Top PDF Gender differences in self-employment

Gender differences in self-employment

Gender differences in self-employment

Our study offers a different perspective on self-employment than do other studies that include women in that it focuses on transitions into self-employment, rather than self- employment status, and it allows for a direct comparison of gender differences. Nonetheless, existing studies of female self-employment provide perspective to our analysis. Macpherson (1988) uses a sample of married women in the US to show the potential effects of selectivity bias when earnings equations are not estimated separately for those in salaried employment and those in self-employment. Connelly (1992) finds that the presence of young children is important in choosing whether to be self-employed. Devine (1994) looks at recent trends in US female self- employment and finds evidence that the self-employment opportunities for women at the low end of the skill distribution have worsened. Most recently, Lombard (2001) finds that, although job flexibility and demand for non-standard work schedules are important, most of the rise in female self-employment is due to women’s increased earnings potential in self-employment.
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Gender Differences in Full-Time Self- Employment

Gender Differences in Full-Time Self- Employment

The information on self-employed men and women found in these latter studies does not provide a complete picture of gender differences in self-employment, however. In the study by Fairlie and Meyer, male/female comparisons were secondary to the primary interest in ethnic and racial self-employment differences. Even so, although these authors did explore ethnic and racial differences in the self-employment rates of both men and women, their analysis of ethnic and racial differences in earnings was restricted to men, because sample sizes were too small for women. In testing for employer discrimination against women, Moore focused on female/male earnings ratios in self-employment and in wage-and-salary employment. He did not explore gender differences in self-employment rates, because he felt such differences would reflect imperfections in the capital markets, and not provide a true test of employer discrimination.
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Gender Differences in Self-employment of Older Workers in the United States and New Zealand

Gender Differences in Self-employment of Older Workers in the United States and New Zealand

At face value, self-employment may provide the opportu- nity to fulfill women’s (and men’s) non-financial and financial goals, particularly in the absence of other employment op- portunities. However, findings show that in N.Z., opportuni- ties for women’s self-employment are more likely to occur in lower status occupations. The fact that women’s self-employ- ment declined with universal pension entitlement suggests that their self-employment is perhaps more out of financial ne- cessity rather than for non-financial reasons. In contrast, N.Z. men appear to not face the same occupational disadvantages in terms of self-employment. Their pursuit of self-employment regardless of pension entitlement and associated lower income suggests that men’s self-employment may be more for non- financial than financial reasons—perhaps due to greater op- portunity to generate wealth across the life course. This result provides some evidence that women face occupational barri- ers to self-employment and suggests that New Zealand’s uni- versal superannuation scheme is a vital financial safety net, particularly for women.
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Gender Differences in Self-Employment in Finnish Regions

Gender Differences in Self-Employment in Finnish Regions

To summarize, our results indicate much variation between females and males in that how various characteristics affect self-employment, although many variables behave alike. In Table 5, the maximum and minimum effects of each category of variables on the probabilities of self- employment are presented. Related to each category, the most favourable and unfavourable situations for self-employment are searched for and the probabilities for self-employment in these cases are calculated, when the rest of the variables are kept at their means. We also calculated the range between these probabilities and divided the range by the average probability of being self-employed to take into account the fact that females have a half lower probability of being self-employed compared to males. 5 The calculations show that personal characteristics is the most important category for both males and females. In the most favourable situation for self-employment, a male’s probability of being self-employed is as high as 0.58 and a female’s probability 0.22, while in the most unfavourable situation these probabilities are close to nil. A spouse’s and parents’ characteristics are also important, but family characteristics do no affect that much. It is, however, important to detect that the relative significance of both family’s and spouse’s characteristics is bigger for a female self-employed than for a male self-employed. Another interesting finding confirms our earlier finding that regional characteristics do not have such importance for female self-employment than they do have for male self-employment. == Table 5 ==
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Work satisfaction of the self-employed: The roles of work autonomy, working hours, gender and sector of self-employment

Work satisfaction of the self-employed: The roles of work autonomy, working hours, gender and sector of self-employment

occupations and sectors that are dominated by members of their own gender - is a leading cause of gender differences in job satisfaction. Specifically, women tend to be employed in jobs and sectors that offer greater opportunities for work-life balance than are available in male-dominated occupations and industries (Scandura and Lankau, 1997; Bender et al., 2005). Since flexibility and control over working time arrangements are highly valued job attributes, workers that have greater perceived work-life balance are more satisfied with their jobs than those with fewer opportunities to balance home and work life (Asadullah and Fernández., 2008). This would suggest that the greater job satisfaction observed in women employees stems from their concentration in jobs and sectors that enable them to strike a balance between family and work. Said differently, differences in satisfaction should not be attributed to a gender gap per se, but to differences in job characteristics concentrated in different industries and sectors. Those characteristics include flexibility, shorter working hours, and greater control over working schedules.
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Gender differences in functional disability and self-care among seniors in Bangladesh

