The connection between children’s play and the development of mathematical thinking and understanding is not a new phenomenon. Childhood activities including play with water, blocks (Jarrell, 1998), and construction toys such as Lego (Lowrie, 2002), provide opportunities for **game**-play contexts which stimulate mathematical thinking. Provided these **game**-play opportunities are “embedded in cultural practices that make sense to the participants” meaningful learning can take place—even if the practices are in simulated forms” (van Oers, 2010). Recent technological advances, particularly in relation to visual and spatial stimuli, have extended the opportunities and possibilities of **game** **playing**. Indeed, a range of children’s games that were previously only in a concrete (three- dimensional) form, are now reproduced in digital forms (e.g., puzzles, board games, and sporting activities). To some extent, these activities require different forms of processing and thinking (Gee, 2007). In addition, some digital games go beyond the representational scope of more traditional games, with opportunities for dynamic representations of information increasingly available. These digital-rich contexts present the opportunity for meaningful **mathematics** engagement both within the confines of the **game** and beyond— and consequently become a catalyst for meaning making (Lowrie, 2003). As such, ‘new’ technologies, and the patterns of individuals’ social behaviour(s) have an influence on children’s **mathematics** engagement. This investigation describes primary-aged **students** engagement in games-based technologies and considers the impact such technologies have on **mathematics** engagement.

Show more
14 Read more

a child’s view of science through attitudes and the provision of science-positive experiences (Bhanot & Jovanovic, 2009; Crowley, Callanan, Tenenbaum, & Allen, 2001; Frome & Eccles, 1998; Jodl, Michael, Malanchuk, Eccles, & Sameroff, 2001; Lynch, 2002). While the present study investigated attitudes and self- efficacy in Grade 8 **students**, these are also likely shaped by experiences earlier in their education (Halpern, Aronson, et al., 2007; Simpkins et al., 2005). Given that some cultures showed negligible **gender** **differences** in science attitudes or even a small female preference, educational interventions and a concerted effort to provide early science learning opportunities may be warranted for those countries where girls report less interest than boys in learning science (Halpern, Aronson, et al., 2007; Shapiro & Williams, 2012). This is particularly important for countries where the general level of science interest is already low. Eccles (2007) noted that interest in science is often related to perceived relevance to future careers, and the compatibility between science and feminine life goals and values. Parents can play a role in encouraging girls to cultivate an interest in science through early science-enrichment activities for their daughters (Newcombe & Frick, 2010), and stressing the relevance of learning science to future occupational aspirations that have an impact on people and communities (Rozek, Hyde, Svoboda, Hulleman, & Harackiewicz, 2014).

Show more
24 Read more

primary teachers may pursue different goal orientations in their teaching, and through their instructional practices they signal to **students** that the point of school work is to learn and progress, or to perform better. several studies provide evidence that **students** adopt the goal orientation emphasized through teacher’s use of instructional strategies, and the importance of **students**’ perceptions of the learning environment is underlined. to date, the knowledge about teachers’ beliefs and instructional practices in **mathematics** at the lowest primary grade levels is limited. in addition, studies focusing on **differences** in the learning environment created by male and female teachers through their use of teaching strategies are sparse. however, research findings show that female teachers tend to be more student-centred and supportive of **students** than male teachers. in the present study female teachers report somewhat higher levels of mastery goal structure for **students** and mastery approaches to instruction, while male teachers report a somewhat higher level of performance approaches to instruction. positive relationships were also found between **students**’ math performance and female teachers’ mastery orientation, mastery approaches to instruction and teaching efficacy, respectively. these relations are somewhat stronger for girls than for boys. for the male teachers the relationships between the teacher constructs and student math performance are clearly different. the relatively small sample of male teachers constitutes a serious limitation for the interpretation of these findings. the **gender** **differences** that were registered may, however, serve as an interesting starting point for further research. in future studies qualitative research methods should be included, and female and male teachers’ interaction with female and male **students** should be explored more closely.

