We will enhance the service for employers reporting their data on the online gender pay gap reporting service and ensure the information is presented in a user-friendly way to help people understand the data. We will consider what additional information employers can and should upload to increase transparency about policies and initiatives to support genderequality, for example their family friendly policies or retention rates of employees returning from parental leave. We will also align with other transparency asks of employers, to maximise efficiency across government.
Apart from the obligation laid down by the Constitution, Maltese legislation in the Equality for Men and Women Act also deals with education and vocational guidance in Article 8. This Article states that it is unlawful for any educational establishment or for any other entity providing vocational training or guidance to discriminate against any person in the access to any course, vocational training or guidance or the award of educational support for students or trainees. This Act also goes into discrimination issues in the giving of the education itself when it states that it is unlawful to discriminate in the selection and implementation of the curricula or in the assessment of the skills or knowledge of the students or trainees. This Act makes no distinction between Government-run educational or vocational training establishments and privately-run ones. Article 8(3) also states that it is the duty of these educational entities and those entities which provide vocational training to ensure that curricula and textbooks do not propagate discrimination. It is in fact the duty of educators to ensure that equality is promulgated at a very early stage in children’s lives and education because it is only through education that attitudes will change and real equality be achieved.
d) women who are working or have had work experience have more liberal attitudes compared to men who are not working or have not had any work experience. Moreover, the social change theory explains the mechanisms that may cause transformations in beliefs and attitudes. According to this the- ory, two key mechanisms – cohort replacement and intra- cohort change lead to the process of attitudinal changes. Co- hort replacement, which is more relevant to this study, is char- acterized by the assumption that there is a formation of beliefs and attitudes during childhood and youthful stages which be- come a part of the person as an adult. Formative experiences include the political, social and economic situation that an in- dividual was born and raised, and this shapes peoples’ beliefs and attitudes (Mannheim 1952; Ryder 1965). Hence, every cohort is likely to be different taking into account their forma- tive experiences, that is, the political, social and economic sit- uation they experienced at the formative period (Voicu, Tufiş 2012). The end result is social change, where younger cohorts replace older cohorts and attitudinal changes are then passed on to generations. Therefore, we should expect a strong influ- ence of age in attitudes towards genderequality and I derive my fifth hypothesis:
If a new out of town office complex offers limited public transport access and unsupervised car parking, then this may deter or prevent women taking jobs in this location. The relationship between travel distances and the distribution of employment opportunities is particularly important for women in the local plan area. As gender mainstreaming works its way into the system, ‘good practice’ will be evident through increased social topics and lateral policy links appearing on the planning department’s agenda.
More nuanced results have also been documented in the literature. Ferreira and Gyorko (2011) and Campa (2011) do not find any significant influence from increasing female representation in USA towns and Spanish municipalities respectively. According to Ferreira and Gyorko, the sex of the mayor (from the results of political elections) has no significant effect on the size of the local government, spending composition, rate of employment and level of criminality. Clots-Figueras (2011) also present interesting results. The author’s work suggest that female -politicians from unprivileged or cast tribes invest more in social (education and health) and distribution on the one hand and on the other hand, on laws favoring the economic rights of women. On the contrary, female legislators from superior or privileged casts do not have any incidence on the laws favourable to women and show less concern over social issues, compared to their counterparts. Kodila-Tedika (2013) shows that female representation leads to an improvement of genderequality in political rights; but unfortunately, do not influence the legislature on violence against women and a simple correlation with economic rights of the African woman.
Results of the research conducted by Marie Charles and Karen Bradley in 2009 (with the sample consisting of 44 industrial and transitional countries, as well as countries in development) confirms that some forms of segregation are more present within societies which are esteemed as socially and culturally most developed, such as, gender can shape career, and it’s supported by the increase of the gender-based career and educational choices. Great- er tendency of academic fields segregation with regard to the economic development has influenced the differences between the causes of such processes within transition- al and countries in development and advanced industrial societies. The tendency for segregation increases within countries in development and transitional countries as BDP increases (Charles & Bradley, 2009).
In the field of health, the main area where serious GenderEquality concerns exist is the sphere of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). Most health indicators in SRHR are especially worrying: high maternal mortality, low prevalence of contraceptive use and low percentages of births in the presence of skilled birth attendants. This is largely due to insufficient donor funding and political commitment. Therefore, it is crucial to invest in SRHR. Not only does an increased investment in SRHR constitute a basic human right, it also produces many concrete benefits. These extend from improving the overall health of individuals and families, to promoting economic growth, and contributing to GenderEquality and social inclusion.