Gender differences in functional disability and self-care among seniors in Bangladesh

Bangladesh, a South Asian nation, has made substantial progress in reducing poverty and has achieved the central United Nations Millennium Development Goal of halving poverty ahead of the target deadline. Rapid economic growth enabled Bangladesh to reach the status of a lower middle-income country in 2014. Despite improvements in poverty reduction, food security, education for girls, and creation of economic opportunities for women and women’s political participation, Bangladesh scored poorly on gender indices. It was ranked 111th in the Gender Inequality Index and 142nd in the Human Development Index in 2014 [8]. The population of Bangladesh was 158.1 million with a population density of 1077 per square kilometer in 2015 [9]. Around 66% of citizens live in rural areas, and the rest in urban areas. There were seven divi- sions (Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Rangpur, and Sylhet) that divide Bangladesh into seven major administrative regions until 2014. Each division is named after the major city (within the division’s jurisdic- tion) that serves as the administrative capital of that div- ision. Since 2015, Bangladesh has been divided into eight divisions; the newly added Mymensingh division was cre- ated from districts previously comprising the northern part of the Dhaka division. There are different estimates of disability prevalence reported in Bangladesh, arising from distinct survey instruments. Tareque and colleagues [10] defined ‘activities in daily living limitations’ as an inability to perform usual daily activities such as eating, dressing, and bathing and ‘physical limitations’ as difficulty squat- ting, lifting objects weighing 5 kg or more, walking about 1 km, and climbing stairs (2–3 steps). They reported that the prevalence of activities in daily living limitations was 2.7% and the prevalence of physical limitations was 42.6% among the elderly in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh. Using data from Bangladesh’s Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES)-2010, Tareque and colleagues [11] found that 39% of males and 46% of females aged 60 years and over had a disability. The HIES adopted the Washington Group’ s (WG) short-set of questions on disability. Tareque and colleagues [11] created a cut-off with 2 groups from 4 response categories of the WG ’ s six questions on disability as “yes (yes, some difficulty / yes, severe difficulty / yes, can't see/hear/walk/remember/self- care/communicate at all) ” and “ no (no difficulty) ” for con- ceptualizing disability as having at least one among the six limitations (vision, hearing, walking and climbing, remem- bering and concentrating, self-care, and speaking and communicating) in their study. Using data from respon- dents aged 5 years and over from the same HIES-2010, Tareque and colleagues [12] used the same cut-off as the previously mentioned study [11] and reported that 9% of males and 11% of females in Bangladesh had a disability.
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A new perspective on gender differences in student self-perceptions of ability in mathematics

A new perspective on gender differences in student self-perceptions of ability in mathematics

For this study, the initial analysis involved using a number of methods to evaluate the psychometric quality of the Possible Mathematical Selves measure using SPSS 16.0. Initially, the descriptive statistics were checked to confirm that the data were normal and had no outliers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was the preliminary technique used to identify factors that statistically explain the variation and covariation among the items in the measure. After determining the indicators of the possible selves constructs, both item analysis procedures were completed for each factor and composite scores for possible mathematical selves were correlated with the Self-Efficacy and Value measures to establish construct validity. In addition, internal consistency estimates of reliability were calculated for the Possible Mathematical Selves measures.
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Self-Efficacy and Future Adult Roles: Gender Differences in Adolescents’ Perceptions

Self-Efficacy and Future Adult Roles: Gender Differences in Adolescents’ Perceptions

