comparing a location some distance away from a lake-effect snow belt with one near a Great Lake to determine the effect of the lakes on snowfall. Also, using a fraction prevents years with fewer events from being underrepresented.
Despite using quality-controlled official measurements, there appear to be biases in SLR within sites. Two examples include Muskegon’s frequency of 10:1 SLRs in the 2005 winter season, and Syracuse’s snowfall tendency towards extremely high snow ratios, occasionally exceeding 100:1, throughout the study period (Table 3.1.2). Any snow ratios greater than 60:1 were not used in the SLR climatology, similar to the restrictions used in the Baxter et al. (2005) study. Cases with less than .28 cm (.11 in) of liquid precipitation were also not used when calculating snow ratios to account for measurement bias, consistent with previous studies (Baxter et al. 2005; Roebber et al. 2005; Alcott and Steenburgh 2010). Due to these additional criteria, the number of events in the snow ratio climatology is reduced from the snowfall climatology. 775 total events are included, of which 237 are lake-effect snowfalls, 487 are non-lake-effect snow events, and the remaining 51 cases are transitional.
Other factors important for heavy snowfall are a continuous supply of both water vapor and ice nuclei. Both of these fluxes should be high enough to offset losses through precipitation out of the cloud. The moisture flux is especially important, as abundant ice nuclei are typically present at colder temperatures (Schemenaur et al. 1981). The ratio of recorded precipitation versus total water vapor available to the system, or precipitation efficiency, also greatly influences the intensity and duration of snowfall events. Precipitation efficiency is generally quite high with heavy snowfall (approaching 80%), as synoptic-scale snowstorms are very efficient in delivering the condensed and sublimated water vapor to the ground as snowfall (Schemenaur et al. 1981, Auer and White 1982). Relative humidity values are typically quite high in association with the synoptic-scale environment of major winter storms, leading to very little evaporation or sublimation of falling snowflakes. When significant amounts of dry air are in place in the lower troposphere, as in situations of cold air wedging along the eastern slopes of the Appalachian Mountains, substantial loss of water vapor through melting/evaporation and sublimation may occur, reducing the precipitation efficiency. Precipitation efficiency of lake-effectsnowfall and northwest flow orographic snowfall in the eastern United States may also be reduced at times, particularly at lower elevations, due to entrainment of dry air within banded snow squalls and substantial loss via melting/evaporation and sublimation of falling snowflakes.
Narrow (5 – 20 km) and elongated (50 – 300 km) snow bands form on the leeward side of lakes (Figure 1), the movement of which is controlled by winds aloft, rather than by surface conditions (Eichenlaub, 1979; Peace and Sykes, 1966; Niziol, 1987; Hartnett, 2013 and Hartnett et al., 2014). In addition to LE snow that forms over a lake, lake-induced snowfall, a term that includes both LE and lake-enhanced snowfall, contributes large amounts of snowfall on the leeward sides of the Great Lakes (Bard and Kristovich, 2012; Suriano and Leathers, 2016). The combination of long, overwater fetch and strong winds can cause narrow bands of precipitating clouds to propagate considerable distances inland (for example, see Niziol et al., 1995). New research by Villani et al. (2017) describes atmospheric parameters that have the greatest influence on the ability of a LE storm to extend inland from Lake Ontario. They concluded that the primary and secondary parameters most-strongly correlated with inland extent of LE snowfall are: 1) the presence of a multi-lake/upstream moisture source connection, and 2) the difference between the lake’s surface water temperature and the air temperature at 850 mb.
While most data support that diminished OXPHOS drives met- abolic dysfunction in PH, contemporary evidence reveals that increased glucose oxidation may mediate PH pathogenesis. Spe- cifically, methamphetamine use, which significantly increases PH risk and is associated with poor prognosis (59), prevented pulmo- nary endothelial adaptation to additional environmental stressors like hypoxia, thus increasing OXPHOS, mitochondrial ROS, and DNA damage (60). Separately, mitochondrial activity in platelets from PAH patients exhibited increased glycolysis and respiratory reserve capacity dependent on FAO (61). This metabolic shift in both glycolysis and respiration correlated with clinical measure- ments of increased mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance, and RV stroke work index (61). Further study is required to determine whether such metabolic alterations in platelets alter thrombosis formation versus reso- lution, particularly in chronic thromboembolic PH (group 4 PH) (62). Together, these data suggest that metabolic reprogramming in PH appears to be context-specific and more complex than what is seen in hypoxic exposure alone. Thus, under certain pathogenic triggers, in specific tissues, or at certain times of disease develop- ment, the converse of the classic Warburg effect may be increas- ingly observed. With the advent of metabolomic and transcrip- tomic analyses of PH patients, a systems biology approach may facilitate our understanding of how these metabolic perturbations are interconnected and how future therapies might efficiently reverse these changes.
