A frontaxlesuspensionsystem for a vehiclechassis includes first and second links pivotally connected to the chassis and extending downwardly therefrom, the second link being positioned rearwardly of the first link. A coupler link is pivotally connected to the lower ends of the first and second links and extends forwardly from them. The frontaxle is connected to the coupler link and is adapted to carry a front wheel for rotation about a generally horizontal centerline. A spring and dampener mechanism interconnects the coupler link and chassis to yieldably resist movement of the axle relative to the chassis. The pivotal connections of the first, second and coupler links are so arranged that the instantaneous center of the suspensionsystem will always be below and rearwardly of the front wheel centerline.
This section deals with the analysis of the designed model. The model that is in STEP format is analysed. Static structural analysis of both stabilizer bar link and suspensionsystem is performed by applying the working load and number of supports used is two. The model is imported to Ansys and meshing is performed. The mesh size used is 4.4 mm. From the results obtained optimal design is selected. Suitable materials are applied to three different models of stabilizer bar link and modal analysis is performed. Different softwares such as Comsol, Radioss solver, Abaqus, Hypermesh, Ansys etc. are used for analysis. In this project Ansys R15.0 is used for design analysis.
6 condition. It can sense the force applied to the wheel and constantly adjust the mechanical connection between the vehiclechassis and wheel to keep the chassis level optimally and absorb the energy combine with the vertical motion of wheel. Active suspensionsystem is also known as Computerized Ride Control consist some important component in system to make it function smoothly. Computer or also name as electronic control unit (ECU) use to represent the mind defective though it may be collecting, classifying and analyzing sensor input signal. Adjustable shocks and spring as basic component of suspension, a series of sensor at each wheel of car to sense or feeling the condition of road surface and delivering the data signal go back to ECU. A servo or actuator will set at each shock and spring, it will receive a signal input send by ECU and carry out the command of ECU (Parthiv Shah, 2000).
Car model for this study used is Quarter Car model. A two-degree-of- freedom (DOF) Quarter Car Model automotive suspensionsystem is shown in Figure 2.7. Mohd Asqalani Bin Naharudin, 2008  explain the Quarter Car Model represents the automotive system at each wheel i.e. the motion of the axle and of the vehicle body at any one of the four wheels of the vehicle. The suspension itself is shown to consist of a spring ks, a damper bs and a variable damper bsemi. The variable damper bsemi can be set to zero in a passive suspension. The sprung mass ms represent the quarter-car equivalent of the vehicle body mass. The unsprung mass mu represents the equivalent mass due to the axle and tire. The vertical stiffness of the tire is represented by the spring kt. the variables Zs, Zu and Zr represent the vertical displacements from static equilibrium of the sprung mass, unsprung mass and the road respectively.
The air conditioning is that branch of engineering science which deals with the study of conditioning of air i.e. supplying and maintaining desirable internal atmospheric conditioning for human comfort, irrespective of external conditions. This topic in its broad sense, also deals with the conditioning of air for automobile purpose. The vehicle runs on the various road conditions. The frame of the vehicle and body is mounted on frontaxle and rear axle with shock absorbers and springs. The road shocks transmitted to the frame of vehicle creates discomfort to the travelers of the automobile vehicle. In under bad road conditions the traveler’s experiences bounce and roll at the cornering and pitching of automobile vehicle. For obtaining human comfort and improve internal atmosphere in the cabinet with freshness of air and air conditioning effect in the automobile vehicle. In India, the road conditions are bad in village and city
Suspension systems are used to provide good ride and handling performance in providing chassis isolation of vertical compliance. It ensures that the wheels follow the road profile with little tire load fluctuation. Suspension steering control is maintained during maneuvering wheels to be maintained in proper position. It achieves longitudinal braking, accelerating forces, lateral cornering forces, braking and accelerating torques responds favorably to control forces produced by the tires. It prevents the transmission of „road noise‟ to the vehicle body so that it requires appropriate isolation in the suspension joints to provide isolation from high frequency vibration from tire excitation. The design has been modified by reducing the thickness of profile. It accomplishes the optimization that would placate customer‟s anticipations.
independent suspension may be called “an axle” in some contexts. This very loose definition of “axle” is often used in assessing toll roads or vehicle taxes, and is taken as a rough proxy for the overall weight-bearing capacity of a vehicle, and its potential for causing wear or damage to roadway surfaces. Axles are an integral component of most practical wheeled vehicles. In a live-axlesuspensionsystem, the axles serve to transmit driving torque to the wheel, as well as to maintain the position of the wheels relative to each other and to the vehicle body. The axles in this system must also bear the weight of the vehicle plus any cargo. A non-driving axle, such as the front beam axle in heavy duty trucks and some 2-wheel drive light trucks and vans, will have no shaft, and serves only as a suspension and steering component. Conversely, many front wheel drive cars have a solid rear beam axle.
