regionalised education offices. The Ministry also transfer funds to the regions to pay for technical staff. The regions and departments also have a role in funding goods and services such as materials, utilities and small-scale maintenance using a block grant provided by central government. School funding allocations also take account of other factors such as socio-economic characteristics and special educational needs. This contributes to higher per pupil funding in vocational schools where pupils tend to be lower achievers and come from more deprived backgrounds than those in the academic route. Teachers are paid centrally by the Ministry for Education based on national pay scales. Statutory salaries for teachers across all phases in France are below the OECD average, both for starting teachers and for those with ten or fifteen years' professional experience. Across OECD countries in 2013, statutory salaries (i.e. excluding bonuses and overtime) for teachers in upper secondary education with at least fifteen years' experience
36 There is a need to utilise and if necessary supplement existing authoritative sources of high quality, independent, forward-looking labour market intelligence (UK, Scottish, sectoral) and market it through the workforce development system. This will help support strategic thinking, provide planners with common sources of intelligence, and offer individuals access to high-quality information to help them make informed decisions about the development of their career. Identifying the current and future skills required to support business growth and technological changes will help the system work more effectively. Independently commissioned and conducted employer surveys are important to achieve system improvement and target investment appropriately. It is also important for Scotland to conduct benchmarking and evaluation (at international as well as UK level) to assess the country’s competitiveness in relation to skills, jobs and growth. The Scottish Government should consider commissioning a National Strategic Skills Audit to build a current intelligence base for investment decisions for the next decade. Building a common Labour Market Intelligence (LMI) framework across all sectors of the UK economy is widely regarded as an essential building block for the future. UKCES has been working with all sectors of the economy on this endeavour and negotiations are currently underway with Jobcentre Plus about the development of a common LMI framework across their network.
• A selective literature review, to generate wider insights as well as expert analyses on how each of the countries’ VET systems and processes to develop Standards worked in practice. This prioritised sources that had synthesised the literature and/or had undertaken analysis of international standards and VET systems. There are a number of such authorative, large-scale studies, which typically involve cross-national comparisons, and in some cases, multi-year tracking of developments, including works published by Cedefop (the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training), the OECD, and the Nuffield Foundation. Country selection
Abstract: A study identified different educational and working paths that workers take, asked which paid off for long-term wage growth and career development, and tested whether educational pathways helped explain more of the variability in wage outcomes. It compared long-term wage growth for two cohorts of young white men: the original cohort that entered the labor force in the late 1960s at the end of the post-World War II economic boom and the recent cohort that entered in the early 1980s after the onset of economic restructuring. Long-term wage growth between the ages 16-36 declined and became significantly more unequal for the recent cohort. The rising demand for education and skill in the new labor market apparently benefitted only those with four- year college degrees. Rising inequality in wage growth was found in all education groups. Working while enrolled and interrupting and returning to school were the dominant pathways to educational attainment. A second set of analyses focused on the recent cohort. Multiple regressions showed educational pathways had a strong effect on long-term wage growth: working while enrolled had a positive impact and interrupted schooling had a negative one. Career choices about industry and occupation mattered. Taking an academic track in high school paid off for workers who get some college credit or enter occupations requiring cognitive skill. Applied and practical fields of study offered the most long-term wage growth to college graduates. Shandra, C. L., and Hogan, D. P. (2008). School-to-work program participation and the post-
Address the narrowness of 16-19 education. Students are generally receiving fewer learning hours than in previous years. The decoupling of AS and A levels has resulted in a dramatic fall in AS levels, that has not been compensated with additional provision. Given that the 16-19 curriculum in England was already narrow compared to top-performing countries, this is likely to further compromise the breadth of post-16education. With relevant international studies showing that England stands out for the low levels of basic skills of its young people, the government should assess the impact of 16-19 funding changes on curriculum breadth and ensure that young people have a good choice of high quality post-16 academic and vocational qualifications.
25. In the course of this Review we have received submissions from the relatively new Learned Society of Wales (LSW). The LSW is a very welcome addition to the Welsh intellectual landscape, particularly given its multidisciplinary and multi-sectoral fellowship. We believe it has the potential to develop into a real resource for improving the public understanding of science and research, contributing to the development of Wales’ ‘soft power’ by promoting international networks of interest in Wales, and by providing independent advice and horizon scanning across a wide range of areas by ensuring that Wales’ policy makers have access to the best national (and global) expertise.
