The process of urbanisation is a universal phenomenon taking place the world over, where humans dwell. All countries are prone to this bewildering phenomenon chiefly responsible due to the increase in population growth, economy and infrastructure initiatives. The extent of urbanisation or the sprawl is one such phenomenon that drives the change in land use patterns. The sprawl normally takes place in radial direction around the city centre or in linear direction along the highways. Usually sprawl takes place on the urban fringe, at the edge of an urban area or along the highways. The study on urbansprawl (The Regionalist, 1997; Sierra Club, 1998) is attempted in the developed countries (Batty et al., 1999; Torrens and Alberti, 2000; Barnes et al., 2001, Hurd et al., 2001; Epstein et al., 2002) and recently in developing countries such as China (Yeh and Li, 2001; Cheng and Masser, 2003) and India (Jothimani, 1997; Lata et al., 2001; Sudhira et al., 2003). In India alone currently 25.73% of the population (Census of India, 2001) live in the urban centres, while it is projected that in the next fifteen years about 33% would be living in the urban centres. This indicates the alarming rate of urbanisation and the extent of sprawl that could take place. In order to understand this increasing rate of urbansprawl, an attempt is made to understand the sprawl dynamics and evolve appropriate management strategies that could aid in the region’s sustainable development. Understanding such a phenomenon and its pattern helps in planning for effective natural resource utilisation and provision of infrastructure facilities.
Recent improvements in satellite image quality and availability have made it possible to perform image analysis at much larger scale than in the past. Satellite imagery has been well utilized in the natural science communities for measuring qualitative and quantitative terrestrial land-cover changes. Landsat data are most widely used for studying the Land use and Land cover changes. K. C. Seto, C. E. Woodcock, C. Song, X. Huang, J. Lu And R. K. Kaufmann, have monitored the land- use change in the Pearl River Delta using Landsat TM. J. Li and H.M. Zhao have studied the Urban Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Mississauga using Landsat TM images. Tamilenthi1, J. Punithavathi1, R. Baskaran1 and K. Chandra Mohan have studied the dynamics of urbansprawl, changing direction and mapping using a case study of Salemcity, Tamilnadu, India. H.S. Sudhira, T.V. Ramachandra and K.S. Jagadish , studied about Urbansprawl metrics, Land cover dynamics and modelling using GIS for Udupi Mangalore. M. Turker and O.Asik studied Land Use Change Detection At The Rural- Urban Fringe Using Multi-Sensor Data In Ankara, Turkey. All the researchers identified that urban environments are most dynamic in nature. Information on urban growth, land use and land cover change study is very useful to local government and urban planners for the betterment of future plans of sustainable development of any area.
Satellite imagery has been well utilized in the natural science communities for measuring qualitative and quantitative terrestrial land-cover changes. Landsat data are most widely used for studying the Land use and Land cover changes. K. C. Seto, C. E. Woodcock, C. Song, X. Huang, J. Lu And R. K. Kaufmann, have monitored the land-use change in the Pearl River Delta using Landsat TM. J. Li and H.M. Zhao have studied the Urban Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Mississauga using Landsat TM images. Tamilenthi1, J. Punithavathi1, R. Baskaran1 and K. Chandra Mohan have studied the dynamics of urbansprawl, changing direction and mapping using a case study of Salemcity, Tamilnadu, India. H.S. Sudhira, T.V. Ramachandra and K.S. Jagadish , studied about Urbansprawl metrics, Land cover dynamics and modelling using GIS for Udupi Mangalore. M. Turker and O.Asik studied Land Use Change Detection At The Rural- Urban Fringe Using Multi-Sensor Data In Ankara, Turkey. Bassam Saleh and Samih Al Rawashdeh studied about Study of urban expansion in Jordanian cities using GIS and RS. All the researchers identified that urban environments are most dynamic in nature. Information on urban growth, land use and land cover change study is very useful to local government and urban planners for the betterment of future plans of sustainable development of any area.