In regard to risk-taking behaviors, adolescent males reported a significantly higher level of delinquent behavior, as compared to females. This is to be expected, as researchers have consistently demonstrated higher levels of delinquency among teenage boys, relative to girls. Adolescent males also reported higher rates of substance use. Males reported higher usage of cigarettes, higher consumption of alcohol, and a higher usage rate of marijuana, as compared to females. These higher rates of substance use by males are, again, not surprising. What remains to be understood, however, is how these differences may influence perceptions of self-efficacy in future roles. Table 3 presents the ordinary least squares regression models of adolescents’ perceptions of self-efficacy as a future spouse. Both the model for females and males are robust, and yield a substantial amount of explained variance. Among females, having two parents in the home is actually associated with a lower perception of self-efficacy (b = -.127). However, working longer hours outside of school is associated with a higher perception of self-efficacy (b = .027). Self-esteem, among females, has a strong positive association with perceptions of self-efficacy (b = .026). Of particular note, however, are the associations between the various marriage and parenthood expectations and girls’ perceptions of self-efficacy. As shown, adolescent females who want to marry and who have a more optimistic expectation about the stability of their future marriage seem to have a substantially higher perception of self-efficacy about being a spouse, one day (b = .293 and .253, respectively). Similarly, a higher expectation of having children is also positively associated with higher perceptions of self-efficacy among females (b = .077). None of the risk-taking factors (i.e., delinquency and substance use traits) yielded significant associations with adolescent females’ perceptions of self-efficacy as a future spouse
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A gendered self or a gendered context? A social identity approach to gender differences

A gendered self or a gendered context? A social identity approach to gender differences

Figure 7.1. Mean Number of Interdependent and Independent Traits Selected as a Function of Salient Social Context ............................................. 131 Figure 7.2. Self-Scores as a Function of Salient Social Context and Gender ...... 132 Figure 7.3. Mean Number of Interdependent and Independent Traits Selected as a Function of Gender ..................................................................... 139 Figure 7.4. Study 2: Self Scores as a Function of Gender ................................... 140 Figure 8.1. Importance of Care and Justice Considerations as a Function of Gender of Target................................................................................. 150 Figure 8.2. Perceived Identification with Other as a Function of Gender of Target and Gender of Participant........................................................ 152 Figure 8.4. Perceived Importance of Care and Justice Considerations as a Function of Group Membership. ......................................................... 157 Figure 8.4. Perceived Identification with Other as a Function of Group
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Critical Thinking and Gender Differences in Academic Self-regulation in Higher Education

Critical Thinking and Gender Differences in Academic Self-regulation in Higher Education

Self-monitoring, one of the sub-components of self-regulation studied in this article, occurs when an individual identifies whether or not a certain behavior has taken place (Nelson & Hayes, 1981). Self-monitoring encompasses an active involvement of the individual, and the occurrences of self-observing of a target behavior (Lee, Palmer, & Wehmeyer, 2009). It can also involve self-recording the regularity of the behavior (Lannie & Martens, 2008). It has been demonstrated that self-monitoring is promoted when self-assessment is accompanied by self-recording (Graham, MacArthur, Schwartz, & Page-Voth, 1992). The process of self-monitoring may also incorporate self- reinforcement for satisfying or enhancing an established criterion or purpose (Nelson & Hayes, 1981). The technique serves to increase or decrease target behavior(s) or skills (Lalli & Shapiro, 1990). Self-monitoring helps draw attention to an aspect of the student’s learning or academic production that needs to be accomplished (Lee et al., 2009).
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AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ONLINE BEHAVIOR, SELF-EFFICACY, AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ONLINE BEHAVIOR, SELF-EFFICACY, AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

Age differences in online behavior in non- academic environments such as online shop- ping and purchasing (Sorce, Perotti & Wid- rick, 2005) or Web search (Grahame, Laberge, & Scialfa, 2004) have been often discussed in the literature, but only a small number of stud- ies have been conducted to examine age differ- ences in adult learners’ online learning behavior in academic settings. Those studies revealed significant differences in online behavior due to age; however, it is difficult to conclude age-dependent online behavior based on the studies because of the contextual or missing definitions of “younger” and “older” used in the studies. For example, Hoskins and van Hooff (2005) reported from their study with 110 students that older students used the bulletin board to participate in discussions more often than younger students. In this study, only 10 of them were between 24 and 43 years of age and the rest of them were between 19 and 24. The average age was 20. Bradshaw and Johari (2003) reported in their study with 36 students that older students had to spend more time than younger learners in order to successfully complete online tasks. In this study, 16 participants were aged 17-25, 10 were between 26-35, and 10 were 36 or older. They did not report the average age. Wyatt (2005) reported in his study that older students indicated that online instruction provided bet- ter quality of academic experience compared to how younger learners thought it to be, but the researcher did not report the age range of the participants.
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Examining Gender Differences in Self-disclosure on Facebook Versus Face-to-Face