Show more
12 Read more

learners when utilizing digital **game**-based learning (DGBL) for supplemental **mathematics** instruction when compared to gifted learners not utilizing DGBL. This study compared the Student Growth Percentile (SGP) of 105 sixth-grade gifted participants from two public middle schools as measured by the Renaissance Learning STAR Math Test. The participants took a pretest, completed 540 minutes of supplemental **mathematics** instruction over a nine-week period, and took a posttest. Participants were randomly selected for the treatment group who utilized a variety of DGBL activities, or participants were randomly selected for the control group who utilized traditional, paper-based **mathematics** activities. Independent-samples t-tests were used to analyze the SGP between the participants utilizing DGBL and participants not utilizing DGBL, males utilizing DGBL and males not utilizing DGBL, and females utilizing DGBL and females not utilizing DGBL. The importance of this study is to provide educators with knowledge about enhanced instructional technology practices above the prescribed curriculum that may facilitate levels of student achievement for gifted **students**. No statistical **differences** in the SGP were found between the treatment group and the control group. Recommendations for further research include the use of specific DGBL games to reduce variations in quality from one publisher to the next, the inclusion of participants from diverse geographic regions, ethnicities, and socioeconomic levels, and data collection over a sustained period of time.

Show more
122 Read more

Further, majority of the heads of **mathematics** departments attested to using non technical terms when explaining mathematical concepts to girls. Steinberg (2007) explains that the habit of wrapping mathematical concepts in non technical terms causes girls to perceive themselves as lacking in **mathematics** ability. Moreover, in the process of teaching girls, teachers set up expectations that girls would have difficulties with assignments by offering help before it is required. This denies the girls the opportunity to explore, discover and solve **mathematics** problems on their own. Hence, the girls are unable to develop **mathematics** confidence. Furthermore, the psychological distress that teachers suffer in trying to simplify mathematical concepts with girls may justify why all the heads of **mathematics** departments preferred teaching boys to girls.

Show more
The case studies were conducted in a quasi-experimental controlled setting, with classes of bachelor and graduate **students** from universities in the Netherlands, the United States and Germany. Although a total of 172 **students** participated in the actual study, we could only use only the data from 169 **students** for the **gender** study and 164 **students** for the cultural **differences** study, due to incomplete surveys or student refusal to provide data to the study. Among the **students** considered for the **gender** study, 95 **students** were male, and 74 **students** were female. Among the 164 **students** considered for the culture study, the nationalities of the **students** included Dutch (42), Chinese (39), American (37), German (16), Indian (9), Taiwanese (5), Vietnamese (3), Colombian (2), Pakistani (2), Greek (2), South Korean (2), Costa Rican (1), Ecuadorian (1), Finnish (1), French (1), Syrian (1). 41 additional **students** participated in a pre-test of the experimental sessions. Their results were excluded from the reported data, as they played a pre-final version of the **game** to support the development of the **game** itself. 26 **students** from a Dutch University participated in the YCS3 study. Of the 26 **students**, 11 were female and 15 were male. The mean age of the participants was 23.3 with a standard deviation of 1.7. The majority of the participants were Dutch (20), followed by three Chinese **students**, and one each from Belgium, Mexico and Greece. We received the approval of the Institutional Review Board of the University of Maryland and the Human Research Ethics Committee of Delft University of Technology to conduct this research study with **students**.

Show more
10 Read more

appropriate for determining **students**’ hoped for and feared possible selves. Although possible selves were originally designed to assess adolescents’ future perceptions, this study’s sample was made up of almost 50% six-graders who ranged in age from 11 to 12 years old. Thus almost half the sample had just entered adolescence. Previous research where **gender** **differences** were found for possible selves was with college **students** who were taking more advance courses in **mathematics** (Lips, 1995, 2004). Middle school **students** may not have had enough experience with **mathematics** to formulate self- perceptions of ability in **mathematics**, especially for items assessing a future self (e.g., “For me it is possible to get a job that requires math skills”).