Peri-urban agriculture contributes significantly to ecosystem services, serving as a sink for stormwater runoff, a recharge zone for groundwater table, as well as adding to aesthetic beauty and food security [ 4 ]. A majority of families in the peri-urban areas of Hyderabad sustain themselves by providing food and animal feed to the city, making these areas important for the local economy [ 5 , 6 ]. A growing population and development in cities increases competition for natural resources (e.g., water and land) and natural diversity [ 7 , 8 ], and shrinks surrounding agricultural areas [ 9 , 10 ]. These changes pose a great challenge to urban developers and the service sector in Hyderabad. Furthermore, urban water demand has grown exponentially in the past two decades and water availability within the city limits of Hyderabad is now inadequate to supply the growing demand, due to encroachment on freshwater lakes to build houses and public offices. Transporting water from nearby rural villages has become a necessity [ 10 ]. Agricultural land within the city’s boundaries has been diminishing further with people migrating from rural areas in search of employment and better wages, which is overburdening social and infrastructure services.
development in an mono-centric urban struc- ture. (Ewing, 1997; Galster et al., 2001; Hasse and Lathrop, 2003; Zhang, 2001; Tewolde and Cabral, 2011; Go´mez- Antonio et al., 2014 ). In developed countries, it has been fueled by globalization, market economy and dominance of capital- ism ideology, particularly in automobile industry and fuel mar- ket, as well as reduced livability of inner-city, ( Ewing, 1997; Snyder and Bird, 1998; Galster et al., 2001; Besussi et al., 2010 ); in developing countries, it is often the result of overtak- ing of urbanization from urban planning, inappropriate gov- ernment’s land and housing policies, urban–rural migrations and low and middle-income household’s efforts to ﬁnd an affordable housing in the urban fringe (see Deng and Huang, 2004; Menon, 2004a,b ). However, a major concern with the urbansprawl and LULC change is associated with negative environmental, social and economic impacts ( Buiton, 1994; EEA, 2006; Hasse and Lathrop, 2003 ). The environmental dimension impacts include the loss of fertile lands, open space and biodiversity ( Harris, 1984; Benﬁeld et al., 1999; McKinney, 2002; Atu et al., 2013 ) spoiling water quality ( Allen and Lu, 2003; Wilson et al., 2003; Tu et al., 2007 ), higher GHG emissions and pollutions levels ( Glaeser and
4.1. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Land-Use/Land-Cover Changes
Figure 5 depicts observed changes in the urbansprawl of Hyderabad using IRS-P6 (2005, 2008 and 2011) and Landsat-8 (2014, 2016) imagery. The area covered by built-up land, constituting housing and other buildings, has more than doubled, from 38,863 ha to 80,111 ha, adversely impacting water bodies and rain-fed cropland, the area of which has decreased by half (37,902 ha in 2016 compared to 72,817 ha in 2005) (Table 2 ). There was a drastic increase in built-up areas in the west and east zones of the city, due to expansion of the IT sector in the former and industrial sector expansion in these zones. Seasonal water bodies appeared to be most exploited for building in the western, central, and southern zones. Similarly, the area under rain-fed cropland, which is now almost halved due to urban expansion, has decreased specifically in the west, east, and north zones. Irrigated cropland area increased from 2005 to 2011, but decreased slightly by 2016 due to low rainfall. An important finding in this study was that wastewater-irrigated agriculture, which is practiced along the banks of the Musi river, has also increased steadily from 2005 to 2016, to support vegetable gardens catering to the growing urban population. Since the formation of the Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA), with a new master plan, many conservation measures have been established to sustain drinking water sources, such as the lakes Himayath Sagar, Osman Sagar, and Manjeera, and the water supply has been improved. Moreover, a new drinking water pipeline project has been implemented in a phased manner, harnessing water from the Nagarjuna Sagar reservoir [ 50 ].
Although WUP is a highly valuable measure to objectively quantify urbansprawl, the measure is overly complex to use in a communication strategy for a broader public. In part this is so because it is not unambiguous. For example, low WUP-scores can be related to both open green areas as well as dense city centres. Figure 7 shows a set of four Google Earth screenshots (of 300 by 300 meters) with similar WUP- scores for the pairs left and right, but, with very contrasting building morphology types. Both low as well as high WUP values occur in locations with varying built-up density and population or employment density. Therefore, in this study, a more intuitive urbansprawl typology was created based on WUP, which can be used to encourage and inform public and political debate on the topic in Flanders.