Examining Gender Differences in Self-disclosure on Facebook Versus Face-to-Face

Self-disclosure, however, might not only differ between genders, but also between online and offline relationships. Due to missing nonverbal and contextual cues in computer-mediated relationships, some researchers (e.g., Cummings, Butler, & Kraut, 2000; Mesch & Talmud, 2006) have suggested that offline relationships are charac- terized by higher interdependence, and greater breadth and depth of self-disclosure. For example, an individual might self-disclose to their Facebook friends less than to their face-to-face friends because they cannot see each other’s facial expressions and gestures. This “cues-filtered out approach” was popular in early 1990s. Later, it was challenged by the findings showing that people disclose personal information and therefore develop relationships through computer- mediated communication (CMC) (e.g., Cho, 2006; Walther, 1996). Even further, Walther (1995) proposed the hyperpersonal model ac- cording to which individuals compensate for the limitations of CMC by hyperpersonalizing their interactions and actually disclosing more than they do face-to-face. When individuals are motivated and al- lowed sufficient time to exchange social information, relationships via CMC develop at the same pace as those established through face-to- face interaction (Walther & Burgoon, 1992; Walther, 1996).
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ASSESSING CONSUMERS ADOPTION OF SELF SERVICE BANKING IN INDIA: GENDER DIFFERENCES

ASSESSING CONSUMERS ADOPTION OF SELF SERVICE BANKING IN INDIA: GENDER DIFFERENCES

Hypothesis 6: perceived risk will have negative and significant impact on perceived ease of use to use self service banking more strongly for women than for men. (PR -> PEOU) Self efficacy/ Capability : Social learning theory states that psychological proceduresalter expectations of personal efficacy (Bandura, 1977, p. 79). For the current paper self efficacy refers to an individual’s perception of his/her ability to complete a task using technology. Therefore, as per social learning theory if an individual perceives that he/she does not have the capability to learn the technology the behavioral intentions would be inhibited. Research has supported this perception and has indicated that an individual’s perceptions of his/herself efficacy influence what actionsto take, how much effort to invest and how long to try and what strategies to use in the face of challenging situations (Patrick Y Chau, 2001; Igbaria & Iivari, 1995; Yi & Hwang, 2003). Most of the self services banking methods require use of technology therefore capability was included as an external variable in the study. Gender based studies in context of computer literacy indicate that women have more computer and internet related anxiety and men had higher self efficacy then men(Durndell & Haag, 2002; Ong & Lai, 2006; Schwarzer, Bassler, Kwiatek, Schroder, & Zhang, 1997). Results show that the reason for this is parents support and encouragement where boys seem to indicate a greater support as compared to girls(Busch, 1995). Extending the results it can be argued that as India is a patriarchal society where boys are encouraged more in majority of aspects the construct of self efficacy would be a strong driver or inhibitor of behavioral intentions. Therefore, the current study tests the hypothesis based on the proposition that self efficacy influences the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness more in women than in men. Hypothesis 7: Capability will have significant impact on perceived usefulness to use self service banking more strongly for women than for men. (C -> PU)
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Gender differences in self-concept consistency and career choices under stereotype threat

Gender differences in self-concept consistency and career choices under stereotype threat

An additional task-related measure-related limitation is the use of the IAT. The predictive validity of the IAT is less certain when motivational factors (e.g., need for cognition) are unaccounted for. There is also a lack of strong evidence that the IAT effects are indeed implicit as the IAT does show a weak correlation with traditional (i.e., explicit) measures (see Blanton et al., 2009; Fazio & Olson, 2003; De Houwer, Teige- Mocigemba, Spuryt, & Moors, 2009 for detailed exploration of these issues). The results from these past studies indicate while the IAT is a good measure of associations between concepts, there is also evidence to suggest that the scoring, norming, and application of the D score lacks real world validity (see Blanton & Jaccard, 2006 for review), thus it may not provide a comprehensive view of working self-concept measurements, especially since the working self-concept is dependent on a person’s goals and motivations. Therefore, it is uncertain whether the IAT actually measures the stereotypical associations that an individual has.
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Gender differences in risky asset behavior: the importance of self-confidence and financial literacy

Gender differences in risky asset behavior: the importance of self-confidence and financial literacy

Following the literature on consumer finance (e.g. Guisso et al., 2002; Campbell, 2006), we model participation in risky assets (ownership of stocks and/or bonds) as a function of basic socio-economic characteristics such as economic resources and employment status, education, age, and marital status. Most importantly, we are able to control for measured financial literacy, risk aversion, and confidence in own financial capabilities. A description of the variables entering our empirical analysis is provided in appendix (Table A1).

