenient and inexpensive source of antibodies. The chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) have been applied successfully for scientific, diagnostic, prophylactic and therapeutic purposes (4).
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EFFECT OF ENCAPSULATION ON DIGESTIVE ENZYMES TREATMENT OF CHICKEN EGG YOLK IGY ANTIBODIES

EFFECT OF ENCAPSULATION ON DIGESTIVE ENZYMES TREATMENT OF CHICKEN EGG YOLK IGY ANTIBODIES

The study involved analyzing the effects of various digestive enzymes including pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin on the activity of Chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies generated against vaccine strain of rotavirus. When the IgY antibodies are proposed for oral passive therapy for gastrointestinal disorders including diarrhea, the stability of these antibodies against various digestive enzymes becomes very much essential. The experiments showed that IgY antibodies are highly affected by pepsin, whereas minimal effect was seen on trypsin and chymotrypsin treatments. Hence to protect the antibodies, an alternate method of encapsulating the antibodies were performed using chitosan- alginate beads and the encapsulated, non-encapsulated antibodies were exposed to all the three enzymes and the activity was checked by ELISA method. The results showed that the encapsulated IgY
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The Lamarckian chicken and the Darwinian egg

The Lamarckian chicken and the Darwinian egg

For the sake of accuracy, and although certain historians consider it to be his “greatest mistake”, it is important to re- member that at the late stages of his life, Darwin accepted the notion of inheritance of acquired traits [3]. Thus, the old Darwin at least, might have tolerated a “Chicken first” explanation as well. It was August Weissman who hypo- thesized the existence of a barrier to transfer of genetic information between the soma and the germline. This dis- tinction, in theory at least, made Lamarckism untenable [8, 22]. Also, it must be emphasized that the “Chicken or Egg” question as we define it here (germline Vs. soma), is valid even when all agree that Natural Selection and Drift are the primary processes by which evolution advances. Responses to challenges, and epigenetic changes, which could originate also in somatic cells that interact with the environment, can be selected and maintained similarly to random mutations in the DNA ([2, 8]; E. V. [10, 13]).
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The effect of florfenicol egg-injection on embryonated chicken egg

The effect of florfenicol egg-injection on embryonated chicken egg

Pathogens are an important and significant hazard for human and animal health. In recent years, antibiotics are used to treat different types of infection caused by bacterial agents. In veterinary medicine, antibiotics injected into hatching eggs to eliminate pathogens and prevention of egg transmission of disease, but the adverse effects of drugs have always been a major concern. There is scantly information available about the safety and pathological alterations of florfenicol drug in embryonated eggs. The objective of this study was to investigate using of various dosages of florfenicol solution for in ovo administration in chicken embryo. Fertile chicken eggs were divided into four equal treatment groups as follows: group 1: no injected group. Group 2: phosphate buffered saline-injected group; whose individuals were injected with phosphate buffered saline. Groups 3 and 4 whose individuals were injected with florfenicol injectable solution at a dosage of 20 and 30 mg per Kg egg-weight, respectively. Embryos were re-incubated post-treatment and allowed to develop until day 18 after which; they were examined for macroscopic and microscopic lesions. Results showed that embryos were normal in all treatment groups. Microscopically, no lesions were also diagnosed in tissues. Based on macroscopic and microscopic findings, it is concluded that florfenicol at above-mentioned concentration is not toxic for the chicken embryo. So, florfenicol egg-injection can be used to eliminate pathogens and prevention of egg transmission of the disease without any adverse effect.
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Nutritional Qualities of the Amino Acid profile of the Yolk and Albumen of Chicken (Hen) Egg

Nutritional Qualities of the Amino Acid profile of the Yolk and Albumen of Chicken (Hen) Egg

which is far lower than % TNAA, whilst the percentage range in total basic AA (TBAA) was 18.5 (yolk) and 17.5 (albumen) which made them the third largest group among the parameters. The predicted protein efficiency ratio (P-PER) was 2.71 (yolk) and 2.69 (albumen) meaning that the yolk may be more easily bioavailable than the albumen by as much as 0.74 %. The Leu/Ile ratio was low in both samples with values of 1.60 (yolk) and 1.88 (albumen) with a CV % of 11.4, hence no concentration antagonism might be experienced in the chicken (hen) egg yolk and albumen when used as the only protein source in food. The essential amino acid index (EAAI) ranged from 1.46- 1.39. EAAI is useful as a rapid tool to evaluate food formulations for protein quality, although it does not account for differences in protein quality due to various processing methods or certain chemical reactions 24 . In the results of the isoelectric
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Effect of selenium supplement on proteome of chicken egg white and yolk

Effect of selenium supplement on proteome of chicken egg white and yolk

The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the proteome profiles of egg yolk and white between control and selenium treated group using two dimensional-difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). 7 and 4 spots showed different expression levels (p<0.05) between groups in egg yolk and white, respectively. Identified proteins were vitellogenin-1,-2,-3 and apolipoprotein B in egg yolk and ovoglobulin G2, clusterin and ovalbumin-related protein X in egg white. Our results demonstrate usefulness of proteomic tools identification of proteins associated to selenium supplement.
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Egg Traits, Fertility and Hatchability of Brahma, Cochin and Orpington Chicken Breeds

Egg Traits, Fertility and Hatchability of Brahma, Cochin and Orpington Chicken Breeds

In egg weight and egg shape index were no significant difference (P>0.05) in these egg traits among hens of Brahma, Cochin and Orpington. In comparison, for Aseel breed [17-19] reported an average egg weight from 41 to 52 g. This variation in egg weight might be due to variation in the age of the hens from which the eggs were collected under field conditions. [20] published egg weight for local light Italian breeds Modenese and Romagnolo (53.7g and 54.0g). For light breed Czech Golden Spotted Hen egg weight was balanced from 57.0 to 58.0 g [21], for dual breed Oravka 52.4 to 55.7 g [22] and 60.96 g [23] respectively.
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Chicken or egg: financial development and economic growth in China, 1992-2004

Chicken or egg: financial development and economic growth in China, 1992-2004

to rigorously examine long run relationships and causality between economic growth, financial depth, bank development and the development of stock markets for China.. The remainder of t[r]

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Chicken, Egg or a Bit of Both? Motivation in bilingual education (TTO) in the Netherlands

Chicken, Egg or a Bit of Both? Motivation in bilingual education (TTO) in the Netherlands

Glossary of Abbreviations and Acronyms BERA – British Educational Research Association CAQDAS – Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software CDS – Complex Dynamic Systems Cito – [r]

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Chicken or the Egg: Anorexia Nervosa and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Children and Adolescents

Chicken or the Egg: Anorexia Nervosa and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Children and Adolescents

8 AN affecting children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been described in 2 case reports, but not at the time of the initial presentation of SLE.. 9,10 In bot[r]

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The relationship between insomnia and major depressive disorder: a chicken and egg situation?

The relationship between insomnia and major depressive disorder: a chicken and egg situation?

Ongoing or re-emerging subjective insomnia symptoms after full/ partial remission or recovery of major depressive disorder mainly with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and ri[r]

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