Transducer or probe is one of the basic component for an ultrasonic testing system. It is manufactured in variety of forms, shapes and sizes to suit for varying applications. Selection of correct probe frequency is one of the critical parameter to optimize the Ultrasonic Testing capabilities. Proper selection is important to ensure accurate inspection data as desired for specific applications. Therefore, an investigation is required to specify the suitability of different range of probe frequency.
A research of continuous-wave ultrasound reflectometry for surface roughness imaging applications, using continuous-wave ultrasound reflectometry (CWUR) as a novel nondestructive modality for imaging and measuring surface roughness in a non- contact mode is made. In CWUR, voltage variations due to phase shifts in the reflected ultrasound waves are recorded and processed to form an image of surface roughness. The purpose is to work out new experimental methods and efficient tools for quantitative estimation of surface roughness. The result of this experiment is an acrylic test block with surface irregularities ranging from 4.22 µm to 19.05 µm as measured by a coordinate measuring machine (CMM), is scanned by an ultrasound transducer having a diameter of 45 mm, a focal distance of 70 mm, and a central frequency of 3 MHz. It is shown that CWUR technique gives very good agreement with the results obtained through CMM in as much as the maximum average percent error is around 11.5% .
The study is carried on in the Mátra Mountains, Northern Hungary (N 47 ◦ 50 37.6 , E 19 ◦ 43 16.5 ). Elevation is 278 m a.s.l. Mátra Mountain has a stratovulcanic structure; rhyo- lite tuﬀ, pyroxene-andesite tuﬀ and lava are characteristic. The experimental site is situated on a nearly ﬂat surface. The studied soil is Haplic Vertisol according to WRB (1998). Soil texture is clay. The depth of humus layer is 35 cm. The potential vegetation is Quercetum petraeae-cerris.
Another problem of the TOEFL test and some other tests is the small size: the TOEFL set has 80 pairs, the Rubinstein-Goodenough set consists of 65 pairs (Rubenstein and Goodenough, 1965), the Finkelstein’s WordSim-353 set consists of 353 pairs (Finkelstein et al., 2001). Moreover, some data focus more on word associations than on syn- onymy. Finally, many larger generated data sets have a strong frequency bias. E.g. for their Word- net Based Similarity Test, with questions similar to those from the TOEFL test, Freitag et al. (2005) have chosen only words occurring at least 1000 times in the North American News corpus (about 1 billion words); for a lexical entailment task Zhitomirsky- Geffet and Dagan (2009) use only words occurring at least 500 times in a 18 Million word corpus; for their distance comparison Bulli- naria and Levy (2007) select 200 words “that are well distributed in the corpus” and the test set for two word phrases constructed by Mitchell and La- pata (2010) consists of phrases occurring at least 100 times in the British National Corpus (100 mil- lion words).
Previous lake-effect research field campaigns have primarily focused on the Western Great Lakes, such as Lakes Michigan and Superior [e.g., the Lake-Induced Convection Experiment (Lake-ICE); Kristovich et al. (2000)]. Some of these studies, including Forbes and Merritt (1984) and Laird et al. (2001), document instances of mesovortices [diameters (D) > 4000 m; Fujita 1981] forming over the lakes in regimes of weak background synoptic flow (e.g., Niziol et al. 1995, Type-V bands). The mesovortices typically either exhibit a braided structure (Fig. 1a; Grim et al. 2004) or occur as a single vortex with an eye-like feature (Fig. 1b; Laird et al. 2001) on radar and visible satellite imagery. The formation of mesovortices is largely governed by latent heat release owing to depositional processes within the band, inducing rising heights and divergence above the level of maximum heating and falling pressures below this level (e.g., Laird et al. 2001). The lower pressure near the lake surface, in turn, induces low-level cyclonic rotation and the formation of a mesovortex.