Based on our preliminary analyses, suburban areas with more urgent social needs or structural economic difficulties should be recognized as immediate planning entities for further research, starting from the suggested types of quantitative indicators. We suggest the integration of several indicator groups into the TURaS tools, relating to completion of urbansprawl, urban land use and other parameters (social, economic, environmental, demographic, etc.) into a common framework of integrated urban strategy, as well as further research into the optimal degree of aggregation, and the measurement of different urban phenomenon by composite indicators (urbansprawl, urban competitiveness, urban compactness, urban resilience, etc.). Apart from this purpose, they should also serve another important purpose, namely, helping define a future research agenda in this field. Indeed, it is now very difficult to prepare planning and development regulations and indicators for urbansprawl because of a lack of guidance for their adaptation to the global challenges, uncertainties, disturbances and limitations in different and complex contextual conditions. Appropriate and suitable indicators may help to that end, that is, to get better insights into the key and related matters of controlling and directing urban development.
Four previous studies have attempted to address the selection issue (Eid et al., 2008; Plantinga and Bernell, 2007a; Plantinga and Bernell, 2007b; Ewing et al., 2006). Three of these studies used fixed-effect methods with longitudinal data on individuals from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979 and 1997 cohorts). Findings from these studies were mixed; Plantinga and Bernell (2007a) found that sprawl lowered BMI, and Eid et al. (2008) and Ewing et al. (2006) found no statistically significant associations between sprawl and BMI. 4 While these studies arguably improve over cross-sectional analyses that ignore selection, there are some notable limitations. First, these studies use samples with narrow age ranges that limit the applicability of their findings. Eid et al (2008) used a sample of persons between the ages of 23 and 36; Ewing et al. (2006) used a sample of young adults ages 18 to 23; and Platinga and Bernell (2007a) used a sample of persons ages 33 to 41. Second, while fixed-effects methods eliminate time-invariant factors, there is the possibility that omitted time-varying factors will bias estimates. It is noteworthy that observed time-varying factors such as marital status and work have relatively large and statistically significant effects on BMI in the Eid et al.(2008) study. This raises the possibility that omitted time-varying factors may also be important confounders. Third, as noted above, urbansprawl may affect the weight of both central city
amount of land that has been urbanized. Moreover, the social and economic conditions change with the increase in density of population. The term sprawl is described as a low-density growth or an unplanned growth which spreads outside the urban development in the fringes and suburbs of the city. The basic idea of urbansprawl is the gradual development of a low-density area to a high-density area or a dispersed development over time undergoing alterations in the land consumptions in various manners. In some cases, the land becomes more compact, hence developed. Sometimes sprawl in small clusters or patches occurs outside the existing urban area which can be called as fragmentation. With the rapid growth of the cities, acquiring accurate data for the study of these sprawls becomes a substantial factor in order to clearly identify the changes occurring on the land. Traffic congestions, population growth, low price of lands, increased infrastructure, and reduction of environment quality are some of the consequences for sprawl. Sprawl can be minimized by introducing various policies such as controlling travels, participation in providing infrastructures costs, creating urban boundaries, urban consolidation, controlling growth, protecting lands and considering the redevelopment of inner regionsSatellite images provide maps covering large geographical area giving accurate patterns of land use ranging from various time periods. Numerous studies have been done for various cities in India and other countries to measure the transformations taking place over time. utilized Thematic Mapper(TM) images for three different decades to analyze the land use. The results showed an increased expansion of the city towards traffic infrastructure and industrial estates which also led to the loss of a huge amount of arable lands. examined
This paper investigates the effect of urbansprawl on farmland values in the United States, explicitly accounting for the effect of urbanization on farmland productivity and the rents from future farmland development. In the next section we develop a theoretical approach for this decomposition. We assume that at each point of time, farmland may be converted into urban use or remain in agriculture. Each event is modeled as a Poisson probability that depends on population and on the distance from the urban center. Following the insights of von Thunen we develop a theoretical formulation showing that higher farmland values close to urban centers may be related to shifts in production to higher-valued crops. We then rely on Brueckner to model the effect of urbanization on the development component of farmland. Unlike the formulations of previous studies, our formulation includes three relationships: one for farmland pricing, one for returns to agriculture, and one for development rents. This specification isolates the relative contribution of urban pressure to returns to agriculture and the contribution of urban pressures through the conversion of farmland to urban uses. We then apply our model to county data of the contiguous United States. The results are presented in the following two sections. Finally, we discuss the results and implications of our estimates.