The initial vehicle model should be checked thoroughly and improved, if necessary 181. Only then should a study of the influence of individual suspension parameters on riding comfort and dy namic forces be made. The riding comfort or dy namic forces can be drawn as a function of certain suspension parameters. We can also pursue these eigenfrequencies, global damping factors or the working space between axle and chassis. By ob serving a large number of diagrams, we can thus select appropriate values for the suspension para meters (stiffness of springs and damping of shock absorbers, front and rear).
Chassis refers to lower part of the vehicle body. Chassis consists of tires, frames, engine and suspensionsystem attached to it. Among these frame provides support to the components of the vehicle. Chassis consists of an internal frame work that supports a manmade object in its construction and use.
The primary function of the suspensionsystem of the vehicle should fulfill pretentious requirements about stability, safety and maneuverability. The suspensionsystem of the vehicle performs multiple tasks such as maintaining the contact between tires and road surface, providing the vehicle stability, protecting the vehiclechassis of the shocks excited from the uneven road surfaces, etc. This system is the mechanism that physically separates the vehicle body from the wheels of the vehicle. The suspensionsystem will consider ideal if the vehicle body isolate from uneven road and inertial disturbances associated during situation of cornering, braking and acceleration.
Generally, the suspension systems are categorized into two groups, dependent and independent system. A suspension connected to a rigid axle between the left and the right of the wheels is called a dependent suspension since the vertical movement of one wheel is delivered to the opposite wheel in these cases. The major disadvantage of this rigid steer able axle is their susceptibility to tramp-shimmy steering vibrations . The independent suspensionsystem allows the left and right wheel to move without affecting the other’s motion. Nearly all the passenger cars and light trucks use an independent frontsuspension because of the advantages in providing room for the engine and also for the better resistance to steering induced vibrations. There are many forms and designs of independent suspensions. However, double wishbone and MacPherson strut suspensions are perhaps the simplest and most commonly used designs.
Introducing a new technology ‘Electromagnetic suspensionsystem’ which works on the principle of ‘Faraday’s law of Induction’. It replaces the hydraulic and air suspensions. Here we bring in the use of electromagnets to push/pull the wheel in and out of a dip without jostling of the car body that will result in easy and safe driving. This system consists of two electromagnets placed inside the cylinder. One of the electromagnet that is placed in the top end of the cylinder is fixed and the other placed in the bottom end of the cylinder is movable. A rheostat that is used for varying resistance is used here. The main purpose of the rheostat is that it could vary current. There is an additional fitting done to the movable end of the rheostat. A strong spring has to be attached to the movable end of the rheostat so that it could come back to its original position. A rod is attached from the jockey of the rheostat to the axle of the wheel. This rod will help the rheostat to vary the current. So when the current is passed to the electromagnets, there will be a repulsive force between them and so whenever there is an upward force acting on the wheel the current has to decrease so that the wheel alone will move up and down. This is the purpose why we prefer rheostat. The rod connected to it will vary and then come back to its original position. EMF is defined as the energy available per unit charge that travels once around the wire loop. Equivalently, it is the voltage that would be measured by cutting the wire to create an open circuit, and attaching a voltmeter to the leads. The maximum stress obtained after analyzing the electromagnetic suspension is 130.307 N/mm. 2
Where = - 3. FAULT-TOLERANT CONTROL DESIGN 3.1. SMC Design In control system, sliding mode control is a nonlinear control method that alters the dynamics of a nonlinear system by application of a discontinuous control signal that forces the system to "slide" along a cross-section of the system's normal behavior. The state- feedback control law is not a continuous function of time. Instead, it can switch from one continuous structure to another based on the current position in the state space. The motion of the system as it slides along the boundaries is called a sliding mode and the geometrical locus consisting of the boundaries is called the sliding surface. The chassis part of the vehicle is described by the equations, ̇ = (5)
An axle is a central shaft used for rotating wheel. On wheeled vehicles, the axle could be mounted to the wheels, rotating with them, or located to its surroundings, with the wheels rotating around the axle. The axles achieve to transmit driving torque to the wheel. Also it can maintain the position of the wheels relative with each other and to the vehicle body. The axles must additionally bear the weight of the vehicle plus any cargo. The frontaxle beam is one of the main parts of vehiclesuspensionsystem shown in figure 1. It houses the steering assembly as well. About thirty 30-40 percentage of the total vehicle weight is taken up by frontaxle. Frontaxle is made of I-section in the middle portion and circular or elliptical section at the ends.