Show more
38 Read more

Aremu (1999) reported that boys are better than girls in **Mathematics** and other science subjects while Ton (2003) found that girls out performed boys in some other school subjects. Gisela (2011) examined the influence of **gender** on achievement and found that, male and female **students** tend to perform differently in various subject areas of education. **Mathematics**, science and reading are traditional subjects that are prone to obvious achievement **gender** gaps. Male **students** tend to be more motivated to achieve better in **Mathematics** and science subjects while female **students** perform better in readings. Obioye (2002), in a study, reported that sex is a factor in school **Mathematics** achievement. On the general trend, in Nigeria, Obioye asserts that male learners tend to achieve higher in **Mathematics** than their female counterparts. Hanna and Kuendiger (1999) reported a pattern of achievement results in **Mathematics** which indicated that girls were more successful than boys in Belgium, Thailand, Finland, Hungary; but least in France, Nigeria, Israel and the Netherlands. Inomiesa (1994) and Okwo (1991), showed no **gender** **differences** in academic achievement in school subjects

Show more
11 Read more

Available literature has not been able to identify a single direction of difference in performance in **mathematics** between male and female **students** subject to the inequalities in their physiological structures (Kadiri, 2004). Although most researchers have found boys performing better than girls (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) especially on higher order knowledge, a few others saw girls out-performing boys while some others established no significant difference particularly during early education. A review of some **gender** based studies that were carried out between 1985 and 1995 by Brandy & Eister (1995) showed that there is a considerable inconsistency in the literature as to the nature, extent and sources of bias in the differential performances between boys and girls in **mathematics**. They noted that with the inconsistent findings and significant methodological flaws observed, more empirical researches are needed to investigate the existence of **gender** bias in the classroom. Report of Tyson’s (1996) study on the differential performance of girls on standardized multiple choice **mathematics** achievement tests, compared to constructed response tests of reasoning and problem solving showed that males performed significantly better than females on the pretest although no significant **differences** were found on the post-test. The pretest difference was explained as a measure of difference in the pre-requisite knowledge of the two sexes.

Show more
10 Read more

There is a body of research that indicates that there is a relationship between statistics anxiety and attitudes towards statistics with college **students**. DeVaney (2010) in a study of 27 on- campus (5 male, 22 female) and 93 online graduate **students** (18 male, 75 female) found that an inverse relationship between statistics and attitudes towards statistics with “…**students** in the online classes generally had higher levels of anxiety and less favorable attitudes towards statistics” (p. 9). Perepiczka, Chandler, & Becerra (2011) in a study of 166 graduate **students** (30 male, 136 female) found a negative correlation between statistical anxiety and self-efficacy to learn statistics (r = -.679), a positive correlation between self-efficacy to learn statistics and attitudes towards statistics (r = .708), with statistics anxiety and attitudes towards statistics negatively and significantly correlated (r = -.832). Additionally, statistics anxiety and attitudes towards statistics were statistically significant predictors of self-efficacy to learn statistics. Dempster & McCorry (2009) found that attitudes towards statistics and prior experience of **mathematics** and statistics were predictors of statistics assessment at an undergraduate level. Mills (2004) found that **students** who felt confident about being able to master material in an introductory statistics class exhibited very positive attitudes about statistics. Lacasse & Chiocchio (2005) in a study of 68 **students** (14 male, 54 female) found a negative relationship between statistics anxiety and attitudes towards learning statistics (r = -.41, p < .05). They indicate that “anxiety towards statistics negatively affects performance, interest, and desire to learn statistics in a psychometrics class” (p. 3).