CloudSat samples data every 1.4 km and passes over Swe- den twice each day. The CloudSat satellite has been oper- ational since 2006, but in April 2011, the satellite experi- enced a battery anomaly that caused a 10-month gap in the observations. Measurements resumed in February 2012 but the satellite has only operated during the daytime portion of its orbit since that time. In this study, all available as- cending and descending passes of CloudSat from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012 in the latitude band between 54 and 70 ◦ N were used (excluding the summer months, June to September, in which no snowfall was observed). To ensure high quality, only CloudSat snowfall retrievals with a confi- dence flag corresponding to “moderate” or “high” were used in the analysis, yielding between 0 and 1007 observed snow- fall profiles per day. CloudSat vertical snowfall profiles to- gether with the estimated surface height over Sweden were composited for each weather state to characterise the vertical structure of snowfall in each regime. Due to the lower tempo- ral resolution of CloudSat, average vertical profiles were cal- culated using data from the entire country to obtain sufficient amounts of data for the different weather states. Snowfall in- tensities below 1250 m above the surface were excluded to avoid CloudSat’s blind zone.
The second condition — on the relative magnitudes of myopia and managerial bargaining power — is more difficult to assess. While it is commonly alleged that public firms value high short-run share prices, we are not aware of any empirically measurable analogue to the myopia parameter commonly used in models like ours. Further, even with extremely detailed information on CEO pay, it is not clear how one would measure managerial bargaining power. Bargaining power is the share of match surplus captured by the manager; assessing this figure empirically would require knowledge of the manager’s pay in his next most attractive job, the firm’s value when employing its second-choice manager, and the value the parties create when working together. Difficulties in measuring both the CEO’s share of match surplus and the firm’s degree of myopia imply that while our model shows the Lake Wobegon Effect can occur, it remains to be shown whether it actually does occur.
Several times in this chapter, we have discussed "ideal" or theoretically perfect circuits. In each case, you found that resistance kept our circuits from being perfect. You also found that low resistance in tuners was better than high resistance. Now you will learn about a factor that, in effect, measures just how close to perfect a tuner or tuner component can be. This same factor affects BANDWIDTH and SELECTIVITY. It can be used in figuring voltage across a coil or capacitor in a series-resonant circuit and the amount of circulating (tank) current in a parallel-resonant circuit. This factor is very important and useful to designers. Technicians should have some knowledge of the factor because it affects so many things. The factor is known as Q. Some say it stands for quality (or merit). The higher the Q, the better the circuit; the lower the losses (I 2 R), the closer the circuit is to being perfect. Having studied the first part of this chapter, you should not be surprised to learn that resistance (R) has a great effect on this figure of merit or quality. Q Is a Ratio
extremes and thus would not lead to a simple result. The next section shows that the theory may still be evaluated asymptotically when the Weibull distribution is used instead of the gamma distri- bution; the conclusions are very similar, with the primary difference being that greater deviations from an exponential tail are possible than with the gamma distribution, and these deviations can lead to a weak dependence of the changes in snowfall extremes on the percentile considered. The theory also assumes that ˆ p (a proxy for upward motion) and temperature are independent, but up- ward motion and precipitation are generally less likely to occur on anomalously cold days 37 , and the accuracy of the theory could be improved by accounting for this relationship. This refinement to the theory is not attempted here because of the additional complexity and assumptions needed and because the current form of the theory adequately captures the main features of the response of daily snowfall extremes to climate change.
