The aim of this study is to present the theoretical perspective on genre and register of the so-called ‘Sydney School’; (Martin 1992, Martin and Eggins 2000, Martin and Rose 2008, Rose and Martin 2012), because it is a powerful theoretical and methodological tool for analysis of texts. This approach is based on Systemic-Functional Linguistics (LSF), whose origin dates back to the concepts of context and register defi ned by Halliday, Macintosh and Strevens (1964), who infl uenced Martin (1992) in conceiving another perspective for the study of context, interpreting register differently from the notion established by Halliday. I then present the different interpretations of the terms ‘context’, ‘register’ and ‘genre’ within the systemic-functional paradigm, based on the multifunctional language theory developed by Halliday (1978, 1985, 1991, 2002, 2005) and in the studies on context, text, register and genre developed by Hasan (1973, 1995, 2004, 2009), Matthiessen (1993, 2013) e Martin (1992). Genres and registers are terms used by systemicists to refer to the meaning and function of variation between texts in the contextual dimension, as well as how texts resemble each other and are distinguished by expressing linguistic and discursively traces of the social context in which they are used.
The concept of genre derives from the term genre which is usually used in literary studies, film studies, art theory and cultural studies. In systemic linguistics point of view, however, genre is used to refer to the cultural purpose of a text (Eggins, 2004:54). Fairclough (2003: 66) believes “Genre is the specifically discoursal aspect of ways of acting and interacting in the course of social events: we might say that (inter)acting is never just discourse, but it is often mainly discourse”. To this point, ways above may refer to the common patterns or sturcture that are usually followed by people when acting or interacting in social community. In addition, genre is “a staged, goal-oriented, purposeful activity in which speakers engage as members of our culture” (Martin, 1984 in Paltridge). While Bakhtin considers genre as a develop patterns which is specific and relatively stable in particular context: We learn to cast our speech in generic forms and, when hearing other’s speech, we guess its genre from the very first words; we predict a certain length (that is, the approximate length of the speech whole) and a certain compositional structure; we foresee the end; that is from the very beginning we have a sense of the speech whole, which is only later differentiated during the speech process (Eggins, 2004:57) So, it can be concluded that genre has a particular purpose which is cultural; it has specific stages which differentiate the beginning, the middle and the closing part; and it has a particular linguistic features. The patterns discussed above further are elaborated in a schema called schematic structure.
This training was of course a highly unusual one for a linguistics student in North America at the time (and continues to be so!) and led to a rather curious reading path that I’ll sketch here. As noted above, from first year university I was trained in Gregory’s approach to grammar, register and stylistics. Gregory was a great ad- mirer of Firth, one of Halliday ’ s teachers, and spent many seminar hours reading to us from his papers and commenting on them. Recent papers by Halliday, often hot off the press, received the same hermeneutic treatment – beginning in Gregory’ s office and often continuing over drinks in the staff club. Gutwinski inspired my reading in stratificational linguistics, especially Gleason ’ s students ’ theses and Lamb (1966); from Lamb one can ’ t help but move on to his inspiration, Hjelmslev (1947, 1961), and from there in turn to his inspiration, Saussure (1916/1966). At Essex I had a chance to take a course in functional semantics with Halliday, which oriented us to work by Malinowki and Firth, the Prague School and Labov. Later on in Sydney, my critical theory colleagues introduced me to work published under Bakhtin ’ s name. Since then it is probably fair to say I have spent most of my concentrated reading time reading and re-reading work by Halliday and by Matthiessen, and trying to better appreci- ate what they mean.
One of the basic mediums in the interaction between doctor and patient in the treatment room is language. This paper, hence deals with the conversation in doctor-patients interaction in Pirngadi General Hospital in Medan, Indonesia. Clauses in the conversations were adopted as the main research data. The analysis is based on the theory of SystemicFunctional Linguistics pioneered by Halliday (2004). The research was conducted by applying top-down approach from the analysis of the consultation in terms of context of situation that is concerned with register variables covering field, tenor and mode. Then, the analysis further focuses on the experiential function in terms of transitivity system covering the analysis of the processes used the participant functions involved and the interpersonal function covering mood and modality. The study was conducted by using descriptive qualitative method with triangulation. It refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena. Triangulation is viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. The results of the analysis have revealed that social relation exists in the language used by the doctor and the patient in their interaction in which the doctor has more power over the patient.