The spread of information about genderequality should start from the early age, because as A. Tereškinas (2011) points out, a person learns roles through relationship with social structures like family, or educational institutions. The informants emphasise the need to pay more attention to the child and his/her development. “<. . .> It should start from primary school, kindergarten, school (1)” “Then you have to start with children doing small steps in the sense of the simplest little things. When speaking about all sorts of children activities and circles, it should be emphasized that if a girl wants to go to attend some kind of constructors course, this is OK, as well as the boy wants to attend ballet. In those families there is a very clear division of roles – the boys go to play football or basketball and the girls go dancing or to a knitting circle. In this sense if the child has a bent for something it is necessary to encourage whatever bent it is. It is necessary to start emphasize all the talents of the child, regardless of what is appropriate for gender according to societal stereotypes (4)”, <. . .> it should be started from an early age (4).
In the first stages the researcher started to review the viable literature on genderequality management in policies and discourses and such a concept is looked at from an international context and especially within the UN written materials. At this stage, and having secured contacts in UNDP/UNFPA the researcher decided to conduct pilot interviews to make sure that his research questions and objectives are within track. Having conducted the pilot interviews the researcher refined his research objectives and interviews questions. Moreover, the researcher built selection criteria on what secondary data to select based on the discussion with participants in the pilot interviews. Then the researcher started to transcribe his interviews and review the literature on suitable methodologies to analyze the data gathered. The researcher chose frame analysis based on similar studies within managing genderequality. The researcher then started his analysis assisted by using Nvivo to mine the rich and large data gathered. After starting the analysis the researcher then presented the frames results. Following approaches of frame analysis the researcher then compared sets of frames and presented the research results.
Education- A review of regional comparison of primary school completion rate for girls and progress toward the MDG goals showed that Afghanistan is the only country out of total 16 countries, which was ranked as seriously off track. To achieve genderequality, Afghanistan needs to ensure that for every 3 boys, it has to enroll 5 girls at primary level and 3 girls for every single boy at secondary level, then only it can reach near MDG. As the Afghan Ministry of Education reports in 2007, 40% of Afghan girls reach primary school completion, however only 5% girls complete secondary level school. Only 12.6% of girls above 14 can read and write whereas the percentage of literate men in the same terms is 23%. Poverty, child marriages, fearful environment and reluctance of families to allow girls to attend school are the reasons behind such disparities. Though girl’s have gained more access to education in urban areas, overall school enrollment rates at all levels are 41.8% for females and 73.7% for males.
confederation‟s campaigning on stress in the highly-publicised of France Télécom has also highlighted the need for a genderequality strategy and helped to further the renegotiation of an earlier agreement there. Third, despite the weaknesses and tensions within the equality bargaining process in France, a public debate on how to support working parents and how to reduce gender inequalities has been launched. Top-level (national, inter- sectoral): trade unions and employers‟ associations sit on the Haut Conseil de la Famille, and contributed to the 2012 Ballarin report. In this latter context, Laurence Laigo (CFDT confederal secretary) argued that “we need to reposition equality at the heart of the issues that are decisive for companies today and conduct holistic bargaining on equality, the quality of working life and work-life balance”, but at the same time to have precise indicators to measure progress, so that equality “doesn‟t get watered down in all the other issues” (Ballarin, 2012: 24-25). All of these points support the idea that a longer-term process of equality bargaining has been opened and will be carried forward under the Hollande presidency.