Show more
14 Read more

difference in achievement between sexes (t (98) = 0.68, p< 0.1) and also a significant relationship exists between self-efficacy and achievement (r=0.385, at 0.01 level with 98 degree of freedom). Mishra and Shanwal (2014) studied. Role of Family Environment in Developing Self Efficacy of Adolescents The results showed positive association between family environment and self-efficacy. Ansari and Khan (2014) studied Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Life Satisfaction among Undergraduate **Students** and findings of the present study showed that Self-efficacy and Life Satisfaction significantly correlated with each other and Self-Efficacy had its significant impact on Life Satisfaction among under-graduate **students**. Kvedere (2014) studied **Mathematics** Self-efficacy, Self- concept and Anxiety Among 9 th Grade **Students** in Latvia and found Boys have more positive mathematical self than girls and **students** who come from bigger cities and towns have more negative mathematical self than those from rural areas. Sharma and Rani (2014) studied Self Efficacy – A Comparison among University Postgraduates in Demographic Profiles and findings revealed that university postgraduates were not found to differ significantly by age-groups but significant **differences** were observed among university postgraduates by **gender**, locality and faculty. Goulão (2014) studied Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement in Adults’ Learners and analysis of the data indicated that **students**’ level of self-efficacy is high (average=45) and a significant relationship exists between self-efficacy and academic achievement (r=0.286, at 0.05 level). Ahmadi et al. (2014) studied the Relationship of Academic Self-Efficacy and Self- regulation with Academic Performance among the High School **Students** with School Refusal Behavior and Normal **Students**. Findings showed that: 1) the relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic performance in two groups was positive and significant; 2) the relationship between self-regulation and academic performance in two groups was positive and significant; 3) the Fisher-Z test showed no significant difference between two groups regarding to the relationships of the variables to academic performance, 4) the multiple correlation coefficient of predictor variables with academic performance was significant; 5) self-regulation was found as a good predictor of academic performance in two groups. Sharma and Garg (2015) studied Impact of Self-Efficacy on Employee Attrition: a Study

Show more
and the 4G Internet have become an almost essential part of daily life since their rapid growth and popularity in today’s world. A nationwide survey conducted in 2010 shows that mobile phones are the most necessary medium of communication. There is the conflicting priority of young people, parents, and teachers in relation to the mobile phone device, with teachers more concerned about issues such as discipline and disturbance in the classroom and parents worried about means of contacting their children at every point in time. The entry of smartphone, the evolution of social media like Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, Twitter, WhatsApp, and affordable data plans, smartphone leads to excess data use which creates problems in the last five years. A famous quote of Chanakya (371 - 283 B.C) - "Everything in excess acts like a poison". Now excess use of internet causes multiple problems (Loan, 2011). The problems are found in both male and female. Now a day’s parents started providing all facility to their daughters equally with son, which is one of the reasons the percentage of girls in higher education is increasing every year. Parents are providing them hostel, smartphone all necessary things equal to sons. Male and female **students** differ in spending their time on the Internet. Female **students** spend more time on researching and gathering information for their study, and male **students** spend more time online **playing** games (Horvat, Oreski, Markic, 2014). The set of the most popular online activities is similar for both sexes, including checking e-mails, surfing or browsing the Web, and looking for news. The most significant **gender** difference in Internet usage patterns lies in men’s greater interest in the entertainment function of the medium (Anna Bujała,2012). There is a strong positive relationship between using the internet for educational practices such as active and collaborative learning and student-faculty interaction. (Laird and Kuh 2004). **Students** of business and commerce lead in using the internet for information, **students** of computer science use it predominantly for communication purposes and **students** of social sciences and humanities use it for education purposes compared to others. Information overload is the most common problem faced by **students** of all faculties while searching the relevant information (Loan 2011). The excessive internet usage adversely affects one’s physical health, family life and academic performance of the **students**. Academic problems caused by internet addiction include a decrease in study habits, drop in marks, poor attendance and poor participation in extracurricular activities. (Akhter 2013). The **students** spend 3 to 5 hours daily on the internet.