9.1.4 We believe, in contrast to the system in England, in the principle of public support for maintenance with most support going to those with the greatest need. There is a strong consensus in the evidence received by the Review Panel, that the level of maintenance support available is inadequate to cover actual costs incurred by students, and that this is a bigger issue for students than the level of tuition fees and tuition fee support. There is also a view that students from middle-income households, in particular, are inadequately catered for under current arrangements, due to the expectation that, in the case of school leavers (who make up the vast majority of those studying full- time), students address any shortfall in income via contributions from parents, commercial loans, overdrafts and arrears. We recommend a simple system whereby the same level of support for living costs be made available to all students, but this is split between grant and loan and grant funding is progressively directed to those with the lowest household incomes. This will support widening access and retention of students from all backgrounds, including those from poorer backgrounds, ‘squeezed middle’ income families and those either estranged from their parents or whose parents choose not to contribute to their higher education.
However, since September 2013 it has been the responsibility of individual employers to make decisions about the qualifications they require their staff to hold or work towards. Revised Level 5 standalone diplomas and specialist pathways in English (literacy), maths (numeracy), English (ESOL/Literacy and ESOL) have been available since 2013 to support initial teacher training and CPD. Whilst specialist qualifications are no longer enforced by legislation, the Lingfield report into Professionalism in Further Education notes that for teachers of foundation skills, such as English and maths, and for those working with learners with disabilities there should be ‘special emphasis’ beyond the generic Level 5 teaching qualification on these areas: ‘Level 5 plus, in essence’ 27 . These changes may need to be made more explicit to
Table 14 describes how the high-cost in-district allocation has changed from 2005 - 2006 through 2010 - 2011. Beginning in 2009 – 2010 the number of high cost in- district students began to decline as did the expenditure for this allocation. The reason for this is not clear but may be related to the reorganization of school districts allowing larger units to employ specialists who were previously contracted providers. Also during this period Maine’s special education regulations were being re written to include more specific and better defined criteria for identification of students with disabilities. Both of these possible explanations would require further study to determine if either is valid.
first it would appear that from a bully’s perspective, the bully attributions category would be internal attributions and the victim attributions and social context attributions would be external attributions and therefore link well to attribution theory. However, the researchers did not refer to this level of categorisation, and if they intended this to be the case, it would have been incorrect since under the bully attributing category they would have conflated poor self-confidence (internal) and bad parenting (external), for example, as meaning internal attributions. Therefore, even those some categorisation was correct, attribution theory was not applied fully to this research. This study was useful as most of the participants were aged 16-18 years old and therefore offered an insight into the explanations that this age group provided as reasons for bullying. However, the participants were not selected on the basis of their experience with bullying and therefore the voices of bullies and victims was not gathered, and even though there could be some transferability of findings, this needs to be the result of investigation rather than speculation. Furthermore, the context was in upper secondary schools in Sweden, and concentrated on bullying rather than cyberbullying, and therefore the context, location and focus of the research is different to the scope in this thesis.
We strongly endorse the stated commitment to widening access to further and higher education for young people who may experience disadvantage. Young people in care, and careleavers, are an under-represented group. Opportunities to continue education with practical, emotional and financial support which is well planned and easily accessible are paramount. This requires a commitment to employing and retaining appropriately skilled staff who have a valued and designated role within educational settings. An ‘open door’ policy encouraging young people to return to education (at least until the age of 25) should also be actively developed.
warrant further exploration in their own right, the interconnections between them must also be acknowledged. Furthermore, in drawing upon dispositions conferred with physical capital from other contexts, Jack is able to continually elaborate on his educational positions, readily acquiring of social and academic (cultural) forms of capital. In doing so, the data also alludes to how the particular form of Jack’s valued physical capital acted as a corporeal prism that refracted and absorbed the kaleidoscopic sets of position-practice relations and resources. Importantly, through actively reshaping what Bourdieu (1998) terms the ‘interspaces’ which people occupy with their bodies and identities, Jack is also socially validating the experiences of the other students like him in our study. Unlike many other more typical student transitions, rather than being continually positioned by the external structures of education, Jack’s body provides a catalyst for educational inclusion and achievement. Thus, what his experience begins to illuminate is the possibility of a different type of FE student, one that emerges from the interaction between industry (professional sport) and education in ways that can influence the social and educational practices of institutions. Interestingly, this experience contrasts to many of the vocational stories that have informed our understanding of post-16 vocational qualifications in which students often cannot associate themselves with the positions and practices of higher education institutions (Reay et al. 2005). As the policy landscape of FE-HE and employment shifts, the experience of Jack, therefore, provides reason for both hope and caution.