Urbansprawl is the out-of-control growth of urban area as a result of improper urbanization plan. Literatures have characterized various forms of urbansprawl that includes low-density and leapfrog sprawl. The forms of sprawl can be modelled via satellite remote sensing images. This research is mainly about classifying the forms of urbansprawl by using pixel-based approach and representing the sprawl shape using centroid distance Fourier descriptor. The datasets are in the form of Landsat Thematic Mapper(TM) images of Klang Valley, Malaysia, at spatial resolution of 30 meters where each pixel in the image represents the area of 900 square meters on the ground. Results obtained show that the Fourier descriptor graph representation of low-density sprawl is denser than leapfrog sprawl. Due to the rapid urbanization process in Malaysia, it is important to identify the sprawling pattern for a better decision making in planning potential land area to be developed.
and many other unhealthy components. This can be solved with a good public transport system only – as already mentioned a very difficult task. Istanbul is a strong industrialized area as well. By the transposition of factories to Istanbul’s suburbs, the air-pollution of the inner city decreased significantly. The water pollution is another big problem of Istanbul. Especially in the Gececondu areas there is a lack of canalisation. Compared with other Mega cities in threshold countries, Istanbul has a relatively well working sewage system managed by a central organisation that even produces master plans. A big problem is the industrial wastewater input and the pollution by ships. The pollution in the Golden Horn is one of the most important environmental problems of Istanbul. Alluvium carried by Alibey and Kagithane creeks, and domestic and industrial wastewater discharges are the major sources of the pollution. In the upstream, a part of 3 to 4 km long, is almost completely filled with debris and organic solids. High anaerobic activities in the sediments are resulting in a heavy odor problem. A restoration feasibility project has been carried out for pollution prevention and evaluation of the restoration alternatives. Characteristics of water quality and bottom sediment were determined. Pollution prevention measures and the alternatives for the dredging and disposal of the bottom sediment were evaluated. Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality has already started the dredging work by early 1997 and has completed the diversion of all domestic and industrial wastewater discharges out of the Golden Horn. Still in the Marmara Sea, Black Sea, Bosporus and the Groundwater as well, pollution can be clearly detected. Still missing is a dense system for measuring and monitoring the pollution, both for air and water. In the last years several research programs to study the pollution have started i.e. the Beach Quality Monitoring (Convention for protection of the Black Sea against pollution), Water Quality Monitoring (impact of the land-based pollution on the Sea of Marmara, the Bosporus and the Black Sea) or Water Quality Monitoring in the Sea (Marmara, Bosporus and the Black Sea).
Ibimilua&Ibimilua (2020) submitted that urbanization is desirable. They identified the prospects of (urbanization) as increased labour force, large source of market, diversity of talent, as well as reduction of pressure on rural land. On the other hand, urbanization is associated with problems like environmental degradation, social vices, and economic problems. Also, it creates physical, political, ecological and psychological challenges. Some of them are increased demand for housing, solid waste generation and management, unemployment, traffic congestion, pressure on available social and infrastructural amenities, growth of slums and squatter settlements as well as poor standard of living. Other problems are high cost of living, poor housing condition, health challenges, social instability, as well as administrative disequilibria (see Frica, 2019 for greater details). Urbanization changes the green, wet and earthen land to the sterile concrete and asphalt paved land (Garg, 2010). It is equally responsible for ecological and environmental issues like urban flood, pollution of all types, disfiguration of landscape, ozone depletion, acid rain and climate change.