students’ academic writing has employed an ontogenetic timeframe, using a cross-sectional approach to compare the texts written by students’ at various educational levels. These studies have shown that the texts of elementary writers tend to comprise genres that are relatively descriptive, implying a relatively dynamic construal of experience; the texts of late elementary and secondary students more frequently comprise more abstract genres, such as scientific explanations and arguments, which make greater use of a synoptic construal of experience (Christie, 1998; Christie & Derewianka, 2008; Martin, 1989). The most extensive developmental study found that the texts of younger students include concrete participants construed through nouns, perceptible actions construed through verbs, and relationships among events construed as conjunctions linking clauses; they show fewer features of synoptic texts, such as grammatical metaphor (Christie & Derewianka, 2008). Explanations, for example, show a progression in abstraction throughout the late elementary and secondary grades: Sequential explanations connect a series of events; factorial explanations identify multiple simultaneous causes; and causal explanations include abstract processes (Christie & Derewianka, 2008; Veel, 1997). Similar contrasts between congruent and synoptic discourse appears in other academic
difference between lexical metaphor and GM is the patterns of realization (Yang, 2011, p. 1). Grammatical metaphor is considered as a phenomenon that shows a mapping between the same meanings, but different grammatical categories.
In order to explore the theory of GM, we need to understand the basic differences of expression between science and commonsense knowledge. A typical preferred writing style for science is the use of nominal groups. Nominal groups are power resources to make meaning concrete and hard to refute through negation (Halliday, 2004, p. 61). When the transformation from a congruent form to nominalization occurs, its modifying function can further be changed, affecting the meaning of its modifiers. For example, in four legged animal, four legged functions as a classifier that contrasts with other types of animals, but its congruent meaning that an animal has four legs simply refers to the fact that an animal has four legs. If a verbal group is
Besides the classifications observed in the aforementioned theory, we also found 3 cases of Verbal Processes which mean proclamatory and behavioral actions at the same time. Two of those are seen making an agglutination of both meanings through the verb “to joke”, for example, in: “‘[...] Essa parada faz com que a de Amsterdã pareça sem graça’, brincou ele, já enturmado” – “’[...] This parade makes the one in Amsterdam seem dull’, he joked, already feeling at home”(FSP-06/14/04). And the other one presents both meanings in a juxtaposition way, when exposing what the actors says while behaving a certain way: “perguntou, enquanto tascava em Mathilde um beijo tão casto quanto os ‘selinhos’ de Hebe Camargo [...]” – “asked, while planting a kiss as chaste as Hebe Camargo’s ‘liplocks’” (FSP-05/30/05). With these cases, one can see the double activity of the LGBT, both as Sayer and Behaver, at different instantiation levels. However, we did not delve into this analysis due to the small number of cases; it is however important to consider such records, in order to highlight such lexicogrammar possibilities of performances.
From a Saussurean Syntagmatic perspective, the structure of a clause is distributed into constituents. Halliday deciphers the same structure into semiotic slots in three systemic but paradigmatic vertical alternatives. This is done as a means of generating meanings. The meanings are achieved in terms of structural stratifications and social contents. These are a relevant source of classifying SFT as a theory with socio-cultural facilities of meaning potential. Halliday and Matthiessen explain that ‘The clause is a composite entity. It is constituted not of one dimension of structure but three, and each of the three construes a distinctive meaning’ (Halliday & Matthiessen 2004: 60). The writer has mentioned earlier that, the clause is the hub of the textual analysis in SFT. It means then that, most of the linguistic analysis done is based on the clause. Surprisingly, Halliday and Matthiessen have said that three separate strands of meaning are distinctly derived from the clause through the applications of some systemic paradigms. These paradigms that assist in construing these strands of meaning are called the Three Metafunctions. ‘The labels for each of the three metafunctions are reasonably transparent: the first is the experiential; the second is the interpersonal; and the third is the textual’ (Thompson 2004: 30). The three metafunctions could be technically likened to the three tripod stands in the kitchen where a utensil is placed for cooking to take place. If one of the stands is broken or removed its presence will be greatly felt. There is a possibility that the cooking utensil may fall. This illustrates how the three metafunctions functionally operate. If one of the metafunctions is absent in the analysis, the meaning of a clause cannot be complete because they are just three different concepts that bring out three different meanings from one single clause. It is mentioned that,
someone your point of view on a topic (opinion). Speakers and writers have different goals (i.e., a lawyer might want to persuade a judge that someone is innocent during a trial, or a writer might want to express sympathy for somebody's loss) that are recurrently enacted in different text type or genres. Genres emerge from the language choices that speakers make according to the social purpose of the text they are producing. According to SFL each genre has a specific register. For HALLIDAY and MATTHIESSEN (2014 ), register is the variety of language used in a specific situation. There are register variations when the situations variates according to the field or the subject matter of the linguistic situation, the tenor, or who is involved in the linguistic situation and the relations between the people involved, and the mode, whether the language is spoken, written, or multimodal. 