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Gender differences in coping strategies of undergraduate students and their                impact on self-esteem and attainment

Gender differences in coping strategies of undergraduate students and their impact on self-esteem and attainment

Analysis revealed gender to be a key determinant in academic success, with females attaining at a significantly higher level than males. Such findings are consistent with previous research (Richardson and Woodley, 2003; Smith and Naylor, 2001; Tinklin, 2003). Significant differences were also seen in self-esteem and coping styles between males and female partici- pants, with males exhibiting higher self-esteem, greater ability to detach themselves from the emotions of a situation and more inclination to demonstrate emotional inhibition or ‘bottling up’ of emotions. In line with Ptacek et al. (1994) this suggests that in terms of the coping strategies adopted, males have a tendency to avoid using emotion-focused approaches in contrast to females who predominantly use this approach. Further, the results lend support to the notion that individuals high in self-esteem tend to perceive situations as controllable and react with a strategy aimed at changing the cause of the problem (Dodgson and Wood, 1989).
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I feel good! Gender differences and reporting heterogeneity in self assessed health

I feel good! Gender differences and reporting heterogeneity in self assessed health

Moreover, health relevant behaviour and experiences with a severe or chronic illness are included in the data set. The latter information is more related to sick- ness than the self-reported health but still a subjective measure. According to Kerkhofs and Lindeboom [5], we try to objectify this illness reporting. To con- struct our disease index, we make use of the binary variable “health problems” and regress this variable on a set of ten dummy variables indicating various forms of diseases. By doing so, we are able to weight the impact of the different illness- es on the variable “health problems”. Considering the structure of the dataset, we run this regression separately for every year and imputation and also for males and females. The prediction of the regression is then transformed to the continu- ous variable “disease index” ranging from 0 to 100 with mean 50 and a standard deviation of 10. Furthermore, the use of this objectified variable goes along with more variation in the explanatory variables. Therefore, a higher value of the index indicates a higher degree of multimorbidity. In comparison with the gender- specific average, an above-average index points to more illness-related problems (relatively).
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Differences in females' math and science self-efficacy based on gender-type socialization and gender role type

Differences in females' math and science self-efficacy based on gender-type socialization and gender role type

The use of the Sex-Role Orientation scale may also have been a limitation to this study. Many of the statements participants were asked to respond to are not used today or not used as overtly as in the past. It is also interesting to speculate the possible reasons why almost all participants reported being raised in a home with non-traditional gender- type socialization. One possibility is that very few families continue to hold strict rules for what women and men should do. The findings could also lead to the speculation that, whether female teachers choose to teach subjects relying heavily on advanced
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Differences in Work Ethic Among Job Seekers Grouped by Employment Status, Age and Gender

Differences in Work Ethic Among Job Seekers Grouped by Employment Status, Age and Gender

Skilled craftsmanship was the second form of work in colonial America. The skilled craftsman was an individual who owned his own tools, possessed a skill, and generally learned a trade from another master craftsman (Applebaum, 1998). The skilled craftsman’s work was task oriented and not time oriented. The skilled craftsman, or artisan, took great pride in work and valued integrity and diligence. These workers wanted to earn a decent living and were less interested in accumulating wealth. Rock, Gilje and Ashner (1995) described three aspects of the artisan’s work ethic in colonial America. One was the Puritan ethic that valued work for the spirit of industry and for the frugality oriented toward the common good. The second aspect was one of a free government that supported the accumulation of wealth through hard work. The third aspect was self-control and self-reliance that led to economic independence for an individual and his family. Weber’s view of the Protestant ethic and capitalism shared these three aspects (Weber, 1905).
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IDENTIFYING THE EMPLOYMENT SKILLS AMONG MALAYSIAN VOCATIONAL STUDENTS: AN ANALYSIS OF GENDER DIFFERENCES

IDENTIFYING THE EMPLOYMENT SKILLS AMONG MALAYSIAN VOCATIONAL STUDENTS: AN ANALYSIS OF GENDER DIFFERENCES

This present study is significant from the academic and industry point of view. It helps in bringing awareness amongst youth male as well as female towards plethora of job opportunities offered by the industry and to encourage them to choose for hospitality as career so as to fulfil the man force requirement of the industry. It analyses the reasons that cause this imbalance between two genders and the same can be rectified. The study is equally important for the administrators and policy makers as the various reasons responsible for forming negative perception can be known and thus amended. The research aims to examine the differences in competency perceived level by gender for vocational students majoring in hospitality.
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