Many countries already use rail transport as a public transport such as in Asia. In Asia many trains are used as regular transport in India, China, South Korea and Japan. It is also widely used in European countries. However accidents and incidents continue to occur. There is some causes of railway vehicle accidents. In generally its come from five categories such human factor, track defect, miscellaneous causes, equipment defect, signal defect and train control. The causes of the accidents are presented in percentage form, involving the accidents starting from 2001 to 2006 reported from National Rail Safety Action Plan Progress Report 2005-2007 Federal Railroad Administration. Other than that the cause also derailment, tracks that are unsuitable managed or maintained. The Pie Chart has been show in Figure 1.2.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract - This paper provides in-detail description of the design and structural analysis of chassis and suspensionsystem of a standard All-Terrain Vehicle. The design and development comprises of material selection, chassis and frame design, cross section determination, and determining strength requirements of roll cage, stress analysis, design of the entire double wishbone suspensionsystem and simulations ton test the ATV against failure. The static and dynamic structural analysis is also done on the chassis for validating the design. Initially, a prototype design of the chassis was made as a 3-D CAD model using Solidworks CAD software. The designed ATV is an off-road vehicle powered by 305 cc, four strokes, 10 BHP engine Brigg Stratton engine and driven by manual transmission. Material selection was based on the basis of factors like weight, cost, availability and performance during the entire design process, consumer interest through innovative, inexpensive, and effective methods was always the primary goal. The manufacturing objective is to design a vehicle which is safety ergonomic, aerodynamic, highly engineered and customer satisfaction which can make it highly efficient. The proposed design of ATV can navigate all most all terrain which is the primary objective behind the design and fabrication of any all-terrain vehicles.
The Automotive industry is one of the fastest growing sectors not only in India but all over the world. This industry includes automobiles, auto component sectors, commercial vehicles, multi -utility vehicles, passenger cars, two-wheelers and auto related parts. The frontaxle beam is one of the main parts of vehiclesuspensionsystem as it houses the steering assembly as well. Nearly 30 to 40% of the total vehicle weight is taken up by frontaxle. The frontaxle experiences load conditions such as static and dynamic loads due to irregularities of road, mostly during its travel on and off road. Front axles are subjected to both bending and shear stresses. In the static condition, the axle might be considered as beam supported vertically upward at the ends. Under the dynamic conditions, vertical bending moment is increased due to road roughness. Therefore axle
The arms were decided to keep as long as possible for the stability of the vehicle and minimize the variations in geometry. The length of the upper arms was decided through geometry modeling, shorter upper arm meant negative camber in bump travel and optimum roll-camber coefficient. The design of suspension begins with considering some important factors. The requirement for a good suspensionsystem is to select good dampers, types of suspensionsystem considering which is best suited for the current chassis design and steering system.
chassis is the under part of a motor vehicle, consisting of the frame (on which the body is mounted). If the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the driver's seat, are included, then the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the term rolling chassis means the frame plus the "running gear" like engine, transmission, drive shaft, differential, and suspension. A body (sometimes referred to as "coachwork"), which is usually not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the essential parts of a truck (without the body) to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a pleasure car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads and constant work use. This describes the lower hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armored personnel carriers, combat engineering vehicles, etc. Traditionally, the most common material for manufacturing vehiclechassis has been steel, in various forms. Over time, other materials have come into use, the majority of which have been covered here.
Until the 1930's every motor vehicle had a structural frame, separate from the car's body. This construction design is known as body-on-frame since then, all passenger cars received unibody construction, meaning their chassis and bodywork have been integrated into one another. The last UK mass-produced car with a separate chassis was the TRIUMPH HERALD, which was discontinued in 1971. However all trucks, busses, continue to use a separate frame as their chassis . As a result, some observers argue that first true automobile was gasoline powered. Nicolas-joseph cugnot, a French military engineer who in 1769 built a steam powered tricycle for hauling artillery. Vehicle’s single front wheel performed both steering and driving functions, and it could travel 2.25miles per hour with 4 passengers aboard for about 15 minutes . later the two men, KARL FRIEDRICH BENZ and GOTTLIEB DIAMLER who had never met previously but filed their patents on the same day- JANUARY 29,1886-in two different German cities. Benz's three wheeled vehicle, was first drove in 1885 and while Diamler's motorized carriage was the world's first four-wheeled automobile and featured the high speech-gasoline engine.