Show more
The semi-structured interview guidelines contain six questions and one focus-group interview lasts for around 20 to 30 minutes. The purpose of the interview is to have a deeper understanding of findings from survey about SATM, SMGS and the relationship between SATM and SMGS. Therefore, interview questions are mainly constructed in the form of “what”, “how” and “why” to explore **students**’ relevant learning experiences that impact their construction of attitudes towards **mathematics**. The structure of interview guidelines follows the salient aspects of the questionnaire including enjoyment, usefulness, anxiety, changes of attitudes, and math-**gender** stereotypes. For example, in order to investigate the extent to which **students** enjoy **mathematics**, participants are asked whether they like or dislike **mathematics** followed with sharing their relevant experiences and underpinning reasons. The aspect of anxiety is revealed by asking questions: “Do you feel anxious/nervous or relax when learning **mathematics**? How about in **mathematics** classes, during **mathematics** exam, and when doing **mathematics** homework?” The usefulness of **mathematics** is also explored through asking about participants’ experience of using **mathematics** in daily life, and about their potential opportunity to use **mathematics** in future life. Particularly, in order to make a comparison to survey findings about how SATM differs from Year 4 to Year 6 and the underpinning reasons, participants would be asked to describe their general attitudes towards **mathematics** this year and how different/similar these were compared with last year, and they would also be asked to share relevant experiences causing such results. SMGS is explored through asking **students** about **gender** **differences** or similarities in the contexts of learning **mathematics** and mathematical problem solving. Since it is the interview guideline, some more questions would be raised based on interviewees’ responses during the interview process.

Show more
178 Read more

This study adopted an ex-post facto research design. The population was made up of all the Junior Secondary School **Students** in Ekiti State, Nigeria while a sample of 840 **students** of both sexes were drawn from 2006 and 2007 Junior Secondary School Certifi cate Examinations (JSSCE) in Ekiti-State, Nigeria. The selection was done using stratifi ed random sampling technique, taking into consideration, the **gender** of the **students** and the type of school attended (private or public) from 20 Junior Secondary Schools. The sample was made in such a way that it cut across all the three senatorial districts of the Ekiti State, the which are: Ekiti North, which comprises fi ve local government areas, Ekiti Central which comprises fi ve local government areas, and Ekiti South which comprises six Local Government Areas. In all, 280 **students** were purposively selected from each of the three senatorial districts. The

Show more
13 Read more

The study used the descriptive survey type of research design. A total of 390 out of 471 first year BS **Mathematics** **students** of Bulacan State University who were enrolled during the first semester of School Year 2016-2017 were the subjects of this study. The researcher intended to use the total population of the first year BS **Mathematics** **students**, however, those who were not included were the **students** who were absent during the conduct of the survey or those who dropped the course Pre-Calculus II before the conduct of the survey. A short orientation on the purpose of the study was conducted and their participation is voluntary. Moreover, they were informed that they can stop and withdraw their participation even during the conduct of the survey. The **Mathematics** Self-efficacy and Anxiety Questionnaire developed and validated by May [17] was the main survey instrument used in this study. This instrument is used to explore how the **students** conceptualize their ability and fear towards **mathematics**. However, since this current study would only focus on exploring the influence of **mathematics** anxiety on student’s academic achievement, the researcher chose the items relating to student’s **mathematics** anxiety. A total of 16 out of 29 items were retained. Each items describes student’s fear relating to math class and the respondents need to rate how frequent they experience that feeling. Moreover, four factors were identified when analyzing student’s **mathematics** anxiety: grade factor, future factor, in- class factor, and assignment factor. The first factor reflected the **students**’ apprehensions their ability to get good grade in math. The Future factor includes **students**’ worries about using **mathematics** in their future careers, including with their apprehensions about

Show more
There is no significant difference between boys and girls in the understanding of the language of **mathematics**. This results suggests that, during the teaching and learning process, **mathematics** teachers should teach the language of **mathematics** the same way other spoken languages are taught. This approach would enable **students** to construct meaning internally, understanding what is asked, develops a correct plan in order to solve a problem and carrying out the plan. Therefore, deliberate efforts should be made to teach from simple language of **mathematics** to complex language of **mathematics** as an objective. Testing of the **students**’ understanding of the language of **mathematics** should start earlier in different schools, districts, and regional levels. When setting assignments, teachers should emphasize increasing **students**’ awareness and comprehension of mathematical concepts. Adopting these assessment techniques will allow **mathematics** teachers to direct **students**’ thinking towards the understanding of the language of **mathematics**.