Accelerometer-measured activity behaviors
Habitual time spent in activity behaviors were evaluated by Active style Pro HJA-750C (Omron Healthcare, Kyoto, Japan). Active style Pro is a validated accelerom- eter [ 20 – 23 ] and comparable to the devices most com- monly used in studies conducted in Western countries [ 24 , 25 ]. Its measurement algorithm has been explained in detail elsewhere [ 20 , 21 ]. Participants were instructed to wear an accelerometer over the waist on an elasti- cated belt for seven consecutive days (except during sleep and water-based activities) during snowfall and non-snowfall season, respectively. In the survey during snowfall season, participants were mailed an accelerom- eter. No acceleration signal detected for longer than 60 consecutive minutes was defined as “non-wear”. Partici- pants with a wear time corresponding to at least 10 h during waking time per day [ 26 ], collected over four or more valid days were included in the analysis [ 27 ]. The data were collected in 60-s epochs. Activity behaviors were classified into three intensity categories based on metabolic equivalents (METs): SB (≤1.5 METs), LPA (1.6–2.9 METs), and MVPA (≥3.0 METs) [ 28 , 29 ]. Sociodemographic, biological, and psychological factors Participants reported their age, gender, living arrange- ment (with others/ alone), and self-rated health (very good/ good/ fair/ poor) in autumn. We classified partici- pants between the ages of 65 and 74 years as young-old, and those between ages 75 and 84 years as old-old. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight
Resuspension of sediment from the bed of lakes depends on the stresses created by water movement across the lake bot- tom. Wind-induced resuspension, in particular, is sporadic and occurs as the waves at the water surface create oscilla- tory currents that propagate down to the lakebed and exceed a critical threshold. The wave climate that exists on a lake can be complex and depend on the fetch over which the wind has blown, the time period over which the wind has blown, and complicating factors such as wind sheltering and vari- ations in bottom topography. The horizontally averaged na- ture of GLM means that only a single set of wave charac- teristics across the entire lake surface can be computed for a given time step and these are assumed to be at steady state. Note that GLM does not predict resuspension and sediment concentration directly, but computes the bottom shear stress for later use in coupled sediment and water quality mod- ules. Since each layer has a component that is considered to overlay sediment (Sect. 4), the stress experienced at the sediment–water interface is able to approximated as a func- tion of depth in relation to the surface wave climate. The model can therefore identify the depth range and areal extent to which there is potential for bed-sediment resuspension to occur, i.e. by computing the area of the lake over which the bed shear stress exceeds some critical value required for re- suspension.
bedrock (the area is built of Godula Sandstone) which causes shallow water circulation so that springs are considered as shallow supplied, it was expected that the plant cover changes might affect spring water chemistry. Such observa- tions were partially confirmed by Astel et al. (2008), when differences between types of forest stands were found. Those results showed that the presence of mixed stands caused an increase in pH values and an increase in calcium and magnesium concentrations compared to the spring waters of Norway spruce monocultures growing on the same geological bedrock. Currently another point of view was a possibility to analyse what was before and after deforestation. The research was carried out in 2004 and 2009 in two catchments on Skrzyczne in the Silesian Beskid Mountains. The research did not show any statistically significant differences in water chemistry with one exception: pH in June 2009 was higher (average of 0.61) in springs without plant cover change than in the second group. This might be an effect of more water flowing through the more acid soil horizons with higher concentration of humic acids on the deforested area, where large amounts of organic matter were left. It is possible that changes will be observed in the years to come so that further monitoring should take place.
Acipenser fulvescens , the lake sturgeon, belongs to one of the few extant non-teleost ray-finned (bony) fishes. The sturgeons (family Acipenseridae) have a phylogenetic history that dates back about 250 million years. The study reported here is the first investigation of peripheral coding strategies for spectral analysis in the auditory system in a non-teleost bony fish. We used a shaker system to simulate the particle motion component of sound during electrophysiological recordings of isolated single units from the eighth nerve innervating the saccule and lagena. Background activity and response characteristics of saccular and lagenar afferents (such as thresholds, response–level functions and temporal firing) resembled the ones found in teleosts. The distribution of best frequencies also resembled data in teleosts (except for Carassius auratus , goldfish) tested with the same stimulation method. The saccule and lagena in A. fulvescens contain otoconia, in contrast to the solid otoliths found in teleosts, however, this difference in otolith structure did not appear to affect threshold, frequency tuning, intensity- or temporal responses of auditory afferents. In general, the physiological characteristics common to A. fulvescens , teleosts and land vertebrates reflect important functions of the auditory system that may have been conserved throughout the evolution of vertebrates.
Figure 5. Lake Narlay: Scatter plots of the pigments, diatoms and chironomid sample-scores on the first PCA axis against long term temperature anomalies from Guiot et al. . The scatter plot with highest correlation are closest to the diagonal; the two color tone highlight those where p-value is minor of 0.5 and 0.1 respectively.