3. Promoting equity. Increasing access to post-compulsory education by disadvantaged or under-represented groups is a frequent policy objective and at times a dominant one. Measures to improve equity can include differential funding rates for types of programme or student; the application of grants or bursaries for some categories of student and restrictions on the eligibility of some activities for support (e.g. only funding the first qualification at a given level) Making loan repayments contingent on income has a similar objective. 4. Generating growth. In many jurisdictions increasing the numbers of participants in adult learning at all levels has been a key objective. Approaches designed to promote growth include some versions of competitive funding models, simply removing caps on growth or the introduction of levy schemes of various sorts. Policy makers have also sought to encourage growth by reducing costs to participants, whether by removing up-front costs (loans) reducing fees (changed course design / delivery) or helping meet direct & indirect costs (bursaries) One role of individual learning accounts has been to influence individual demand for learning.
Libya depends on its public sector to run and finance its higher education sector; this is because of the abundance of funds and the nature of the oil-based economy (Gallali, 2012). The government allocates the annual budget for each higher education institution, which is divided into two kinds of budgets: (1) a current expenditure budget, allocated by the finance ministry; and (2) a developmental expense budget, allocated by the planning ministry. Both these budgets are divided into a number of heads. The developmental budget directly links universities plans and the state under the specialisation of the Ministry of Planning. The funds allocated within capital expenditure are normally committed for extended periods; moreover, the developmental budget aims to provide a budget with national policy objectives and macroeconomic performance. In contrast, private institutions are self-financed and their main funding resource is mostly student fees and the services they provide to the public, such as training courses. The government’s role in private institutions is limited to one of supervision only.
A renewed call for students to develop mathematical skills for everyday life and employment (DfES, 2005) led to the replacement of Key Skills by new Functional Skills qualifications. The Functional Mathematics curriculum centred on applications and problem-solving in ‘realistic’ life situations (QCA, 2007). Moving away from specific applications in familiar contexts towards developing transferable problem- solving skills, the approach was designed to meet the demands of the workplace where tasks are non-routine (Hoyles, Wolf, Molyneux-Hodgson, & Kent, 2002) and complex situations require interpretation (Hodgen & Marks, 2013). Whether this curriculum could fulfil its comprehensive purpose and succeed where core and Key Skills had failed was, however, debatable (Hodgson & Spours, 2008; Wake, 2005). In practice, Functional Mathematics in schools became embedded into GCSE Mathematics and quickly disappeared, but in Further Education it was retained and used extensively with adult and vocational students. The research reported herein investigates the experiences of vocational students, aged 16-18 years, learning Functional Mathematics.
College regionalisation forms a central focus of the Bill. The Review of Further Education Governance in Scotland (the Griggs review) proposed that Scotland’s colleges merge around regional boundaries, reducing significantly the number of colleges in Scotland. This regional model was suggested to improve the delivery of college education to better meet the needs of both students and the local labour market. A number of colleges have already decided to ‘merge’ and such mergers have been, or will be, taken forward using existing powers of the Scottish Ministers under the Further and Higher Education (Scotland) Act 1992 (“the 1992 Act”). The Bill takes forward other legislative aspects of college regionalisation.
• If you’re an independent student, you will report your own information (and, if you’re married, your spouse’s). The federal student aid programs are based on the concept that it is primarily your and your family’s responsibility to pay for your education. And because a dependent student has the support of parents, the parents’ information has to be assessed along with the student’s, in order to get a full picture of the family’s financial strength. If you’re a dependent student, it doesn’t mean your parents are required to pay anything toward your education. See Table 5 to find out if you are a
• Public libraries, scholarship services, and the Internet: Many private scholarship search services provide sources of financial assistance. The U.S. Department of Education does not evaluate those services. If you decide to use a search service, check its reputation by contacting the Better Business Bureau or your state attorney general’s office. Beware of scams and services that will search for financial aid money for you for a fee. You should not have to pay for this information. For more tips on looking for student aid, go to www.studentaid.ed.gov/LSA.
vocational training, such as training bodies, vocational schools, universities, businesses, and chambers of commerce. This programme provides funding in developing the use of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) in vocational training; developing new vocational training tools, services and products using ICT which will promote access to vocational training. To this end, the programme pursues operational objectives which seek to develop and strengthen the development of innovative ICT-based content, services, pedagogies and practices and the following action - thematic networks of experts and organisations working on specific issues related to vocational education and training it is within this regard current research is underway through DCU in relation to ICT developments in nursing entitled e Psych Nurse.Net. The overall goal of this project is to ensure high quality, ethically appropriate and therapeutically effective interventions to enable nurses to manage distressed and disturbed patients in psychiatric hospitals and inpatient unit in six European countries including Ireland. The main outcomes of the project are:
The BANKSETA Council has indicated that there is a continuing need for funding for skills development of employees of BANKSETA registered employers as well as a need for funding Doctoral and Post-Doctoral research pertinent to the broader banking and microfinance sector. The need is expressed for funding for Doctoral and Post-Doctoral Research programmes, offered by South African Institutions of Higher Education.