All human settlements sustain on land and it is the land which constitutes the single most important component of the total environment. Any environmentally compatible, urban planning must begin with a comprehensive look on the use of land. So, the planners need detailed information about the extent and spatial distribution of present various urban land uses, housing characteristics, population growth patterns, urbansprawl, existing condition of infrastructure, utilities etc. For planning of these utilities in a better way, planner needs the total information in a map and information related to these aspects for perspective planning and management. The need of the hour is to create an urban land information system for development to retrieve, integrate and create various planning scenarios for decision making. The Remote Sensing and
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Conceptually, the arguments based on the demand for urban land relate to the “monocentric modell” of the Alonso-Muth-Mills type. In this model, the externally given central business district (CBD) is the center of the city and the location where all relevant interaction takes place. Households – and in some versions also businesses – choose their location in the surrounding area on the basis of microeconomic constrained optimization. They allocate their income optimally between land, consumer goods, and cost of transportation to the CBD. Sprawl- like phenomena can arise from three factors: declining transport costs, increasing income, and increases in total population. The first two factors yield the same effects. Since households demand more land and can afford longer commutes, density declines near the CBD, but increases at the outer parts of the city. The size of the city increases as agricultural land at the urban fringe is converted to urban uses. As far as the footprint of the city is concerned, an increase in population has the same effect. Density increases in all parts of the city as a reaction to population growth. In percentage terms, this increase in density is much larger at the outskirts than near the CBD. While in the monocentric model we are constrained by assumption to only one centre, in polycentric versions of the model, these driving forces lead to the creation of new subcentres, and can explain the rise of edge cites.
Residents’ preferences were further shaped in favour of inner urban areas and the associated higher density housing forms during the socialist period. Despite that the two plans adopted during this period envisaged compact development and limited territorial enlargement, Sofia experienced a second, highly accelerated ex- pansion of its urbanized area. Socialist industrialisation was the main factor for the city’s rapid growth till the end of the 1980s. For thirty-nine years (from 1946 to 1985) its population has increased by 670,000 residents to reach 1,200,000 people (Nikiforov, 2008). It is clear that such an expansion could not happen within the original boundaries of the city and the main resources used were rural hinterlands. However, in the course of this development a second major factor had its impact – the wide-spread of the prefab construction technology (Kovachev, 2003b). The ‘Socialist suburbs’ – prefab housing estates, emerged. They, of course, were radi- cally different from those in Western countries. In capitalist states some similari- ties could be sought with French and Italian peripheral housing estates. The dif- ference is in the much lower quality of East-European residential buildings and landscaping. What is important with respect to housing traditions is the manner such a development affected the residents’ preferences. The end result was that despite the desire to settle in the big city or the capital, the residents considered the prefab buildings the lowest class housing. The entire mechanism proved to be a strong incentive for the majority of the residents of large cities and the capital to strengthen their idea for the central city areas as the most attractive to live in. 4.3. Analysis of Residents’ Preferences and Motivations Determining the Trends in the Development of City Areas and Intra-urban Migration In this section the current preferences and motivations of Sofia residents will be examined based on conclusions already drawn with respect to historically formed traditions and preferences and the conclusions made in section 3 regarding the existing trends in demographic development. Also, research in the same area con- ducted by other authors will be used and compared to the results of research car- ried out for this study.
Human activities have been gradually transforming ecosystems in urban, near urban, and rural land . The most significant increase in population has been observed in the developing countries . By 2030 the world’s population is expected to increase by 72%. In cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants population may surge by 175% . The expansion of cities causes urbansprawl, characterized by the extension of settlements with the decrease of agriculture, water bodies, and forest land. Studies on urbansprawl are necessary as they support different fields of science such as transport planning, landscape architecture studies, urban planning, land-use planning, economics, and ecosystem services .
Abstract- Smart City means aligning information technologies to citizens’ needs in order to enhance their day-to-day lives by increasing efficiency, lowering costs, and engaging more directly with city dwellers. Developing a smart city is the next generation urbanization process for improving the efficiency, reliability, and security of a traditional city. This paper discusses about the economic benefits, cost of implementation and challenges towards a Smart city. It also focuses on its building blocks, history, advantages and disadvantages of Smart cities. A road map to the future city is also suggested, in this paper.