Health:- On health issue, the gender inequality between women‟s and men‟s life expectancy and women live compared bad health because of lots of violence, disease, and torture. Kalyani Menon Sen and Shivakumar (2001) found that girls in India are discriminated against in several ways- fewer months of breast feeding less of nurturing and play, less care or medical treatment if they fall ill, less of “special” food, less parental attention. As a result, girls are far more susceptible than boys to disease and infections, leading to poor health and shorter lifespan. It is the lifelong discrimination in nurturing and care that is the real killer of girls, less visible and dramatic, but as unequivocally lethal as female feoticide and infanticide. Lack of finances, insufficient nutrition, gender bias and test that result in abortion of female fetuses are the main cause for girl death in India (Medhi,2000)
The gender composition among social workers points out that women dominate. Moreover, the sector is feminized. The career prospects are not high, the profession is not considered a prestige one, and people accept the work in case there are no other alternatives. The pay level is one of the lowest compared with the other branches. There is a high turn-over of the staff. At this stage there are no evidences of activities in place for retention of workers in the sector, although there is an understanding of the importance of the problem. As stated in the “Strategy for development of social services for people from the “third age” in Sofia municipality for the period 2009-2013”, the quality services need high quality and motivated personnel. The lowest level of payment compared with the other branches creates difficulties for motivating the personnel in many segments of the system – shortage of personnel in specialized institutions, lack of people with geriatrics specializations, shortage of mid-level personnel, lack of nurses, etc. The share of volunteers to work in the system is insignificant. There are some people involved in the social cares, who are mainly from the non- governmental organizations. Due to all this, the cited above document underlines that in the period 2009-2013 the human resources in the sector, their qualification and motivation will be of highest importance for the development of the system of social services.
about 30 percent of women are involved in wage employment in public sector in Nigeria, 8.1 percent in private sectors. Such imbalances have affected the occupational position which women occupy. In every career setting, men outnumber women and women are few in top positions. A woman’s place in the society is assumed to be simply dependent upon that of her husband or father. In Nigeria, the socially defined roles and duties of a woman is daughter, wife and mother, even though many women in our society today are getting more involved in paid employment, thereby performing multiple roles in the society (Ojie, 2002).
Genderequality is becoming increasingly important, especially because of European Union pressure. The European Commission has decided to take legislative action with the strong support of a number of member states. On 14 November 2012, it put forward a proposal for a Directive on improving the gender balance among non-executive directors of companies listed on the stock exchange. The European Parliament has repeatedly called upon companies and member states to increase female representation on company boards, and has invited the Commission to propose legislative quotas to achieve 30% female membership of management bodies by 2015 and 40% by 2020. Some member states have developed national legislation and other member states have self-regulatory initiatives.
Poor women are particularly vulnerable to gender biases. Education empowers women and gives them more opportunities to make choices. It can boost their confidence and perception of freedom. It can also alter the perceptions of men influencing gender stereotypes. In Pakistan, only 30% of women with no education believe they can have a say in the number of children they have, compared to 63% of women with lower secondary education. In Sierra Leone, an additional year of schooling reduced women’s tolerance of domestic violence from 36% to 26%. A literacy programme in Uttarakhand, India increased the share of women who felt able to leave the house without permission (from 58% to 75%) and participate in village council meetings (from 19% to 41%) (UNESCO, 2014a).
In 1996 the Women‟s International League for Peace and Freedom initiated a Women‟s Budget Project in which they compared various defence related programmes to social welfare expenditures. The project proposed cuts in military spending and outlined the way in which such savings could be invested to benefitted women, including employment and training programmes, campaigns against gender based violence and services for the elderly, the majority of whom were women. Tool: 4 Gender Disaggregated Analysis of the Impact of the Budget on Time Use This is the calculation of the link between budget allocation and their effects on how household members spend their time. Social reproduction roles bring about costs of caring for ourselves, our children and other dependants. These costs include direct expenditures on behalf of dependants such as children, the sick, the disabled and the elderly along with the costs of time devoted to the care of these individuals and to the daily maintenance of families and community networks. Social reproductive roles have a direct link to the market economy. Even though important developments have been realised in the form of family friendly policies offered through budgets including family tax credits, child benefits and single parent allowances, in some countries, yet the impact of budgetary policy on social reproduction has been largely negative through reductions in social expenditure and/or the introduction of user fees for social services.
religious movement outside the West is measured. The conclusion of such an evaluation will either be that Pentecostalism does not promote gender equal- ity and is just a new, neo-conservative, form of patriarchal religious ideology, or that Pentecostal gender discourse generally is paradoxical and ambivalent in its support of genderequality. Although I can agree with the latter conclu- sion, I think that it challenges us as scholars into a more critical reflection upon our analysis and evaluation of the discourse and politics on gender in African Pentecostalism. Otherwise the study of Pentecostalism in Africa is yet another illustration of Mbembe’s argument that ‘Africa still constitutes one of the meta- phors through which the West represents the origin of its own norms, develops a self-image, and integrates this image into the set of signifiers asserting what it supposes to be its identity.’ 72