In systemicfunctionaltheory text has a central place as the basic unit through which meaning is expressed. Text is regarded not as some kind of super sentence but as a semantic unit which is created in the process of selection and realization of choices from the functionally organized meaning potential, which are in turn coded in lexical and grammatical patterns. The systemic part is reﬂected in the idea that these choices are conceptualized as “paths or passes through the networks that constitute the linguistic system” (Halliday 1989, 11). These patterns themselves are related to the higher level of contextual dimensions. This basically implies that one should start to uncover what types of meaning are being encoded in the text by looking at the lexical and grammatical patterns which encode it. Within this context grammar has a central place in text analysis. Halliday (1994, xvi) argues that “a discourse analysis that is not based on grammar is not an analysis at all, but simply a running commentary on a text”. This approach thus emphasizes the role of language in the construction of reality.
Drawing on a multimodality theory, this study attempted to investigate the various semiotic resources utilized by a giant Indonesian cigarette company, Sampoerna, and explore how these resources communicate meanings or messages in its billboard advertisements to persuade its potential customers to buy the product. The data were analyzed using Halliday’s systemicfunctional grammar focusing on ideational meta-function or also known as a representational function in multimodal discourse analysis. The findings revealed that the billboard advertisements were designed to persuade the audience to buy the advertised products implicitly through representational functions attained using narrative and conceptual processes. Whereas the former was realized by employing its typical sub-processes, actional and reactional processes, the latter employed its sub-processes such as classificational, analytical, and symbolic processes. Implicationally, this study has illuminated the possible application of systemicfunctional grammar within a multimodal discourse analysis domain to investigate implicit message(s) conveyed by an advertisement.
This article describes the development of a pedagogical approach, that is informed by sys- temic functionaltheory, to develop multimodal literacy in secondary school students in Singapore. The pedagogical features of the approach is aligned to the Learning by Design framework, used widely within the field of multiliteracies. The pilot trial to implement the systemicfunctional approach with two teachers in two classes is also described in the art- icle. The trial was productive in refining the systemicfunctional approach to develop multimodal literacy in students. The instructional content was worked through with the teachers, who identified and curated relevant lesson materials, such as examples of visual texts that would be of interest to their students. The pedagogical features of the approach were discussed and negotiated with the teachers into what were practicable within the constraints of a tight curriculum. To prevent an overload of terminology, the meta-language to be introduced through the approach was scrutinised and deliberated, and where possible, aligned to terms already used in the teaching of language, to ensure that each new term introduced was necessary and helpful for the students to use for their description and discussion of multimodal texts. Admittedly, it can be difficult to teach secondary school students multimodal grammar. As such, in our discussion and negoti- ation with the teachers on the extent of meta-language to be introduced and used, we have decided not to bring in visual transitivity at this stage. There was a greater focus on the interpersonal meanings relative to ideational and textual meanings made multimod- ally. Nonetheless, we have attempted to introduce the main ideas behind salience and in- formation value by discussing the media strategies used to realise them in a print advertisement. The article reports on what has been developed and used to teach students on multimodal literacy in a pilot trial. The work continues and we are exploring how as- pects of systems of the multimodal grammar realising ideational and textual meanings can be introduced more effectively in the future.
Systemicfunctionaltheory maps out the ‘genotypic’ constitution of language. It is in this sense that it is a ‘general theory of language’ (cf. Halliday 1961, 2009). As Fig. 2 shows, the two generalisations, ‘phenotype’ and ‘genotype’ , are, however, not unrelated; theory is an abstraction from various descriptions, or, in other words, observable regu- larities across languages (see also Caffarel et al. 2004: Ch. 1; Matthiessen 2007b, 2013a). When we move a step further down from theory, we observe that description itself is an abstraction of, or rather, a generalization from the analysis of particular text in- stances in language (see Fig. 2) – and, in the context of typology, a generalisation from descriptions of various languages. Language is observable as text, defined as spoken or written discourse (and, by extension, other semiotic resources such as sign language or image). Text, therefore, serves as the entry point for investigators into the linguistic system they want to describe. A comprehensive description will be based on texts across different registers in the relevant speech community. However, a description may also be limited to some register (i.e. a sub-system) in the community (e.g. see Patpong (2006a) for a description of Thai folktales). In either case, the description needs to be informed by the analysis of particular discourses and the analyst will have to shuffle between developing general categories and features (i.e. description) and test- ing them on text instances (i.e. analysis).