Show more
Researches have been carried out to determine **gender** **differences** in **mathematics** achievement, some of the research results have shown significant **differences** while some did not show any difference. For instance, Zhang and Manon (2000) in Oluwatayo (2011) reported that males had a larger variance in **mathematics** scores than females, moreover females tended to outperform males among the low achieving **students** while males tended to outperform females among the high achieving **students**. Abiam and Odok (2006) reported no significant relationship between **gender** and achievement in number and numeration, algebraic processes, statistics and a weak significant relationship in Geometry and Trigonometry. Hyde, Fennema, and Lamon (1990) in Savitas and Akdemir (2009) through meta-analysis revealed that males tend to do better on **mathematics** tests that involves problem-solving while female tend to do better in computation, and there is no significant **gender** difference in understanding **mathematics** concepts. Akhateeb (2001) reported that females outperformed males in **mathematics** achievement.

Show more
In addition, a close review of past studies indicates inconsistent research results regarding the impacts of computer games on adolescentsÕ lives. Some researchers ar- gue that computer games may enhance the playersÕ self-conﬁdence, social skills, and so on (e.g., Favaro, 1982; Smith, Curtin, & Newman, 1995), while others note that over-involvement in computer games may lead to academic or other problems (e.g., Roe & Muijs, 1998). The present researchers speculate that the impacts of computer games are multi-dimensional, that is, the impacts on any individual might be both positive and negative, simultaneously. However, negative impacts are usually dem- onstrated by explicit behaviors, and are thus more obvious and easily observed (e.g., poor grades, lost sleep, health problems, etc.). Since relevant empirical data in this ﬁeld are scarce in Taiwan, the present researchers began tackling this issue by investigating the general impacts of computer games on subjectsÕ daily lives before attempting to explore implicit psychological gains or losses (e.g., enhanced self-con- ﬁdence, personality development, etc.). We employed self-reports and self-ratings from Taiwan **game** players in order to examine playersÕ evaluations of the impacts of **game** **playing** on their own lives.

Show more
13 Read more

In a comparative study by Kauchana (2002), **gender** **differences** in **Mathematics** self-concept of Indian and American undergraduate college **students** was investigated. The sample consisted of 196 American **students** (63 male and 133 female) and 150 Indian **students** (45 male and 105 female) from Chennai, India. A self-concept description questionnaire intended for use by adolescents and young adults 16 to 25 years was used. For the Indian sample, the mean score for males and females were 4.82 and 4.18 respectively, and the results indicated that male college **students** has a significant higher **Mathematics** self-concept (t = .17, p < 0.01) than female college **students**. However, difference in **Mathematics** self-concept between Indian **students** (mean = 4.38) and American **students** (mean = 4.51) did not reach statistical significance. In his view, it is indeed a challenge to the Indian culture, to enhance the self-concept of all **students**, while retaining the sense of belongingness of both the sexes. The findings in the above mentioned studies appear to support the notion that boys have higher **Mathematics** self-concept than girls; however, some studies have reported contradictory findings.

Show more
15 Read more

athematics anxiety is one of the most important problems for many **students**. “**mathematics** anxiety involves feelings of tension and anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations” (Richardson & Suinn, 1972, p. 551). However, Byrd (1982) accepted this kind of definition as deficient both from conceptualization of **mathematics** and also from conceptualization of anxiety perspectives. Thus, it should be regarded from a larger perspective as a complex construct consisting of “affective, behavioral and cognitive responses to a perceived threat to self- esteem which occurs as a response to situations involving **mathematics**” (Atkinson, 1988). Generally, high level of anxiety is more closely associated with lower performance among low ability **students** (Sena et al., 2007). **Mathematics** anxiety can be defined as a state of discomfort created when **students** are required to perform mathematical tasks (Cemen, 1987). However, there is no general consensus among the scholars on its causes and effects. In fact, **mathematics** anxiety is more than a dislike toward **mathematics** (Vinson, 2001). Thus it can be observed that mathematical basic skills or concepts acquired in lower form are vital for **students** (Siti & Rohani, 2010). The

Show more