The systemictheory is oriented towards language as a social process connected to a certain society and its culture; SFL puts emphasis on the social function of lan- guage, i.e. its use in a community in different social contexts (Halliday 1978). Among these social contexts, a context of culture and a context of situation are singled out. The latter is considered a dynamic organic configuration of three components named “ field ” , “ tenor ” and “ mode ” , that is, the nature of a social activity, the relations between the interlocutors, and the status assigned to language (what happens, who par- ticipates, and how the discourse is organized). The three components of the social con- text are construed in the discourse as ideational, interpersonal and textual meanings, respectively.
particularly in speech events like classroom discussions and debates. Durant and Leung (2016) argued for the importance of language in Law due to the absorption of rhetorical tradition into legal advocacy. This is also supported by the interviewed specialist who emphasizes that the ability to argue is important for the students particularly in their career later while they are practising law. The second purpose is to present how complex and dynamic the discursive formations are within the discipline regardless of the ideology to which it is oriented. This can be explained by Okasha (2002) through the so-called context of discovery where he defines it as “the actual historical process by which a scientist arrives at a given theory” (p.79). The present evidences show that after the ideas, claims, or theories are proposed (by a scientist), they are scrutinized and criticized by other scientist(s) with regard to their own clarity, problematic, sufficiency, etc. At this extent, the given ideas encounter a struggle within themselves (claimed by Hegel as cited in Chinhengo, 2002). Thus, the complex and dynamic processes of the disciplinary discovery are aimed to be simplified through the simple structure of the genres resource of Discussion and Challenge in order that the students can learn them more easily. This kind of manipulation, Bernstein (1990) argued, is important practices of pedagogical discourse to give students access to their field.
The most relevant pragmatic elements in Bakhtin’s theory of speech acts are given first in the shaping of figures as relatively personal or individual participants of communication, second in the ways the speakers or writers of utterances relate their acts of communication to the communication of others involved in this world of verbal communication, and third in the creation of attitudes towards the world, which can be created as a special world itself only through dialogue that contains different points of view. Accordingly, we are convinced of the following: addressivity, constantly changing with cultural evolution, can shape the difference between literary modes and genres, which are conceived as new ways of looking and speaking – i.e. as genus and/or the variation of existing genres. This addressivity differs in prose and poetry, in drama and functional texts, and (correspondingly) in dependence on fiction, fantasy, performativity and practical functions.
In the pig and wallaby, specific milk miRNAs mirrored increased serum levels of lactation-derived miRNAs of the suckling newborns, further supporting an intestinal uptake of milk-derived miRNAs [11, 35]. The majority of milk miRNAs are endogenously synthesized in mammary epithelial cells and these molecules are abundant in human milk, further supporting lactation-specific function(s) [10, 11, 36]. Remarkably, the 14 highly expressed miRNAs of bovine milk fractions are related with target genes associ- ated with organismal development such as hematological, cardiovascular, skeletal, muscular, and immune system development  favoring a systemic gene-regulatory role of milk-derived miRNAs . Milk of humans and livestock animals is enriched with immune-related miR- NAs [36, 38], which may not only shape the intestinal immune system , but may also support the develop- ment of thymus-controlled immune regulation , both via microvesicle-associated miRNAs and miRNAs contained within milk cells, which have recently been shown to be actively transferred to the thymus of suck- ling mouse pups (Alsaweed M et al 2016, personal communication).
Functional C L T ’s for martingales have previously been obtained by Billingsley in B ( p o206) and more generally by Brown  (Theorem 3). Theorem 1 of this chapter extends both these results. Further,the use of the Skorokhod representation in the proof of this first result leads on naturally to a functional CLT for triangular arrays in which each row is a MG sequence0 This is Theorem 2.
Though generally expected to be ideologically rich due to the functional and meaning-based nature of language, the question of whether TEFL textbooks could impose any ideologies needed to be addressed. This study provided a thick description of types, forms, and functions of the communicated ideologies in the commonly applied textbooks in Iranian TEFL programs. The analysis was organized based on the major elements of each Hallidyan metafunction and unveiled the dominant ideological identities in the corpus. The combined results from discovering each of the metafunctions revealed that TEFL texts are not completely innocent. Whether intentionally or unintentionally, each text may suppress or promote some ideologies and control its readers‟ mental behaviors.
Mozetič develops and makes more concrete some of their fairly intuitive ideas and uses them, in a framework inspired partly by SystemicFunctional Linguistics, to categorize and account for translation shifts occurring in the Slovene translation of the short story. Importantly, he (2000b, 95) attributes the pervading feeling of paralysis, crucial to all Dubliners stories, to “the predominant use of the perfective aspect and so-called stative verbs.” The analysis presented here investigates the ideas suggested by Mozetič, chatman, and Scholes, and looks at how a SystemicFunctional approach can help us to understand and flesh out Joyce’s linguistic manoeuvring in the portrayal of Eveline.